Grape Berry Ripening: Environmental Drivers and Spoilers

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Grape Berry Ripening: Environmental Drivers and Spoilers"

Transcription

1 Grape Berry Ripening: Environmental Drivers and Spoilers Bogs et al. (2007) Markus Keller

2 A winemaker s dream Loose clusters Small berries Uniform composition

3 Nature s reality Large spatial and temporal variation

4 Grape berry: A job description Seed production and dispersal Color, aroma = Advertising Sugar = Ticket price photo courtesy B. Bondada

5 Physiological maturity? Cabernet Sauvignon Normal ripening 25 Brix 1-2 seeds/berry 25 mg/seed 34% seed germination Berry shrivel disorder 14 Brix 1-2 seeds/berry 22 mg/seed 31% seed germination Maturity: State in which fruit is best suited for intended use Hall et al. (2011)

6 a Solutes (ºBrix) b ph Concord Merlot Concord Merlot Change happens early Rapid changes as berry turns from hard-green (1) to soft-blue (4): Sugar: <8 >18 Brix ph: to 3.7 (cultivar!) Titratable acidity: >25 ~10 g/l Slow changes as berry turns ripe (5: Brix), and then overripe (6: >24 Brix) Physiological maximum Brix c Organic acids (g/l) Concord Merlot Keller & Shrestha (2014) S S Maturity group

7 Berry size: Much ado about water Berry contains 70-80% water at harvest Water in: Xylem and phloem inflow Water out: Transpiration and xylem backflow Balance between ins and outs determines berry size (limited by skin extensibility) Véraison: Phloem flow, xylem flow reverses Berries less sensitive to soil moisture H 2 O Xylem Phloem Transpiration Ins Phloem inflow V: Xylem inflow V: Outs Transpiration V: - Xylem backflow V:

8 Berry transpiration facilitates ripening Transpiration is mostly cuticular, increases with berry size, and changes with berry development VPD (temperature, RH) drives transpiration Berry transpiration discharges surplus phloem water Low transpiration rate Phloem pressure release Phloem unloading Sugar accumulation Anthocyanin accumulation Low VPD (low temperature, high humidity) Slow ripening Berry transpiration (μmol m -2 s -1 ) Berry transpiration VPD 0:00 16:00 8:00 0:00 16:00 8:00 0:00 16:00 8:00 0:00 16:00 8:00 0:00 16:00 8:00 Time of the day Control Restricted transpiration VPD (kpa) Zhang & Keller (2015)

9 Temperature and water limit berry size Harvest berry weight (g) r = 0.43*** 0.4 Spring Cool 0.2 Warm Hot Harvest berry weight (g) r = 0.84*** % ET % ET Flower cap weight (mg) Lag-phase berry weight (g) Berry size is determined early It is difficult to manipulate berry weight after véraison Cool spring temperatures Small flowers Small berries Water deficit before véraison Small berries Keller et al. (2010) Keller (2015)

10 Diluting fruit quality really? Berry weight (g) Merlot (r = 0.53**) Syrah (r = 0.43*) Chardonnay (r = 0.51*) Pre-veraison Ψ stem (MPa) More water after véraison decreases berry shrinkage -5% weight +1 Brix Berry weight loss (%) More water before véraison increases berry size Merlot (r = -0.45*) Syrah (r = -0.41*) Chardonnay (ns) Post-veraison Ψ stem (MPa)

11 Rainfall: Berry splitting (cracking) Critical pressure (kpa) Water through skin Berries swell, may split Sugar may leach Split berries may shrink Concord Merlot Syrah Zinfandel 25 Concord, r = -0.80*** Merlot, r = -0.88*** 200 Berry sugar (Brix) Leached sugar (mg) Soluble solids (Brix) Splitting due to: Rainfall Sprinkler irrigation High humidity Preveraison drought

12 Water deficit impacts berry development C fruit (g shoot -1 ) r = P < Keller et al. (2015) g max (mmol H 2 O m -2 s -1 ) Water deficit g s Pn C partitioned to fruit Water deficit before véraison Smaller berries Skin:juice Stimulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis (sugar + ABA) Water deficit after véraison Less sugar, berry shrinkage

13 Wine and water deficit: Timing matters Tannin variation due to water and weather; anthocyanin variation dominated by weather (more in cool vintage, less in warm vintage) Full-season deficit Higher anthocyanins and tannins More LPP Prevéraison deficit Intermediate tannins Postvéraison deficit No gain Dehydration does not make berries more mature Casassa et al. (2015)

14 Water deficit: It s not just about berry size C Temperature ( C) Ambient Fruit exposure 25% ET c Exterior Interior 100% ET c Exterior Interior Day of year Water deficit Small berries, low vigor Open canopy, restricted shoot growth High cluster sun-exposure 32 C High light and high temperature Exposed berries are warm berries 35 C Anthocyanin optimum 20 C Keller et al. (2016)

15 Weather causes vintage variation Titratableacidity(g/L) Solublesolids( Brix) Fruit color (A 520 ) Season (Yield rank) 1997 (1) 1998 (3) 1999 (4) 2000 (2) 2001 (2) Soluble solids ( Brix) Climate variation and vineyard location: By far the strongest determinants of fruit composition Acidity and color vary >2-fold, aroma volatiles >10-fold at similar Brix level and yield Temperature trumps soil moisture and crop load Keller et al. (2004, 2005)

