UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012

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1 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012

2 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 New York and Geneva, 2012

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4 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Abbreviations and acronyms... 7 Notes and sources... 8 Introduction List of countries and territories Developing countries and territories: dependency map average REGIONAL AGGREGATES Figure 1. Percentage of the regional labour force and the female regional labour force working in agriculture, average Figure 2. Ratio of commodity exports to total merchandise exports, by region, average Figure 3. Ratio of commodity exports to GDP, by region, average Figure 4. Developing countries agricultural exports, by region, average Figure 5. Developing countries fuel exports, by region, average Figure 6. Developing countries exports of minerals, ores and metals, by region, average Figure 7. Export concentration ratio, by region, average Figure 8. Composition of commodity exports, by region, average Figure 9. Composition of commodity imports, by region, average Figure 10. Net food import bill, regional aggregates, in million US$, average Figure 11. Commodity export dependence and export concentration ratio in developing countries and territories, average Figure 12. Commodity export dependence and export concentration ratio in developing coutries and territories, average INDIVIDUAL PROFILES OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mayotte Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe

5 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 Middle Africa Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Sao Tome and Principe Northern Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisia Southern Africa Botswana Lesotho Namibia South Africa Swaziland Western Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Côte d Ivoire Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Saint Helena Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Caribbean Anguilla Antigua And Barbuda Aruba Bahamas Barbados British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Cuba

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Haiti Jamaica Montserrat Netherlands Antilles Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands Central America Belize Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama South America Argentina Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Falkland Islands Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Eastern Asia China (Including Hong Kong Sar, Macao Sar, and Taiwan Province of China) Democratic People s Republic of Korea Mongolia Republic of Korea Southern Asia Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Iran (Islamic Republic of) Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

7 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 South-Eastern Asia Brunei Darussalam Cambodia Indonesia Lao People s Democratic Republic Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Leste Viet Nam Western Asia Bahrain Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic United Arab Emirates Turkey Yemen Oceania American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia (Federated States of) Nauru New Caledonia Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna

8 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS, Thousand separator. Decimal point Not available n.r. Not reliable - Zero ICAC International Cotton Advisory Committee ICCO International Cocoa Organization ICO International Coffee Organization ICSG International Copper Study Group IGC International Grains Council IJSG International Jute Study Group ILZSG International Lead and Zinc Study Group INBAR International Network for Bamboo and Rattan INSG International Nickel Study Group IOOC International Olive Council IRSG International Rubber Study Group ISO International Sugar Organization ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization 7

9 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 NOTES AND SOURCES The State of Commodity Dependence 2012 was prepared by the Special Unit on Commodities (SUC) of UNCTAD. This document aims to provide an individual country overview of the commodity-related situation of 154 developing countries. This publication also contains graphs which present a regional and global perspective of commodity dependence in the developing world over the period If you have any comments about this publication, please contact the Special Unit on Commodities at or call us on Data and computations regarding trade statistics (imports and exports) are based on UNCTAD s all allocated products category. UNCTAD s unallocated products category is not considered in the present document. Total area (square kilometres), 2009 Source: FAOSTAT, ResourceSTAT Series: Country area Unit: Square kilometre Data extracted: 22 September 2011 Note(s): Data extracted from FAOstat. In FAOstat, data are presented in 1,000 Ha. For convenience, data have been converted into square kilometres (1 Ha = 10 Km 2 ). Agricultural area (as a percentage of country area), 2009 Source: FAOSTAT, ResourceSTAT Series: Agricultural Area Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 14 November 2011 Note(s): Agricultural area, this category is the sum of areas under (a) arable land - land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (less cultivation is not included in this category. Data for Arable land are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable; (b) permanent crops - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and nurseries (except those for forest trees, which should to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land). Data are expressed Population (1,000 inhabitants), Source: FAOSTAT, PopSTAT Unit: 1,000 inhabitants Data extracted: 28 September 2011 Labour force (1,000 workers), Source: FAOSTAT, PopSTAT Series: Total population - Both sexes Total economically active population Unit: 1,000 workers Data extracted: 15 November 2011 Women in labour force (as a percentage of total labour force), Source: FAOSTAT, PopSTAT Series: Total economically active population Female economically active population Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 15 November 2011 Labour force in agriculture (as a percentage of total labour force), Source: FAOSTAT, PopSTAT Series: Total economically active population Total economically active population in agriculture Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 15 November 2011 Women in agriculture (as a percentage of labour force in agriculture), Source: FAOSTAT, PopSTAT Series: Total economically active population in agriculture Female economically active population in agriculture Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 15 November 2011 GDP, Gross domestic product (in millions of United States dollars at current prices and current exchange rates), Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Millions of United States dollars Data extracted: 7 October 2011 GDP by economic activity (as a percentage of GDP), 2009 (agriculture/industry/services) Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Series: Percentage of gross domestic product Unit: Percentage 8

