BIOLOGY, MONITORING, CONTROL & UPDATE ON THE SPOTTED-WING DROSOPHILA (SWD) Blair Sampson USDA-ARS Poplarville, MS

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1 BIOLOGY, MONITORING, CONTROL & UPDATE ON THE SPOTTED-WING DROSOPHILA (SWD) Blair Sampson USDA-ARS Poplarville, MS

2 Identification of spotted wing Drosophila fruit flies FIELD DAMAGE

3 Photo credit : R. Delong Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs

4

5 Complete 2 3 generations on Blueberry 20% damage typical

6 Female SWD Male SWD Serrated saw-like egg-laying tube of a Female SWD

7

8 Monitoring Practices (BAITS)

9 BAITS (LURES) FOR TRAPPING SWD ADULTS (20% males: 80% females) Vinegar (5 7% acetic acid) Replace weekly Wine (affordable boxed wine fine) Replace weekly Adult SWD can t handle their liquor, native flies can Vinegar + Wine, 51 fl oz apple cider vinegar, 77 fl oz red wine (more affordable than pure wine) Sieve catch, do not discard bait onto ground around traps. Replace weekly

10 BAITS (LURES) FOR TRAPPING SWD ADULTS Yeast + Sugar (may be better for earlier detection) 2 teaspoons active dried yeast 1 teaspoon sugar 2 cups water. Mix and let stand overnight (Replace weekly) Cowles SWD bait: 12 oz water 4 tablespoons sugar 1 tablespoon yeast 2 tablespoons wheat flour 1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar 3 drops of unscented dish soap (Replace weekly)

11 BAITS (LURES) FOR TRAPPING SWD ADULTS New Improved Lure: Acetic Acid + Ethanol + N-blend Lure (under development) N-blend Lure = Vinegar + Wine the stuff repellent to SWDs

12 Dome traps Why all this Work? Make traps competitive with BB crop More selective of SWD adults Photo credit: D. Cha (USDA-ARS) Most of EAD-active chemicals released from 4ml polypropylene vial with a 3 mm hole HDPE Polypack Acetic acid + Ethanol Wine + Vinegar prepared as drowning solution in the trap bottom 10 replications 2-week monitoring

13 Monitoring Practices (TRAPS)

14 Monitoring for spotted-wing drosophila (SWD) is easy!

15 TRAP DESIGNS

16 TRAP PLACEMENT (general guidelines) Large Fields 1 trap per 5-10 acres, field edge Place near earliest fruiting varieties (Climax, Prince, etc ) within shade of canopy Small Fields <10 acres 1-2 traps, edge and center Place near earliest fruiting varieties, within shade of canopy Spray labeled insecticides for SWD, if adults are detected in traps and fruit are turning color. Continue trapping to monitor pesticide effectiveness

17 SWD Management Practices (INSECTICIDES) Three main classes of insecticides for SWD control 1. Organophosphates/Carbamates (e.g. Malathion, Imidan, Sevin) 2. Pyrethroids (e.g. Mustang Max, Pyganic, Danitol) 3. Spinosyns (e.g. SpinTor, Delegate, Entrust) Rotate among the three classes to prevent insecticide resistance Short Pre-harvest Intervals (PHIs from 0 3 days) Spray entire field, and if feasible, the woodland border Reapply after rainfall Increase spray coverage by keeping bush canopies open i.e., more refined pruning

18 Table 1. Insecticides that may help manage populations of Spotted-Wing Drosophila in Southern Blueberry Insecticide Product 1 (trade name) IRAC class Product applied per acre Re-entry Interval 2 PHI (days) Expected residual control (days) Brigade 10WSB 3A 16 oz 12 hrs Mustang Max 3A 4 oz 12 hrs Mustang 1.5EC 3A 4.3 oz 12 hrs Danitol 2.4EC 3A 16 oz 24 hrs Pyganic (OMRI) 3A oz 12 hrs 0 0 Malathion 57EC 1B pts 12 hrs *Malathion 8 F 1B up to 2.5 pts 12 hrs Imidan 70WP 1B 1.3 lbs 24 hrs Delegate WG 5 6 oz 4 hrs SpinTor 2SC 5 6 oz 4 hrs Entrust 80 W (OMRI) 5 2 oz 4 hrs * 24c Special Local Need Registration for MS

19 When applying longer residual insecticides, consider any International MRL Restrictions (ppm) where fruit are intended for export.

20 Maximum Residue Limits in ppm (MRL) for Select Insecticides on Cultivated Blueberry Insecticide Product 1 (trade name) USA CANADA JAPAN EUROPE (EU) TAIWAN KOREA Brigade 10WSB 1.80 *0.1 * Mustang Max 0.80 * *0.1 *0.1 Danitol 2.4EC Malathion 57EC Imidan 70WP Delegate WG * Entrust 80 W * White cells indicate limits more restrictive than USA * Default MRL From: Pesticide MRL Database (

21 Longer residual control harder on beneficial insects such as bees and natural enemies.

22 Pollinator & Natural Enemy Conservation Apply insecticides during decreased bee activity like dusk In the row middles, reduce any flowering weeds that bees and beneficial wasps might visit for food

23 Important Natural Enemies of SWD Leptopilina boulardi Larval parasitoid Host specialist Parasitized pupae

24 Important Natural Enemies of SWD Trichopria drosophilae Pupal parasitoid Host generalist

25 SUBSTRATE VIBRATIONS AS A SOURCE OF MATING DISRUPTION From: Mazzoni, Anfora & Virant-Doberlet, Nov. 2013

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