16 Soluble solids (Brix) Temperature limits fruit ripening Brix Control 1st Cold Treatment 2nd Cold Treatment 5 Nights <10 C Hall (2010) Aug 19 Day DOY of year Oct 8 No berry growth or sugar accumulation at <10ºC and >40ºC

17 Temperature: West Side Story Disentangling the light from the heat Photosynthesis - Sugar ( - ) (20-30 C) Acids: Tartrate (?) Malate ph (?) K C! Amino acids (proline, arginine) Phenolics: Anthocyanins - (days: C) Tannins (?) Volatiles (?): Methoxypyrazines Sunburn: >42 C + UV/visible light partly from Spayd et al. (2002)

18 Light: Visible and UnVisible Photosynthesis - -99% light! Sugar Acids: Tartrate ( ) Malate ph (?) K + (?) Amino acids (arginine ), N Clouds vs. canopy shade Phenolics: Anthocyanins (color) (visible >100 µmol m -2 s -1 ) Flavonols (color cofactors) (UV-B) Cinnamic acids (lignin, Brett ) (visible) Tannins (astringency) (visible?) Volatiles: Norisoprenoids, monoterpenes Methoxypyrazines Wine sensory properties -

19 Sun exposure: More is better? Sun-exposed berries: More UV light + heating (+15ºC) Chardonnay, Riesling: Sun-exposed berries with 6-8 times more flavonols and 2-4 times more flavan-3-ols (monomers, dimers, trimers, polymers) than shaded berries + Sunburn Smaller, open canopy More sun-exposed fruit More bitter and astringent phenolics Skin contact White wine?

20 Nitrogen: Moderation is a virtue Soluble Soluble solids ( Brix) Hot 2315 Warm no N Ambient Cool 100 kg N/ha r = r -0.65*** = -0.47*** Growing tips/shoot Yield (t/ha) at veraison Total anthocyanins (mg/l) Fermentation etc. Keller et al. (1999, 2001, 2010) More N Higher yield, more lateral growth, denser canopy Growing shoot tips compete with fruit Delayed ripening N suppresses secondary metabolism (phenolics) Bad recipe: Apply N fertilizer, then hedge away excess growth N (and S) enhance aroma precursors (volatile thiols) 50 0 ST/noN RT/noN ST/90kgN/ha RT/90kgN/ha ST: Single hedging RT: Repeated hedging Day 0 Day 4 After press After coldst. Day 2 Day 6 After MLF

21 Nitrogen: Interaction with light 50 Increasing N at bloom N1 N5 N10 Anthocyanins (mg/g skin fw) Delphinidin-3-glc Cyanidin-3-glc Petunidin-3-glc Peonidin-3-glc Malvidin-3-glc 100% 20% 2% Decreasing light at veraison Weeks after veraison Light drives anthocyanin accumulation, but N modulates it Keller & Hrazdina (1998)

22 Juice amino ug/ml acids (mg/l) Nitrogen: Yeast cannot live by sugar alone 350 Arginine-N 300 Proline-N N40+0 N20+20 STD N0+40 N40+0 N20+20 PRD N0+40 N40+0 N20+20 RDI STD PRD RDI N0+40 Proline and PR proteins accumulate during ripening Water deficit N deficit Risk of stuck fermentation H 2 S N deficit High phenolics but low aroma precursors Wade et al. (2004)

23 Potassium and the ph conundrum Metal cations (K +, Na + ), may counter the influence of organic acids by substituting for H + Juice ph Variation in juice ph is driven by variation in both TA and K + Late harvest TA, K + ph Crop load K + (phloem import) ph Juice ph is not very responsive to soil K + ( Malate ) Ca 2+ and K + compete for root uptake: Soil ph Juice ph Juice ph Merlot Syrah Chardonnay Juice K + (g/l)

24 It s in the book Second Edition 2015 Academic Press (Elsevier) Amazon Chinese Edition 2016 China Science Publishing & Media

Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard

Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard Washington Winegrowers Convention Kennewick, WA, February 6-8, 2018 Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard Markus Keller Aroma, flavor: Volatiles for white wine Norisoprenoids

More information

Vineyard Practices for Crop Yield and Quality. Viticulture: The goals

Vineyard Practices for Crop Yield and Quality. Viticulture: The goals Montana Grape and Winery Association Conference Kalispell, MT, April 5-7, 2018 Vineyard Practices for Crop Yield and Quality Markus Keller Viticulture: The goals Growing grapes for profit Optimum light

More information

Crop Development: Why things sometimes go wrong. Markus Keller

Crop Development: Why things sometimes go wrong. Markus Keller Crop Development: Why things sometimes go wrong Markus Keller Grape berry: a job description Seed production Seed dispersal Color/aroma advertising Sugar ticket price from Coombe (AV, 2001) photo courtesy

More information

Optimising harvest date through use of an integrated grape compositional and sensory model

Optimising harvest date through use of an integrated grape compositional and sensory model Optimising harvest date through use of an integrated grape compositional and sensory model Alain DELOIRE, Katja ŠUKLJE, Guillaume ANTALICK, Campbell MEEKS, John W. BLACKMAN & Leigh M. SCHMIDTKE National

More information

Do lower yields on the vine always make for better wine?