10 NOTES AND SOURCES Data extracted: 7 October 2011 Note(s): The breakdown in percentages by kind of economic activity is shown as a percentage of total value added. The breakdown in percentages of GDP by type of expenditure may not add up to 100 per cent due to statistical discrepancies. Commodity exports (in millions of United States dollars and as a percentage of merchandise exports), Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: In millions of United States dollars and as a percentage Data extracted: 7 October 2011 Note(s): The breakdown in percentages may not add up to 100 per cent due to statistical discrepancies. Should be understood as the average over the period. When data were not available for, the average has been computed on the period. The reference period has been indicated in the margin. Data and computations are based on UNCTAD s all allocated products merchandise exports. UNCTAD s unallocated products category has not been considered in the present document, which may sometimes lead to differences with other sources of information. Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 14 November 2011 Note(s): Should be understood as the average over the period. When data were not available for, the average has been computed on the period. The reference period has been indicated in the margin. Data and computations are based on UNCTAD all allocated products merchandise exports. UNCTAD Unallocated products category has not been considered in the present document, which can sometimes lead to differences with other sources of information. Exports by commodity groups (as a percentage of Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 17 November 2011 Note(s): Should be understood as the average over the period. When data were not available for, the average has been computed on the period. The reference period has been indicated in the margin. The breakdown in percentages may not add up to 100 per cent due to statistical discrepancies. Composition of commodity groups (based on SITC rev 3) All food items ( ) Agricultural raw materials (2 - ( )) Fuels (3) Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold ( ) Three leading commodity exports (as a percentage of Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 16 November 2011 Note(s): Should be understood as the average over the period. When data were not available for, the average has been computed on the period. The reference period has been indicated in the margin. Leading destination markets for commodity exports (as a percentage of commodity exports), Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 16 November 2011 Note(s): Should be understood as the average over the period. When data were not available for, the average has been computed on the period. The reference period has been indicated in the margin. total commodity exports of the country being considered have been mentioned in the list. Export concentration ratio (2000, ) Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Data extracted: 12 October 2011 the degree of market concentration. It has been normalized to obtain values ranging from 0 to 1 (maximum concentration), according to the following formula: 9

11 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 International Rubber Study Group (IRSG): rubberstudy.com/ International Sugar Organization (ISO): org/ International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO): itto.int/ Hi = Value of concentration index for product i n= number of individual markets (countries) over the period from 1995 to An index value that is close to 1 indicates a very concentrated market, whereas values closer to 0 would demonstrate a homogeneous market between the exporters or importers. Data for Indonesia includes East Timor in 2000, and does not include it in. Regarding the British Virgin Islands, there have been no data since With regard to China, Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan (Province of China), data have been disaggregated. Membership in international commodity bodies Source: Websites of the various institutions Data extracted: 12 October 2011 Note(s): International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC): International Cocoa Organization (ICCO): International Coffee Organization (ICO): International Copper Study Group (ICSG): International Grains Council (IGC): International Jute Study Group (IJSG): International Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG): ilzsg.org/ International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR): International Nickel Study Group (INSG): International Olive Council (IOOC): Commodity import value (in millions of United States dollars and as a percentage of merchandise import value), Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Millions of United States dollars, and percentage Data extracted: 23 November 2011 Net food imports (in millions of United States dollars), Source: UNCTAD, UNCTADstat Unit: Millions of United States dollars Data extracted: 23 November 2011 MDG 1.1: Percentage of population below 1 United States dollar (PPP) per day, Source: UNSD, Millennium Development Goals indicators Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 9 November 2011 Note(s): Regarding China (including Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan, Province of China), the data available is that of China, as data for other areas are not available. MDG 1.9: Percentage of the population undernourished, 1991 Source: UNSD, Millennium Development Goals indicators Unit: Percentage Data extracted: 9 November 2011 Note(s): Regarding China (including Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan, Province of China), the data available is that of China, as data for other areas are not available. 10

12 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION constitutes the key economic activity in most Commodity Dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs) in terms of foreign their export earnings; moreover half of the countries in Africa derive over 80 per cent of their merchandise export income from without taking into account the imperative of commodity-based development. The policy challenge for commodity-exporting G20 during 2011). [UNCTAD Commodities and Development Report 2012] 11

13 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 LIST OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES DEVELOPING ECONOMIES: AFRICA Developing economies: Eastern Africa Burundi* Comoros* Djibouti* Eritrea* Ethiopia* Kenya Madagascar* Malawi* Mauritius Mayotte Mozambique* Rwanda* Seychelles Somalia* Uganda* United Republic of Tanzania* Zambia* Zimbabwe Developing economies: Middle Africa Angola* Cameroon Central African Republic* Chad* Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo* Equatorial Guinea* Gabon Sao Tome and Principe* Developing economies: Northern Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan* Tunisia Developing economies: Southern Africa Botswana Lesotho* Namibia South Africa Swaziland Developing economies: Western Africa Benin* Burkina Faso* Cape Verde* b Côte d Ivoire Gambia* Ghana Guinea* Guinea-Bissau* Liberia* Mali* Mauritania* Niger* Nigeria Saint Helena Senegal* Sierra Leone* Suriname Togo* Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) DEVELOPING ECONOMIES: AMERICA Developing economies: Caribbean Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas Barbados British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Haiti* Jamaica Montserrat Netherlands Antilles Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands Developing economies: Central America Belize Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras 12

14 LIST OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES Mexico Nicaragua Panama Developing economies: South America Argentina Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Falkland Islands Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) DEVELOPING ECONOMIES: ASIA Developing economies: Eastern Asia China China, Hong Kong SAR China, Macao SAR China, Taiwan Province of Democratic People s Republic of Korea Mongolia Republic of Korea Developing economies: Southern Asia Afghanistan* Bangladesh* Bhutan* India Iran (Islamic Republic of) Maldives* a Nepal* Pakistan Sri Lanka Developing economies: South-Eastern Asia Brunei Darussalam Cambodia* Indonesia Lao People s Democratic Republic* Malaysia Myanmar* Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Leste* Viet Nam Developing economies: Western Asia Bahrain Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen* DEVELOPING ECONOMIES: OCEANIA American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam Kiribati* Marshall Islands Micronesia (Federated States of) Nauru New Caledonia Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa* Solomon Islands* Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu* Vanuatu* Wallis and Futuna Source: UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics,. Notes: * Member of the group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs). a) Maldives has not been a member of the LDC group since for Maldives are included with those of the LDCs. b) Cape Verde has not been a member of the LDC group since 21 December Consequently, in the present report, the statistics for Cape Verde are not included with those of the LDCs. 13

15 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES: DEPENDENCY MAP average 0%-20% 20%-40% 40%-60% 60%-80% 80%-100% Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat. Note: commodity exports as a percentage of total merchandise exports data for are estimates by the UNCTAD Secretariat 14

16 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES: DEPENDENCY MAP DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES: DEPENDENCY MAP average 0%-20% 20%-40% 40%-60% 60%-80% 80%-100% Antigua and Barbuda, Cayman Islands, Saint Kitts and Nevis Anguilla, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turks and Caicos Islands Bahamas, Dominica, Monserrat Saint Lucia Aruba, Netherlands Antilles 0%-20% 20%-40% 40%-60% 60%-80% 80%-100% Mayotte Brunei Darussalam, Maldives, Seychelles, Timor Leste 0%-20% 20%-40% 40%-60% 60%-80% 80%-100% Niue, Wallis and Futuna Guam, Marshall Islands, New Caledonia, Samoa, Tuvalu, Tokelau, American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Nauru Kiribati, Micronesia, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu 15

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18 REGIONAL AGGREGATES1

19 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 FIGURE 1. PERCENTAGE OF THE REGIONAL LABOUR FORCE AND THE FEMALE REGIONAL LABOUR FORCE WORKING IN AGRICULTURE, AVERAGE 100% 90% 80% The percentage of the population working in agriculture worldwide is: 24%. The percentage of women working in agriculture worldwide is: 23%. 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Eastern Africa Oceania Least Developed Countries Middle Africa Southern Asia Western Africa South-Eastern Asia Northern Africa Western Asia World Caribbean Central America South America Southern Africa Eastern Asia Share of population working in agriculture Share of women working in agriculture Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat FIGURE 2. RATIO OF COMMODITY EXPORTS TO TOTAL MERCHANDISE EXPORTS, BY REGION, AVERAGE 100% 90% 80% 98% 93% 84% 79% 78% 77% 75% 74% 70% 60% 50% 62% 61% 52% 40% 30% 20% 33% 27% 10% 0% Middle Africa Western Africa Oceania Northern Africa Least Developed Countries Eastern Africa South America Western Asia Caribbean Southern Africa Southern Asia The red line indicates the world average. In this graph: 31% South-Eastern Asia Central America 8% Eastern Asia Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat 18

20 REGIONAL AGGREGATES FIGURE 3. RATIO OF COMMODITY EXPORTS TO GDP, BY REGION, AVERAGE 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 64% 50% 40% 30% 30% 28% 22% 21% 20% 18% 20% 10% 15% 13% 11% 10% 8% 7% 3% 0% Middle Africa Western Asia Western Africa Least developed countries Oceania Northern Africa South-Eastern Asia Southern Africa Eastern Africa South America Caribbean Southern Asia Central America Eastern Asia The red line indicates the world average. In this graph: 7% Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat FIGURE 4. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS, BY REGION, AVERAGE 35% 30% 25% 20% 29% 25% 15% 14% 10% 5% 0% 7% 6% 6% 4% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 0.5% South America South-Eastern Asia Eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia Central America Least developed countries Western Africa Eastern Africa Northern Africa Southern Africa Caribbean Middle Africa Oceania Developing countries accounted for 37% of world agricultural exports in Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat 19

21 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 FIGURE 5. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FUEL EXPORTS, BY REGION, AVERAGE 50% 40% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 12% 9% 9% 9% 6% 6% 6% 5% 3% 1% 1% 0.1% 0.1% Western Asia South-Eastern Asia Northern Africa South America Southern Asia Least developed countries Middle Africa Eastern Asia Western Africa Central America Caribbean Southern Africa Eastern Africa Oceania Developing countries accounted for 58% of world fuel exports in Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat FIGURE 6. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES EXPORTS OF MINERALS, ORES AND METALS, BY REGION, AVERAGE 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 26% 20% 19% 15% 13% 10% 5% 11% 10% 9% 5% 4% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% South America Eastern Asia Western Asia South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Southern Africa Least developed countries Central America Eastern Africa Western Africa Northern Africa Middle Africa Oceania Caribbean Developing countries accounted for 46% of world exports of minerals, ores and metals in Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat 20

22 REGIONAL AGGREGATES FIGURE 7. EXPORT CONCENTRATION RATIO, BY REGION, AVERAGE Middle Africa Western Africa Western Asia Least developed countries Northern Africa Oceania Southern Asia Caribbean South America Eastern Africa Southern Africa The red line indicates the world average. In this graph: South-Eastern Asia Central America Eastern Asia Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat FIGURE 8. COMPOSITION OF COMMODITY EXPORTS, BY REGION, AVERAGE Breakdown of commodity exports, by group (%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 16% 69% 7% Africa 358,064 26% 35% 19% America and the Caribbean 436,875 1,237,742 16% 64% 10% Asia 50% 15% 17% Oceania 6,850 16% 67% 8% Least developed countries 113,304 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , ,000 Commodity exports (million US$) Minerals, ores and metals Fuels Agricultural products Commodity expots (million US$) Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat 21

23 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 FIGURE 9. COMPOSITION OF COMMODITY IMPORTS, BY REGION, AVERAGE Breakdown of commodity imports, by group (%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 9% 10% 43% 49% 51% 39% 29% 47% 24% 2% 7% 45% 37% 53% 56% 112, ,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, ,000 Commodity imports (million US$) Africa America and the Caribbean Asia Oceania Least developed countries Minerals, ores and metals Fuels Agricultural products Commodity expots (million US$) Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat FIGURE 10. NET FOOD IMPORT BILL, REGIONAL AGGREGATES, IN MILLION US$, AVERAGE 100,000 50, , ,000 6,312 16, ,013-2,024-2,422 46,187 35,522 3,118-40,066-92, , ,000 Eastern Africa Middle Africa Northern Africa Southern Africa Western Africa Caribbean Central America South America Net food imports Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania Least developed countries Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat 22