Do lower yields on the vine always make for better wine? Grape and wine quality Increasing quality Do lower yields on the vine always make for better wine? Nick Dokoozlian Viticulture, & Enology E&J Gallo ry Do lower yields on the vine always make for better

More information

Effects of Leaf Removal and UV-B on Flavonoids, Amino Acids and Methoxypyrazines

Effects of Leaf Removal and UV-B on Flavonoids, Amino Acids and Methoxypyrazines Effects of Leaf Removal and UV-B on Flavonoids, Amino Acids and Methoxypyrazines Professor Brian Jordan Centre for Viticulture & Oenology, Lincoln University What are the major factors to be considered

More information

IMPOSING WATER DEFICITS TO IMPROVE WINE QUALITY AND REDUCE COSTS

IMPOSING WATER DEFICITS TO IMPROVE WINE QUALITY AND REDUCE COSTS IMPOSING WATER DEFICITS TO IMPROVE WINE QUALITY AND REDUCE COSTS Terry L. Prichard, Water Management Specialist University of California Davis 420 S. Wilson Way, Stockton, CA 95205 (209) 468-2085; fax

More information

Impacts of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wine

Impacts of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wine Impacts of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wine Jim Harbertson, Richard Larsen, Federico Casassa, Markus Keller Washington State University Viticulture & Enology Program RDI

More information

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. ASVO SEMINAR : MILDURA, 24 July 2014 AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. ASVO SEMINAR : MILDURA, 24 July 2014 AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP Flavonoids in grapes Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey ASVO SEMINAR : MILDURA, 24 July 2014 AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP Flavonoids in grapes Grape Flavonoids Flavonoids are important

More information

Impact of Vineyard Practices on Grape and Wine Composition

Impact of Vineyard Practices on Grape and Wine Composition Impact of Vineyard Practices on Grape and Wine Composition James A. Kennedy UC Davis April 20, 2018 Davis, CA Outline Assumption: Managing wine composition in the vineyard is effective General thoughts

More information

Vineyard Water Management

Vineyard Water Management Vineyard Water Management Pierre Helwi Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Grape Camp November 7, 2016 Lady Bird Johnson Park Pioneer Pavilion, Fredericksburg, TX Terroir Concept Climate Human factor

More information

Berry sugar and water loading. Principles and a few observations

Berry sugar and water loading. Principles and a few observations Berry sugar and water loading Principles and a few observations Prof Alain Deloire deloire@sun.ac.za Department of Viticulture and Oenology Stellenbosch University UC-Davis, 10 May 2012 Berry sugar and

More information

Phenolics of WA State Wines*

Phenolics of WA State Wines* Phenolics of WA State Wines* Jim Harbertson Washington State University * And Grapes! Introduction Impacts of deficit irrigation on grape and wine phenolics Impacts of grape ripening on wine phenolic development

More information

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. 11 June 2014 PLANT INDUSTRY

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. 11 June 2014 PLANT INDUSTRY Flavonoids in grapes Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey 11 June 2014 PLANT INDUSTRY Grapes to wine a 2 metabolic zoo Grapevines Hundreds of different metabolites determine Wine

More information

HANDS-ON SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME FAST GRAPE RIPENING

HANDS-ON SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME FAST GRAPE RIPENING HANDS-ON SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME FAST GRAPE RIPENING 1 Techniques based on modification of growing and ripening pattern Increase of vine yield (> bud load) Late shoot trimming Late irrigation (i.e. just

More information

Measured effects of elevated temperature on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes

Measured effects of elevated temperature on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes Measured effects of elevated temperature on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes Victor Sadras, Martin Moran & Paul Petrie South Australian R&D Institute, Treasury Wine Estates Funded by Grape

More information

Understanding Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Grapes. R. Paul Schreiner USDA - ARS - HCRL Corvallis, OR

Understanding Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Grapes. R. Paul Schreiner USDA - ARS - HCRL Corvallis, OR Understanding Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Grapes R. Paul Schreiner USDA - ARS - HCRL Corvallis, OR Research Profile Schreiner Lab Root Physiology in Grapes Defining & Characterizing AMF Diversity

More information

Influence of Viticultural Practices on Juice Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen

Influence of Viticultural Practices on Juice Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen Influence of Viticultural Practices on Juice Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen James A. Kennedy, Clinton Nelson, Kaan Kurtural Department of Viticulture and Enology California State University, Fresno Sonoma

More information

Crop Load Management of Young Vines

Crop Load Management of Young Vines Crop Load Management of Young Vines UC ANR Foothill Grape Day March 29, 2018 George Zhuang UC Cooperative Extension - Fresno County Thanks for Having Me Here! What is Crop Load? Crop load (Ravaz Index)

More information

Late season leaf health CORRELATION OF VINEYARD IMAGERY WITH PINOT NOIR YIELD AND VIGOUR AND FRUIT AND WINE COMPOSITION. 6/22/2010

Late season leaf health CORRELATION OF VINEYARD IMAGERY WITH PINOT NOIR YIELD AND VIGOUR AND FRUIT AND WINE COMPOSITION. 6/22/2010 // Not all vineyard blocks are uniform This is because of soil variation primarily, especially in factors which affect the supply of water This has a direct effect on vine vigour, which in turn has a direct

More information

Fruit maturity and quality. Azra Alikadić Web Valley 2016, San Lorenzo Dorsino

Fruit maturity and quality. Azra Alikadić Web Valley 2016, San Lorenzo Dorsino Fruit maturity and quality Azra Alikadić Web Valley 2016, San Lorenzo Dorsino Quality - Quality implies the degree of excellence of a product or its suitability for a particular use. - Which combines:

More information

GRAPE MATURITY. Section 1.

GRAPE MATURITY. Section 1. GRAPE MATURITY Learning Outcomes: After reviewing this chapter, the reader will understand the importance and complexity of grape maturity evaluations. The changes occurring in berry development, factors

More information

Session 4: Managing seasonal production challenges. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Cabernet Sauvignon.