24 REGIONAL AGGREGATES FIGURE 11. AND EXPORT CONCENTRATION RATIO IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES, AVERAGE Concentration index Dependency rate = Commodities / merchandise exports Agri. Commodity exporting countries Fuel exporting countries Minerals, ores and metals exporting countries Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat FIGURE 12. AND EXPORT CONCENTRATION RATIO IN DEVELOPING COUTRIES AND TERRITORIES, AVERAGE Concentration index Dependency rate = Commodities / merchandise exports Agri. Commodity exporting countries Fuel exporting countries Minerals, ores and metals exporting countries Source: Special Unit on Commodities, UNCTAD, using data from UNCTADstat 23

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26 INDIVIDUAL PROFILES OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES2

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28 EAST AFRICA

29 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BURUNDI COMOROS Total area (square kilometres), ,830 Total area (square kilometres), ,860 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 8,383 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 735 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,192 Labour force (1,000 workers), 320 force), agriculture), force), 56 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,400 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 536 merchandise exports), /15/40 74 (91%) merchandise exports), /10/41 Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 79 All food items 95 Agricultural raw materials 5 Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels 2 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 15 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 83 (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 61 (075) Spices 92 (074) Tea and mate 12 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 2 concentrates) (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 10 (03) Fishery products 2 percentage of 77 percentage of EU (27), Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, Kenya, Pakistan 43/13/9/6/6 EU (27), Singapore, India, United States, United Arab Emirates 41/25/16/6/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () (29%) Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, INBAR Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (22%) percentage of merchandise import value), (40%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 5 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

30 EAST AFRICA DJIBOUTI ERITREA Total area (square kilometres), ,200 Total area (square kilometres), ,600 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 889 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 5,254 Labour force (1,000 workers), 385 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,098 force), agriculture), force), 46 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,010 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 2,136 merchandise exports), /18/78 60 (85%) merchandise exports), /19/57 Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 75 All food items 71 Agricultural raw materials 2 Agricultural raw materials 25 Fuels 8 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 14 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 55 (022) Milk, cream and milk products (excluding butter, cheese) 24 (001) Live animals other than animals of division (001) Live animals other than animals of division (03) Fishery products 14 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 8 (211) Hides and skins (except furskins), raw 10 Leading destination markets for commodity exports (as a percentage of 78 percentage of Somalia, Ethiopia, Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates 33/14/13/9/9 EU (27), Saudi Arabia, Sudan, China, Turkey 27/22/19/9/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () (46%) Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (35%) percentage of merchandise import value), (42%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 82 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

31 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 ETHIOPIA KENYA Total area (square kilometres), ,104,300 Total area (square kilometres), ,370 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 82,950 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 40,513 Labour force (1,000 workers), 40,930 Labour force (1,000 workers), 18,724 force), agriculture), force), 46 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 26,680 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 32,152 merchandise exports), /13/41 1,892 (90%) merchandise exports), /18/54 3,110 (65%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 81 All food items 65 Agricultural raw materials 10 Agricultural raw materials 22 Fuels Fuels 7 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 9 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 6 67 (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 30 (074) Tea and mate 27 (054) Vegetables 19 (292) Crude vegetable materials, n.e.s (054) Vegetables 9 percentage of 64 percentage of EU (27), China, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland 29/12/10/7/6 EU (27), Egypt, Uganda, Pakistan, United Republic of Tanzania Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), /7/5/5/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 2,644 (30%) percentage of merchandise import value), INBAR, ICO, IGC, ICAC, ISO 4,134 (37%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

32 EAST AFRICA MADAGASCAR MALAWI Total area (square kilometres), ,040 Total area (square kilometres), ,480 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 20,714 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 14,901 Labour force (1,000 workers), 10,344 Labour force (1,000 workers), 6,213 force), agriculture), force), 53 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 8,790 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 5,196 merchandise exports), /20/ (50%) merchandise exports), /16/55 1,011 (90%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), commodity exports), All food items 64 All food items 93 Agricultural raw materials 11 Agricultural raw materials 4 Fuels 6 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 19 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 3 57 (03) Fishery products 26 (121) Tobacco, unmanufactured; tobacco refuse 65 (075) Spices 20 (074) Tea and mate 8 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 11 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 7 percentage of 80 percentage of EU (27), China, Canada, Singapore, United States 52/15/5/4/4 EU (27), Egypt, South Africa, Canada, United States 40/8/7/6/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR Membership in international commodity bodies ISO percentage of merchandise import value), (25%) percentage of merchandise import value), (25%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 48 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

33 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 MAURITIUS MAYOTTE Total area (square kilometres), ,040 Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,299 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 204 Labour force (1,000 workers), 590 Labour force (1,000 workers), 89 force), agriculture), 37 8 force), 25 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 9,512 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), merchandise exports), /27/ (40%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 89 All food items 76 Agricultural raw materials 3 Agricultural raw materials Fuels Fuels 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 8 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (03) Fishery products 40 (03) Fishery products 57 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 35 (288) Non-ferrous base metal waste and scrap, n.e.s. 14 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 6 (111) Non-alcoholic beverages, n.e.s. 9 percentage of 88 percentage of EU (27), United States, Madagascar, Japan, South Africa 75/6/5/1/1 EU (27), Indonesia, Comoros, India, Singapore 69/13/10/6/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () (17%) Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,784 (44%) percentage of merchandise import value), (29%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 239 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

34 EAST AFRICA MOZAMBIQUE RWANDA Total area (square kilometres), ,380 Total area (square kilometres), ,340 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 23,391 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 10,624 Labour force (1,000 workers), 10,772 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,879 force), agriculture), force), 65 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 9,159 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 5,645 merchandise exports), /25/47 1,835 (93%) merchandise exports), /15/ (88%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 22 All food items 70 Agricultural raw materials 5 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 21 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 52 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (684) Aluminium 46 (074) Tea and mate 30 (351) Electric current 11 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 28 (121) Tobacco, unmanufactured; tobacco refuse 6 (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 25 percentage of 87 percentage of EU (27), South Africa, China, Zimbabwe, India 55/19/7/3/3 Kenya, EU (27), China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, United States Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICAC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), /16/10/10/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 1,253 (38%) percentage of merchandise import value), INBAR 360 (26%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 149 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