Session 4: Managing seasonal production challenges. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Cabernet Sauvignon. Session 4: Managing seasonal production challenges Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Cabernet Sauvignon Keren Bindon Cristian Varela, Helen Holt, Patricia Williamson, Leigh Francis,

More information

Notes on acid adjustments:

Notes on acid adjustments: Notes on acid adjustments: In general, acidity levels in 2018 were lower than normal. Grape acidity is critical for the winemaking process, as well as the quality of the wine. There are 2 common ways to

More information

2 Grapevine Development and

2 Grapevine Development and 2 Grapevine Development and Basic Physiology Pat Bowen, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre Summerland BC V0H 1Z0 The Goals of Viticulture The common goal of viticulture is to make a profit but strategies

More information

Deficit Irrigation Scheduling for Quality Winegrapes

Deficit Irrigation Scheduling for Quality Winegrapes Deficit Irrigation Scheduling for Quality Winegrapes Terry Prichard, Water Management Specialist Dept. LAWR, Hydrology UC Davis Improving Fruit Quality Improving Fruit Quality Crop Crop Load Management

More information

Challenges and Opportunities in a Changing Climate. Christian E. Butzke 2 nd Vice President ASEV Enology Professor Purdue University

Challenges and Opportunities in a Changing Climate. Christian E. Butzke 2 nd Vice President ASEV Enology Professor Purdue University Challenges and Opportunities in a Changing Climate & Christian E. Butzke 2 nd Vice President ASEV Enology Professor Purdue University butzke@purdue.edu 1.765.494.6500 enology.butzke.com Outline Vintage-to-Vintage

More information

Grapevine Mineral Nutrition

Grapevine Mineral Nutrition Grapevine Mineral Nutrition Peter Christensen Viticulture Specialist, Emeritus Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California, Davis UC Kearney Agricultural Center Parlier, CA Vineyard

More information

Growing your blend Georgia Wine Producers Conference. January 24, Cain Hickey

Growing your blend Georgia Wine Producers Conference. January 24, Cain Hickey Growing your blend 2018 Georgia Wine Producers Conference January 24, 2018 Cain Hickey Why blend? Single cultivar does not have the desired: Composition Therefore, sensory features and microbial stability

More information

An Introduction to StellarTan Premium Tannins. Gusmer June 6, 2018 Windsor, CA

An Introduction to StellarTan Premium Tannins. Gusmer June 6, 2018 Windsor, CA An Introduction to StellarTan Premium Tannins Gusmer June 6, 2018 Windsor, CA Outline General information Berry composition, wine production, tannin extraction, wine composition Tannins Chemistry, perception,

More information

Ripening Tomatoes. Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis

Ripening Tomatoes. Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis Ripening Tomatoes Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis micantwell@ucdavis.edu Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Management Workshop Postharvest Technology Center, UC Davis, March 7-8, 0 Quality of

More information

Effects of smart use of fertilizers on grape production

Effects of smart use of fertilizers on grape production Effects of smart use of fertilizers on grape production 2015.5.12 Yeh, Wen-pin 葉文彬 Researcher of Crop Improvement Section, TDARES, Taiwan, ROC 1 Outline: Introduction Grape production and market in Taiwan.

More information

OUTLINE Plan of the talk. Introduction Vineyards are variable in space The efficient vineyard project. The field site in Sonoma Results

OUTLINE Plan of the talk. Introduction Vineyards are variable in space The efficient vineyard project. The field site in Sonoma Results UCCE Sonoma County Grape Day February 8, 2017 Assessing variability in the vineyard through a spatially explicit selective-harvest approach A case study in Sonoma L. Brillante, A. Beebee, R. Yu, J. Martinez,

More information

Copyright Advanced Viticulture, Inc. Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc.

Copyright Advanced Viticulture, Inc.   Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc. Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc. www.advancedvit.com Irrigation Management Water Management Floor Management Weather Frost, Cooling, other. Strategy Physiology of vine water

More information

Berry = Sugar Sink. Source: Sink Relationships in the Grapevine. Source: Sink Relations. Leaf = Photosynthesis = Source

Berry = Sugar Sink. Source: Sink Relationships in the Grapevine. Source: Sink Relations. Leaf = Photosynthesis = Source Source: Sink Relationships in the Grapevine S. Kaan Kurtural Department of Viticulture and Enology Source: Sink Relations Leaf = Photosynthesis = Source Berry = Sugar Sink 2 3/4/2018 1 Sink growing apex

More information

Lack of irrigation in 2002 reduced Riesling crop in Timothy E. Martinson Finger Lakes Grape Program

Lack of irrigation in 2002 reduced Riesling crop in Timothy E. Martinson Finger Lakes Grape Program Lack of irrigation in 2002 reduced Riesling crop in 2003 Timothy E. Martinson Finger Lakes Grape Program Lailiang Cheng, Alan Lakso, Thomas Henick-Kling and Terry Acree Depts. Horticulture Ithaca, Horticultural

More information

Christian Butzke Enology Professor.