35 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SEYCHELLES SOMALIA Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), ,660 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 87 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 9,331 Labour force (1,000 workers), 40 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3,719 force), agriculture), force), 50 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 935 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,012 merchandise exports), /16/ (88%) merchandise exports), /7/ (99%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 86 All food items 46 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 21 Fuels 13 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (03) Fishery products 82 (001) Live animals other than animals of division (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 12 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 32 concentrates) 1 (24+25) Forestry products 18 percentage of 93 percentage of EU (27), Japan, Thailand, Madagascar, Mauritius 72/11/5/3/2 United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain 60/22/6/6/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (49%) percentage of merchandise import value), (70%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

36 EAST AFRICA UGANDA UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA Total area (square kilometres), ,550 Total area (square kilometres), ,300 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 33,425 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 44,841 Labour force (1,000 workers), 14,731 Labour force (1,000 workers), 22,241 force), agriculture), force), 50 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 18,372 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 24,568 merchandise exports), /25/52 1,564 (70%) merchandise exports), /23/47 2,874 (83%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 82 All food items 41 Agricultural raw materials 9 Agricultural raw materials 9 Fuels 2 Fuels 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 7 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 30 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 22 concentrates) (03) Fishery products 13 (289) Ores & concentrates of precious metals; waste, scrap 14 (121) Tobacco, unmanufactured; tobacco refuse 7 (03) Fishery products 7 percentage of EU (27), Sudan, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), percentage of 42/11/10/5/4 EU (27), China, India, United Arab Emirates, Switzerland 21/17/11/9/9 INBAR, ICO, ICAC, ISO Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 1,289 (29%) percentage of merchandise import value), INBAR, ICO, ICAC, ISO 2,377 (33%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

37 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE Total area (square kilometres), ,610 Total area (square kilometres), ,760 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 13,089 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 12,571 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5,083 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5,537 force), agriculture), force), 46 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 15,834 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,056 merchandise exports), /33/46 5,069 (89%) merchandise exports), /21/62 1,814 (75%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 9 All food items 40 Agricultural raw materials 2 Agricultural raw materials 23 Fuels 1 Fuels 10 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 88 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (682) Copper 80 (284) Nickel ores & concentrates; nickel mattes, etc. 17 (283) Copper ores and concentrates; copper mattes, cemen 5 (121) Tobacco, unmanufactured; tobacco refuse 15 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 2 (263) Cotton 9 percentage of 79 percentage of Switzerland, China, South Africa, EU (27), Republic of Korea 31/31/8/5/4 South Africa, EU (27), Democratic Republic of the Congo, China, Botswana Export concentration ratio (2000) () /22/11/7/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, ICAC, ISO Membership in international commodity bodies ICAC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), ,672 (37%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,449 (45%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

38 MIDDLE AFRICA

39 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 ANGOLA CAMEROON Total area (square kilometres), ,246,700 Total area (square kilometres), ,440 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 19,082 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 19,599 Labour force (1,000 workers), 8,489 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7,482 force), agriculture), force), 55 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 39,545 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 22,423 merchandise exports), /71/21 44,502 (100%) merchandise exports), /31/47 3,314 (89%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), n.r. Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items All food items 26 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 17 Fuels 99 Fuels 53 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 99 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 97 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 41 (971) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 1 (072) Cocoa 16 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 1 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 12 percentage of 92 percentage of China, United States, EU (27), India, South Africa 45/27/12/4/4 EU (27), China, United States, Chad, India 64/9/7/4/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, IRSG, ICAC, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,031 (21%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,247 (47%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 4,425 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

40 MIDDLE AFRICA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CHAD Total area (square kilometres), ,980 Total area (square kilometres), ,284,000 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 4,401 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 11,227 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,983 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,511 force), agriculture), force), 50 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 2,013 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 7,711 merchandise exports), /15/ (90%) merchandise exports), /54/26 2,881 (96%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 7 All food items Agricultural raw materials 49 Agricultural raw materials 3 Fuels Fuels 97 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 44 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 83 (24+25) Forestry products 41 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 89 (971) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 27 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 (277) Natural abrasives, n.e.s. (incl. industri. diamonds) 15 (263) Cotton 2 percentage of 88 percentage of EU (27), China, Morocco, Indonesia, Turkey 56/13/9/7/3 United States, China, EU (27) 82/11/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, ITTO Membership in international commodity bodies ICAC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), (45%) percentage of merchandise import value), (24%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 68 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

41 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 CONGO DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO Total area (square kilometres), ,000 Total area (square kilometres), ,344,860 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 4,043 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 65,966 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,640 Labour force (1,000 workers), 24,808 force), agriculture), force), 56 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 11,957 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,204 merchandise exports), /74/22 6,922 (99%) merchandise exports), /28/31 4,212 (96%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 1 All food items 1 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 3 Fuels 86 Fuels 16 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 9 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 79 (682) Copper 28 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 5 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 21 (24+25) Forestry products 4 (283) Copper ores and concentrates; copper mattes, cemen 14 percentage of 94 percentage of United States, China, EU (27), India, Taiwan Province of China 39/29/17/6/3 China, Zambia, EU (27), United States 48/21/14/12 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO, ITTO Membership in international commodity bodies ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (26%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,500 (37%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 467 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