Christian Butzke Enology Professor. Christian Butzke Enology Professor butzke@purdue.edu www.indyinternational.org www.indianaquality.org Film Yeasts vs Varietal Character Malolactic in the Cold Color Extraction & Stability High ph and High

More information

Practical Aspects of Crop Load and Canopy Management

Practical Aspects of Crop Load and Canopy Management Practical Aspects of Crop Load and Canopy Management Jim Wolpert Extension Viticulturist Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California, Davis Penn State Grape Day August 10, 2011 Presentation

More information

Addressing Research Issues Facing Midwest Wine Industry

Addressing Research Issues Facing Midwest Wine Industry Addressing Research Issues Facing Midwest Wine Industry 18th Annual Nebraska Winery and Grape Growers Forum and Trade Show at the Omaha Marriott March 7 th, 2015 Murli R Dharmadhikari Department of Food

More information

Elderberry Ripeness and Determination of When to Harvest. Patrick Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist,

Elderberry Ripeness and Determination of When to Harvest. Patrick Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist, Elderberry Ripeness and Determination of When to Harvest Patrick Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist, byerspl@missouri.edu 1. Ripeness is an elusive concept for many people a. Ripeness is often entirely

More information

Harvest & Post Harvest Handing of Blueberries for Fresh & IQF Markets. Charles F. Forney Kentville Research and Development Centre

Harvest & Post Harvest Handing of Blueberries for Fresh & IQF Markets. Charles F. Forney Kentville Research and Development Centre Harvest & Post Harvest Handing of Blueberries for Fresh & IQF Markets Charles F. Forney Kentville Research and Development Centre Factors Affecting Fruit Quality and Market Life Fruit Quality Cultural

More information

Lecture 4. Factors affecting ripening can be physiological, physical, or biotic. Fruit maturity. Temperature.

Lecture 4. Factors affecting ripening can be physiological, physical, or biotic. Fruit maturity. Temperature. Lecture 4. Factors affecting ripening can be physiological, physical, or biotic. Physiological factors relate to fruit maturity or environmental factors, which affect the metabolism of fruit and banana.

More information

Grapevine Cold Hardiness And Injury: Dynamics and Management

Grapevine Cold Hardiness And Injury: Dynamics and Management Grapevine Cold Hardiness And Injury: Dynamics and Management Dr. Robert Wample California State University- Fresno Low Temperature Tolerance Vs Avoidance Tolerance Supercooling Avoidance (?)(Permanent

More information

Understanding the climatic, site, canopy and cultural factors affecting Pinot Noir expression in the vineyard

Understanding the climatic, site, canopy and cultural factors affecting Pinot Noir expression in the vineyard Understanding the climatic, site, canopy and cultural factors affecting Pinot Noir expression in the vineyard DR ANDREW PIRIE HONORARY RESEARCH ASSOCIATE TASMANANIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE VITI FACTORS

More information

Evolution of Grapegrowing Techniques and New Viticulture Ideas in Spain. Jesús Yuste.

Evolution of Grapegrowing Techniques and New Viticulture Ideas in Spain. Jesús Yuste. Evolution of Grapegrowing Techniques and New Viticulture Ideas in Spain Jesús Yuste yusbomje@itacyl.es Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León Valladolid, Spain Training and pruning Traditional

More information

AN ENOLOGY EXTENSION SERVICE QUARTERLY PUBLICATION

AN ENOLOGY EXTENSION SERVICE QUARTERLY PUBLICATION The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine FBZDF Wine. What Where Why How 2017 2. October, November, December What the authors

More information

MAKING WINE WITH HIGH AND LOW PH JUICE. Ethan Brown New Mexico State University 11/11/2017

MAKING WINE WITH HIGH AND LOW PH JUICE. Ethan Brown New Mexico State University 11/11/2017 MAKING WINE WITH HIGH AND LOW PH JUICE Ethan Brown New Mexico State University 11/11/2017 Overview How ph changes during winemaking Reds To adjust for high ph and how Whites Early harvest due to poor conditions

More information

Acid Management in the Vineyard

Acid Management in the Vineyard Acid Management in the Vineyard Bruce Bordelon Purdue University Wine Grape Team 2008 Spring Workshop Factors affecting acidity Variety Temperature (esp. during ripening) Shade/exposure Crop level/balance

More information

Benefits of skin contact and fermentation on the skins for white wines

Benefits of skin contact and fermentation on the skins for white wines Session: Innovations in cool climate wine styles Benefits of skin contact and fermentation on the skins for white wines Engela Kritzinger, Ulrich Fischer Franken, Silvaner fermented on the skins Pfalz,

More information

Tomato Quality Attributes. Mature Fruit Vegetables. Tomatoes Peppers, Chiles

Tomato Quality Attributes. Mature Fruit Vegetables. Tomatoes Peppers, Chiles Mature Fruit Vegetables Tomatoes Peppers, Chiles Marita Cantwell, UC Davis micantwell@ucdavis.edu Maturity at harvest critical for quality Chilling sensitive, but variable in sensitivity Ethylene can control

More information

Specific mediterranean characteristics. Mediterranean climate

Specific mediterranean characteristics. Mediterranean climate Effect of global warming in mediterranean conditions Climate change - Average temperatures increase and efficient rainfalls decrease Consequences for vines and grapes - Shortening of phenologic stages

More information

VITIS vinifera GRAPE COMPOSITION

VITIS vinifera GRAPE COMPOSITION VITIS vinifera GRAPE COMPOSITION Milena Lambri Enology Area - DiSTAS Department for Sustainable Food Process Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - Piacenza GRAPE (and WINE) COMPOSITION Chemical composition

More information

Inherent Characteristics Affecting Balance of Common Footill Grape Varieties

Inherent Characteristics Affecting Balance of Common Footill Grape Varieties Inherent Characteristics Affecting Balance of Common Footill Grape Varieties Glenn McGourty Winegrowing and Plant Science Advisor Mendocino And Lake Counties Where Are We, Anyway? Total Wine Grape Vineyard

More information

Tomato Quality Attributes

Tomato Quality Attributes León, Mexico - Sept Impact of Ripening & Storage Conditions on Ripe Tomato Quality Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences Univ. California, Davis, CA micantwell@ucdavis.edu; http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu

More information

Types of Sanitizers. Heat, w/ water or steam to saturate effect

Types of Sanitizers. Heat, w/ water or steam to saturate effect Types of Sanitizers Heat, w/ water or steam to saturate effect Very effective anti-microbial, except some encysted forms Exposure time critical Non-corrosive, but energy intensive Chemical Effectiveness

More information

Your headline here in Calibri.