42 MIDDLE AFRICA EQUATORIAL GUINEA GABON Total area (square kilometres), ,050 Total area (square kilometres), ,670 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 700 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,505 Labour force (1,000 workers), 274 Labour force (1,000 workers), 711 force), agriculture), force), 42 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 14,042 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 13,443 merchandise exports), /93/4 9,268 (98%) merchandise exports), /62/34 6,580 (96%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items All food items 1 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 13 Fuels 99 Fuels 78 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold - Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 9 99 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 81 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude (24+25) Forestry products 12 3 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 8 percentage of 84 percentage of United States, EU (27), China, Canada, Japan 33/25/11/8/7 United States, China, EU (27), Trinidad and Tobago, Thailand 49/14/12/4/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies ICCO, ICO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,269 (42%) percentage of merchandise import value), (24%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 255 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

43 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 165 Labour force (1,000 workers), force), 50 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), /21/ (47%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 93 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 4 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 2 92 (072) Cocoa 86 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 4 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 2 95 percentage of EU (27), Angola, Nigeria 88/4/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 54 (51%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 /

44 NORTHERN AFRICA

45 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 ALGERIA EGYPT Total area (square kilometres), ,381,740 Total area (square kilometres), ,001,450 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 35,468 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 81,121 Labour force (1,000 workers), 14,968 Labour force (1,000 workers), 26,383 force), agriculture), force), 53 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 159,914 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 214,406 merchandise exports), /62/30 50,696 (99%) merchandise exports), /38/49 14,685 (58%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items All food items 29 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 4 Fuels 97 Fuels 49 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 50 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 10 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 11 percentage of 87 percentage of EU (27), United States, Canada, Turkey, Brazil 48/25/6/4/4 EU (27), India, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syrian Arab Republic 28/8/5/4/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, IOOC Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, ICAC, IOOC, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,396 (21%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,454 (38%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 6,364 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 5, /92 / /92 /

46 NORTHERN AFRICA LIBYA MOROCCO Total area (square kilometres), ,759,540 Total area (square kilometres), ,550 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6,355 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 31,951 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,334 Labour force (1,000 workers), 11,798 force), agriculture), 25 3 force), 70 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 71,670 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 90,913 merchandise exports), /72/25 40,429 (97%) merchandise exports), /27/59 5,998 (38%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items All food items 59 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 4 Fuels 99 Fuels 10 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 81 (03) Fishery products 22 8 (054) Vegetables 14 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 (272) Crude fertilizers (excluding those of division 56) 13 percentage of 93 percentage of EU (27), China, United States, Turkey, Tunisia 78/7/5/2/1 EU (27), United States, Russian Federation, Japan, Brazil 54/6/5/3/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies IOOC Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, ILZSG, IOOC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), ,388 (28%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,058 (38%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 4,030 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

47 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SUDAN TUNISIA Total area (square kilometres), ,505,810 Total area (square kilometres), ,610 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 43,552 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 10,481 Labour force (1,000 workers), 13,825 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3,917 force), agriculture), force), 39 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 69,494 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 40,259 merchandise exports), /29/42 9,079 (99%) merchandise exports), /34/55 4,046 (26%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 4 All food items 36 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels 88 Fuels 56 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 6 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 6 94 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 80 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 46 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 14 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 6 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 9 percentage of 89 percentage of China, Japan, Indonesia. United Arab Emirates, India 61/14/6/5/3 EU (27), Libya, United States, Morocco, Switzerland 72/6/5/2/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICAC Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, IGC, IOOC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), ,068 (21%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,246 (26%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1,287 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

48 SOUTHERN AFRICA

49 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BOTSWANA LESOTHO Total area (square kilometres), ,730 Total area (square kilometres), ,360 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,007 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,171 Labour force (1,000 workers), 753 Labour force (1,000 workers), 933 force), agriculture), force), 56 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 14,015 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,997 merchandise exports), /40/57 3,410 (84%) merchandise exports), /34/ (31%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 7 All food items 1 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials - Fuels 1 Fuels - Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 92 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 75 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 99 (284) Nickel ores & concentrates; nickel mattes, etc. 14 (011) Meat of bovine animals, fresh, chilled or frozen 4 percentage of 84 percentage of EU (27), South Africa, Israel, Zimbabwe, China 68/6/5/3/2 EU (27), South Africa 82/18 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (33%) percentage of merchandise import value), (58%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 422 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

50 SOUTHERN AFRICA NAMIBIA SOUTH AFRICA Total area (square kilometres), ,290 Total area (square kilometres), ,219,090 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,283 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 50,133 Labour force (1,000 workers), 795 Labour force (1,000 workers), 18,357 force), agriculture), force), 44 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 11,865 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 361,276 merchandise exports), /33/57 2,615 (73%) merchandise exports), /31/66 44,546 (60%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 26 All food items 15 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 4 Fuels 2 Fuels 17 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 70 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (286) Ores and concentrates of uranium or thorium 24 (681) Silver, platinum, other metals of the platinum group 21 (03) Fishery products 20 (321) Coal, whether or not pulverized, not agglomerated 13 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 14 (281) Iron ore and concentrates 11 percentage of 83 percentage of EU (27), China, United States, Canada, South Africa 41/15/13/8/6 EU (27), China, Japan, United States, India 32/15/10/7/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ILZSG Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, ILZSG, ICAC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), (21%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,426 (20%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 2, /92 / /92 /

51 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SWAZILAND Total area (square kilometres), ,360 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,186 Labour force (1,000 workers), force), 54 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 3,927 8/45/ (41%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 82 Agricultural raw materials 11 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 6 69 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 47 (098) Edible products and preparations, n.e.s. 14 (24+25) Forestry products 8 70 percentage of EU (27), New Zealand, Australia, United States, Nigeria 46/8/7/5/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO 338 (55%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 /