Your headline here in Calibri. Pruning and Training Principles for Balanced Vines Your headline here in Calibri. Larry Bettiga Viticulture Advisor Monterey, Santa Cruz and San Benito Counties Simple text is best. Don t read from your

More information

Monitoring and Meeting Wine Grape Mineral Nutrition Needs in Santa Cruz Districts

Monitoring and Meeting Wine Grape Mineral Nutrition Needs in Santa Cruz Districts Monitoring and Meeting Wine Grape Mineral Nutrition Needs in Santa Cruz Districts Peter Christensen Viticulture Specialist, Emeritus Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California, Davis

More information

Vintage 2006: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report

Vintage 2006: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report Vintage 2006: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report Summary: The 2006 vintage started off slow with a cool, wet spring and was followed by a largely climatically favorable growing season. The summer

More information

Stages of Fruit Development. Maturation The stage of development leading to the attainment of physiological or horticultural maturity.

Stages of Fruit Development. Maturation The stage of development leading to the attainment of physiological or horticultural maturity. Fruit Preparation for Consumers Stages of Fruit Development Stages of Fruit Development Maturation The stage of development leading to the attainment of physiological or horticultural maturity. Physiological

More information

IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION

IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION A. Oberholster, R. Girardello, L. Lerno, S. Eridon, M. Cooper, R. Smith, C. Brenneman, H. Heymann, M. Sokolowsky, V. Rich, D. Plank, S. Kurtural

More information

Red Wine Mouthfeel Profile

Red Wine Mouthfeel Profile NORTON WINEMAKERS ROUNDTABLE Chrysalis Vineyards JULY 26, 2004 Features of the Norton grape: high TA low tartaric/malic ratio high concentration gallates and diglucoside pigments aggressive tannins small

More information

Wine is G x E x M, twice

Wine is G x E x M, twice Growing quality grapes in a warming climate Victor Sadras, Martin Moran, Marcos Bonada, Paul Petrie Wine is G x E x M, twice 7 th Australian Wine Industry Environment Conference, 5 Sep 1 The phenotype

More information

The impact of smoke exposure on different grape varieties. Renata Ristic and Kerry Wilkinson

The impact of smoke exposure on different grape varieties. Renata Ristic and Kerry Wilkinson The impact of smoke exposure on different grape varieties Renata Ristic and Kerry Wilkinson Flavours Colour Tannins TA ph Anthocyanins SMOKE TAINT MAGIC BOX OF KNOWLEDGE What Grape to do varieties in a

More information

Mike Trought Plant and Food Research Marlborough Research Centre Blenheim, New Zealand

Mike Trought Plant and Food Research Marlborough Research Centre Blenheim, New Zealand Coping Strategies for a Warmer Climate: Irrigation and Canopy Management Mike Trought Plant and Food Research Marlborough Research Centre Blenheim, New Zealand Total producing area 2015 = 35,859 ha

More information

Tartrate Stability. Mavrik North America Bob Kreisher, Ph.D

Tartrate Stability. Mavrik North America Bob Kreisher, Ph.D Tartrate Stability Mavrik North America Bob Kreisher, Ph.D Tartrate Stability Potassium bitartrate = KHT Tartrate Stability: Absence of visible crystals (precipitation) after extended time at a reference

More information

Fruit Set, Growth and Development

Fruit Set, Growth and Development Fruit Set, Growth and Development Fruit set happens after pollination and fertilization, otherwise the flower or the fruit will drop. The flowering and fruit set efficiency could be measured by certain

More information

ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION

ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY ANITA OBERHOLSTER UCCE Sonoma Grape Day February 18 th, 2015 Introduction Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) First described

More information

Monitoring Ripening for Harvest and Winemaking Decisions

Monitoring Ripening for Harvest and Winemaking Decisions Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit Western MD Research & Education Center 18330 Keedysville Road Keedysville, MD 21756-1104 301-432-2767 ext. 344; Fax 301-432-4089 jfiola@umd.edu

More information

Timing of Treatment O 2 Dosage Typical Duration During Fermentation mg/l Total Daily. Between AF - MLF 1 3 mg/l/day 4 10 Days

Timing of Treatment O 2 Dosage Typical Duration During Fermentation mg/l Total Daily. Between AF - MLF 1 3 mg/l/day 4 10 Days Micro-Oxygenation Principles Micro-oxygenation is a technique that involves the addition of controlled amounts of oxygen into wines. The goal is to simulate the effects of barrel-ageing in a controlled

More information

Nitrogen Fertilizer and White Wine Grape Management

Nitrogen Fertilizer and White Wine Grape Management Nitrogen Fertilizer and White Wine Grape Management Joan Davenport WSU-Prosser Soil Science YOUTH & AGRICULTURE HEALTH ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT ENERGY COMMUNITIES FAMILIES Why Nitrogen Canopy growth and development