52 WESTERN AFRICA

53 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BENIN BURKINA FASO Total area (square kilometres), ,620 Total area (square kilometres), ,220 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 8,850 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 16,469 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3,614 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7,505 force), agriculture), force), 41 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 6,594 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 8,341 merchandise exports), /14/51 1,185 (91%) merchandise exports), /24/42 1,023 (94%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 24 All food items 20 Agricultural raw materials 45 Agricultural raw materials 45 Fuels 19 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 12 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (263) Cotton 38 (263) Cotton 44 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 17 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 35 concentrates) (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 8 9 percentage of 73 percentage of China, India, EU (27), Mali, Nigeria 25/16/15/12/5 Switzerland, EU (27), China, Singapore, Thailand 24/17/13/12/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR Membership in international commodity bodies ICAC percentage of merchandise import value), ,204 (57%) percentage of merchandise import value), (39%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 394 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

54 WESTERN AFRICA CAPE VERDE CÔTE D IVOIRE Total area (square kilometres), ,030 Total area (square kilometres), ,460 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 496 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 19,738 Labour force (1,000 workers), 190 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7,422 force), agriculture), force), 41 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,643 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 22,769 merchandise exports), /17/74 29 (70%) merchandise exports), /28/45 8,507 (85%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 98 All food items 53 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 9 Fuels Fuels 36 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 2 99 (03) Fishery products 96 (072) Cocoa 39 (112) Alcoholic beverages 2 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 17 (282) Ferrous waste, scrape; remelting ingots, iron, steel 1 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 15 percentage of 97 percentage of EU (27), United States, Brazil 94/1/1 EU (27), United States, Nigeria, Ghana, Canada 46/11/7/5/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies ICCO, ICO, IGC, IRSG, ICAC, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (43%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,620 (52%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 162 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 2, /92 / /92 /

55 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 GAMBIA GHANA Total area (square kilometres), ,300 Total area (square kilometres), ,540 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,728 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 24,392 Labour force (1,000 workers), 796 Labour force (1,000 workers), 11,143 force), agriculture), force), 54 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 977 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 17,814 merchandise exports), /17/56 12 (82%) merchandise exports), /28/37 6,209 (90%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 78 All food items 61 Agricultural raw materials 3 Agricultural raw materials 8 Fuels Fuels 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 19 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold commodity exports), (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 42 (072) Cocoa (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 14 concentrates) (03) Fishery products 8 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 10 percentage of 86 percentage of India, EU (27), China, Senegal, Guinea 41/26/10/5/4 EU (27), South Africa, Ukraine, United States, India 43/12/9/5/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, ICO, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (46%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,275 (35%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 82 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 3, /92 / /92 /

56 WESTERN AFRICA GUINEA GUINEA-BISSAU Total area (square kilometres), ,860 Total area (square kilometres), ,130 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 9,982 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,515 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,803 Labour force (1,000 workers), 564 force), agriculture), force), 50 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 4,737 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 835 merchandise exports), /41/34 1,131 (85%) merchandise exports), /14/ (99%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 9 All food items 92 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 18 Fuels 6 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 70 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 78 (285) Aluminium ores and concentrates (incl. alumina) 51 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 91 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 17 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 6 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 10 (282) Ferrous waste, scrape; remelting ingots, iron, steel 1 percentage of 84 percentage of EU (27), India, Russian Federation, United States, Ukraine 40/19/12/8/5 India, United States, Singapore, EU (27) 89/6/2/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (40%) percentage of merchandise import value), (60%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 181 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

57 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 LIBERIA MALI Total area (square kilometres), ,370 Total area (square kilometres), ,240,190 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 3,994 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 15,370 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,472 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,069 force), agriculture), force), 44 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 949 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 9,121 merchandise exports), /13/ (62%) merchandise exports), /20/40 1,628 (88%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 3 All food items 9 Agricultural raw materials 56 Agricultural raw materials 30 Fuels 19 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 22 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (231) Natural rubber & similar gums, in primary forms 54 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 59 concentrates) (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 13 (263) Cotton 30 concentrates) (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 10 (001) Live animals other than animals of division 03 4 percentage of United States, EU (27), United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Canada Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 35/19/12/10/9 South Africa, China, EU (27), Thailand, Senegal 55/9/6/5/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, ITTO Membership in international commodity bodies ICAC percentage of merchandise import value), (7%) percentage of merchandise import value), (36%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 7 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

58 WESTERN AFRICA MAURITANIA NIGER Total area (square kilometres), ,030,700 Total area (square kilometres), ,267,000 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 3,460 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 15,512 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,480 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5,111 force), agriculture), force), 54 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 3,572 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 5,550 merchandise exports), /38/44 1,606 (100%) merchandise exports), /16/ (68%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 28 All food items 42 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 6 Fuels 13 Fuels 18 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 59 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (281) Iron ore and concentrates 45 (286) Ores and concentrates of uranium or thorium 28 (03) Fishery products 26 (001) Live animals other than animals of division (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 13 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 11 percentage of 90 percentage of China, EU (27), Japan, Côte d Ivoire, Cameroon 41/34/6/6/3 Nigeria, United States, EU (27), Japan, Ghana 33/23/22/6/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (44%) percentage of merchandise import value), (36%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 35 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

59 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 NIGERIA SAINT HELENA Total area (square kilometres), ,770 Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 158,423 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 4 Labour force (1,000 workers), 49,319 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1 force), agriculture), force), 39 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 222,070 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), merchandise exports), /34/29 57,956 (97%) merchandise exports), (68%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 3 All food items 78 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials Fuels 95 Fuels 21 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 94 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 83 (03) Fishery products 75 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 6 (321) Coal, whether or not pulverized, not agglomerated 21 5 (073) Chocolate, food preparations with cocoa, n.e.s. 1 percentage of 81 percentage of United States, EU (27), India, Brazil, South Africa 36/24/10/8/3 United States, Japan, EU (27), Indonesia 44/29/24/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, IRSG, ICAC, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 8,993 (23%) percentage of merchandise import value), (53%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 4,353 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