More information

Novel methods for the amelioration of smoke tainted wine

Novel methods for the amelioration of smoke tainted wine Novel methods for the amelioration of smoke tainted wine Kerry Wilkinson, Renata Ristic and Anthea Fudge The University of Adelaide Life Impact The University of Adelaide Aims of ARC Smoke Taint Project

More information

Inovace studijních programů AF a ZF MENDELU směřující k vytvoření mezioborové integrace CZ.1.07/2.2.00/

Inovace studijních programů AF a ZF MENDELU směřující k vytvoření mezioborové integrace CZ.1.07/2.2.00/ Inovace studijních programů AF a ZF MENDELU směřující k vytvoření mezioborové integrace CZ.1.07/2.2.00/28.0302 Tato prezentace je spolufinancovaná z Evropského sociálního fondu a státního rozpočtu České

More information

Canopy Management for Disease Control in Wine Grapes Grape IPM Workshop March, 2011

Canopy Management for Disease Control in Wine Grapes Grape IPM Workshop March, 2011 Canopy Management for Disease Control in Wine Grapes Grape IPM Workshop March, 2011 Mark L. Chien State-wide Viticulture Educator Penn State Cooperative Extension mlc12@psu.edu Environmental and viticultural

More information

Irrigation Management of Winegrapes with a Limited Water Supply

Irrigation Management of Winegrapes with a Limited Water Supply Irrigation Management of Winegrapes with a Limited Water Supply If there are questions regarding the following information, please contact: Terry Prichard at tlprichard@ucdavis.edu or at 209-953- 6120.

More information

ARIMNet2 Young Researchers Seminar

ARIMNet2 Young Researchers Seminar ARIMNet2 Young Researchers Seminar How to better involve end-users throughout the research process to foster innovation-driven research for a sustainable Mediterranean agriculture at the farm and local

More information

Lesson 2 The Vineyard. From Soil to Harvest

Lesson 2 The Vineyard. From Soil to Harvest Lesson 2 The Vineyard From Soil to Harvest Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to display an understanding of how grapes are grown for wine production. describe the annual growing

More information

Kevin Sass Moderator Winemaker Halter Ranch Vineyards

Kevin Sass Moderator Winemaker Halter Ranch Vineyards Trials Talks Trials Talks Kevin Sass Moderator Winemaker Halter Ranch Vineyards Francois Cordesse Francis Ford Coppola Winery Keith Orlebeck South Cost Winery Cameron Parry Groth Winery and Vineyards Andrew

More information

Rhonda Smith UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma County

Rhonda Smith UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma County Berry Shrivel Research Update 2005 and 2006 investigations Rhonda Smith UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma County Note: This update includes a summary of research conducted by Mark Krasow, Post Doctoral

More information

Questions. Today 6/21/2010. Tamar Pilot Winery Research Group. Tamar Pilot Winery Research Group. Phenolic Compounds in Wine

Questions. Today 6/21/2010. Tamar Pilot Winery Research Group. Tamar Pilot Winery Research Group. Phenolic Compounds in Wine Questions Where in the grape berry do most of the important phenolic compounds in wine come from? How are skin tannins different from seed tannins Why are Pinot noir wines generally lighter in color than

More information

VWT 272 Class 14. Quiz 12. Number of quizzes taken 16 Min 3 Max 30 Mean 21.1 Median 21 Mode 23

VWT 272 Class 14. Quiz 12. Number of quizzes taken 16 Min 3 Max 30 Mean 21.1 Median 21 Mode 23 VWT 272 Class 14 Quiz 12 Number of quizzes taken 16 Min 3 Max 30 Mean 21.1 Median 21 Mode 23 Lecture 14 Phenolics: The Dark Art of Winemaking Whether at Naishapur or Babylon, Whether the Cup with sweet

More information

Understanding Seasonal Nutritional Requirements

Understanding Seasonal Nutritional Requirements Understanding Seasonal Nutritional Requirements Tips & Tricks Tip 1: Sample Tissue at Critical Times A plant tissue sampling strategy should be implemented each year to monitor vine nutrient status. Follow

More information

The Pomology Post. Hull Rot Management on Almonds. by Brent Holtz, Ph.D., University of California Pomology Advisor

The Pomology Post. Hull Rot Management on Almonds. by Brent Holtz, Ph.D., University of California Pomology Advisor University of California Cooperative Extension The Pomology Post Madera County Volume 54, JUNE 2007 Hull Rot Management on Almonds by Brent Holtz, Ph.D., University of California Pomology Advisor Many

More information

REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT FOR WINEGRAPES

REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT FOR WINEGRAPES REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT FOR WINEGRAPES Terry L. Prichard, Water Management Specialist, UCCE, Dept. of LAWR, UC Davis Rhonda J. Smith, UCCE Farm Advisor, Sonoma County Paul S. Verdegaal,

More information

Where there s fire, there s smoke. Volume 3 An overview of the impact of smoke taint in winemaking.

Where there s fire, there s smoke. Volume 3 An overview of the impact of smoke taint in winemaking. September 2014 Where there s fire, there s smoke. Volume 3 An overview of the impact of smoke taint in winemaking. The 2008 vintage presented a unique challenge for some wine makers. Fires in various northern

More information

The Low Down on High Yields: Challenging Yield-Quality Standards for Oregon Pinot Noir

The Low Down on High Yields: Challenging Yield-Quality Standards for Oregon Pinot Noir February 22, 2017 Oregon Wine Symposium, Portland, OR The Low Down on High Yields: Challenging Yield-Quality Standards for Oregon Pinot Noir Dr. Patty Skinkis, Viticulture Extension Specialist & Associate

More information

membrane technology forum Frederick Liberatore & Jamie Vinsant Minneapolis, Minnesota 3-5 June, 2015

membrane technology forum Frederick Liberatore & Jamie Vinsant Minneapolis, Minnesota 3-5 June, 2015 membrane technology forum Frederick Liberatore & Jamie Vinsant Minneapolis, Minnesota 3-5 June, 2015 membrane solutions to current winemakers challenges Anne-Cecile Valentin membrane technology forum 2015

More information

Table grapes for eastern Canada

Table grapes for eastern Canada Table grapes for eastern Canada K. H. Fisher University of Guelph St Remi, QC December 09, 2016 Ontario Fresh Grape Industry Very small proportion of the total vineyard production Very limited choice of

More information

TESTING WINE STABILITY fining, analysis and interpretation

TESTING WINE STABILITY fining, analysis and interpretation TESTING WINE STABILITY fining, analysis and interpretation Carien Coetzee Stephanie Steyn FROM TANK TO BOTTLE Enartis Stabilisation School Testing wine stability Hazes/colour/precipitate Oxidation Microbial

More information

Vinews Viticulture Information News, Week of 3 August 2015 Columbia, MO

Vinews Viticulture Information News, Week of 3 August 2015 Columbia, MO NO. 15 1 Vinews Viticulture Information News, Week of 3 August 2015 Columbia, MO Magnesium Deficiency With the onset of veraison nutrient deficiencies often become more apparent. Veraison is a phenological

More information

Research News from Cornell s Viticulture and Enology Program Research Focus Cornell Researchers Tackle Green Flavors in Red Wines

Research News from Cornell s Viticulture and Enology Program Research Focus Cornell Researchers Tackle Green Flavors in Red Wines Research News from Cornell s Viticulture and Enology Program Research Focus 2010-1 RESEARCH FOCUS Cornell Researchers Tackle Green Flavors in Red Wines Tim Martinson 1 and Justin Scheiner 2 1 Senior Viticulture

More information

Climate Change and its Impact on the Wine World. Outline

Climate Change and its Impact on the Wine World. Outline Climate Change and its Impact on the Wine World James A. Kennedy Department of Viticulture and Enology California State University, Fresno Insight Cruises December 2, 2013 Somewhere on the Rhone Outline

More information

Causes and Prevention of Thompson Seedless Berry Collapse

Causes and Prevention of Thompson Seedless Berry Collapse Causes and Prevention of Thompson Seedless Berry Collapse Davinder Singh, Michael Treeby, Kristen, Pitt and Peter Clingeleffer 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, November 2014 CSIRO AGRICULTURE

More information

Christian Butzke Enology Professor.

Christian Butzke Enology Professor. Christian Butzke Enology Professor butzke@purdue.edu www.indyinternational.org www.indianaquality.org SO 2 & Sorbate Management Oxygen Management Skin Contact Time Residual Nutrients Temperature, ph &

More information

Use of natural bios/mulants to improve the quality of grapevine produc/on

Use of natural bios/mulants to improve the quality of grapevine produc/on Use of natural bios/mulants to improve the quality of grapevine produc/on Giovan Ba;sta Ma;i, Eleonora Cataldo, Linda Salvi, Sandro Secco SIPCAM and DiSPAA - Università degli Studi di Firenze To understand

More information

WINE STABILIZATION AND FINING. Misha T. Kwasniewski

WINE STABILIZATION AND FINING. Misha T. Kwasniewski WINE STABILIZATION AND FINING Misha T. Kwasniewski Email:kwasniewskim@missouri.edu Reasons to Fine Adjust Flavor Remove astringency Adjust Color Remove unwanted aroma Enhance wine Stability Remove additive

More information

Wine Grape Trellis and Training Systems

Wine Grape Trellis and Training Systems Wine Grape Trellis and Training Systems Thomas Todaro Viticulture Specialist Michigan State University Extension Sutton s Bay, Michigan 2018 Wine Grape Vineyard Establishment Conference Trellis systems

More information

Grape Notes Dec. 2005

Grape Notes Dec. 2005 University of California Cooperative Extension Grape Notes Dec. 2005 San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties Mark Battany 2156 Sierra Way, Suite C San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Viticulture/Soil s Farm Advisor

More information

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE RELATIONSHIPS OF STRESS AND LEAF HEALTH OF THE GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) ON GRAPE AND WINE QUALITIES

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE RELATIONSHIPS OF STRESS AND LEAF HEALTH OF THE GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) ON GRAPE AND WINE QUALITIES INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE RELATIONSHIPS OF STRESS AND LEAF HEALTH OF THE GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) ON GRAPE AND WINE QUALITIES by Reuben Wells BAgrSc (Hons) Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements

More information

Optimized grape potential through root system and soil moisture manipulations

Optimized grape potential through root system and soil moisture manipulations Final report (July 2012) Virginia Wine Board Optimized grape potential through root system and soil moisture manipulations Principal Investigator: Tony K. Wolf AHS Jr. Agricultural Research and Extension

More information

Weight, g Respiration, µl/g-h Firmness, kg/cm

Weight, g Respiration, µl/g-h Firmness, kg/cm Postharvest Handling Melons and Winter Squash Ripe Melon Characteristics Cantaloupe Watermelon HoneyDew HoneyLoupe Canary Casaba Days from anthesis 55 5 0 Weight, g 00 100 50 000 Respiration, µl/g-h 17

More information