60 WESTERN AFRICA SENEGAL SIERRA LEONE Total area (square kilometres), ,720 Total area (square kilometres), ,740 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 12,434 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 5,868 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5,440 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,209 force), agriculture), force), 47 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 12,834 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 2,273 merchandise exports), /21/60 1,379 (66%) merchandise exports), /5/ (69%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 47 All food items 24 Agricultural raw materials 2 Agricultural raw materials 3 Fuels 38 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 13 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 37 (971) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 35 (03) Fishery products 21 (285) Aluminium ores and concentrates (incl. alumina) 18 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 7 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 13 percentage of 55 percentage of EU (27), Mali, Côte d Ivoire, Switzerland, China 26/19/4/3/3 EU (27), United States, China, India, Côte d Ivoire 74/10/4/2/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, ICO percentage of merchandise import value), ,465 (52%) percentage of merchandise import value), (71%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 386 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

61 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 TOGO Total area (square kilometres), ,790 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6,028 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2, force), 41 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 3,205 47/19/ (61%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 40 Agricultural raw materials 14 Fuels 20 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (072) Cocoa 19 (272) Crude fertilizers (excluding those of division 56) 18 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil percentage of EU (27), India, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin 25/14/10/7/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, ICO, ICAC, ITTO 681 (45%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 /

62 CARIBBEAN

63 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 ANGUILLA ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 15 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 89 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7 Labour force (1,000 workers), 39 force), agriculture), force), - agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 224 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,118 merchandise exports), /23/ (25%) merchandise exports), /26/ (10%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 85 All food items 63 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 9 Fuels Fuels 20 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 14 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 8 69 (112) Alcoholic beverages 53 (091) Margarine and shortening 19 (059) Fruit and vegetable juices, unfermented, no spirit 10 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 11 (684) Aluminium 6 (03) Fishery products 5 percentage of 99 percentage of EU (27), Mexico, Guyana, United States 31/26/26/16 Nigeria, EU (27), Republic of Korea, Guyana, Netherlands Antilles Export concentration ratio (2000) () /13/7/2/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (17%) percentage of merchandise import value), (22%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 18 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

64 CARIBBEAN ARUBA BAHAMAS Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), ,880 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 107 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 343 Labour force (1,000 workers), 46 Labour force (1,000 workers), 185 force), agriculture), force), 22 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 2,611 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 7,232 merchandise exports), /20/ (95%) merchandise exports), /18/ (57%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 12 All food items 18 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 85 Fuels 75 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 6 91 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 81 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 73 (112) Alcoholic beverages 7 (112) Alcoholic beverages 10 (122) Tobacco, manufactured 3 (03) Fishery products 7 percentage of 82 percentage of United States, EU (27), Brazil, Colombia, Panama 55/11/7/5/4 United States, Singapore, EU (27), Dominican Republic, Guatemala Export concentration ratio (2000) () /30/12/8/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (44%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,180 (43%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 179 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

65 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BARBADOS BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 273 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 23 Labour force (1,000 workers), 165 Labour force (1,000 workers), 10 force), agriculture), 47 2 force), 50 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 3,658 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,328 merchandise exports), /17/ (33%) merchandise exports), /11/88 Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 65 All food items Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials Fuels 31 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 48 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 21 no information available (112) Alcoholic beverages 19 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 percentage of 69 percentage of Nigeria, Brazil, EU (27), Trinidad and Tobago, United States 18/16/15/12/8 no information available Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (54%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), 272 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1990/92 / /92 /

66 CARIBBEAN CAYMAN ISLANDS CUBA Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), ,890 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 56 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 11,258 Labour force (1,000 workers), 24 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5,268 force), agriculture), force), 20 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,078 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,917 merchandise exports), /9/ (5%) merchandise exports), /20/75 2,296 (77%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 19 All food items 48 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 50 Fuels 6 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 31 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 31 (284) Nickel ores & concentrates; nickel mattes, etc. 43 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 24 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 23 (321) Coal, whether or not pulverized, not agglomerated 17 (122) Tobacco, manufactured 11 percentage of 92 percentage of Guyana, EU (27), Malaysia, United States, Colombia 32/24/17/17/2 China, EU (27), Canada, Russian Federation, Belize 38/26/16/3/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, IGC, INSG, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), (17%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,542 (44%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 40 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

67 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 DOMINICA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), ,670 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 68 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 9,927 Labour force (1,000 workers), 29 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,359 force), agriculture), force), 17 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 392 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 51,570 merchandise exports), /21/61 14 (42%) merchandise exports), /31/63 1,961 (33%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 77 All food items 78 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels Fuels 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 23 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 51 (122) Tobacco, manufactured 18 (273) Stone, sand and gravel 23 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 16 (054) Vegetables 14 (072) Cocoa 8 percentage of EU (27), Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 52/24/11/3/2 United States, EU (27), Haiti, China, Canada 48/26/11/4/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies ICCO, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), (42%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,188 (39%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 43 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

68 CARIBBEAN GRENADA HAITI Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), ,750 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 104 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 9,993 Labour force (1,000 workers), 46 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3,870 force), agriculture), force), 22 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 664 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 6,218 merchandise exports), /16/78 14 (51%) merchandise exports), /24/50 59 (12%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 99 All food items 71 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 11 Fuels Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 18 (03) Fishery products 21 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 16 (075) Spices 16 (072) Cocoa 15 percentage of United States, EU (27), Saint Lucia, Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 23/16/14/14/12 United States, EU (27), China, Canada, Thailand 43/23/9/9/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (41%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,411 (53%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 58 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1, /92 / /92 /

69 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 JAMAICA MONTSERRAT Total area (square kilometres), ,990 Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,741 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,224 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3 force), agriculture), force), 28 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 13,776 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), merchandise exports), /21/73 1,093 (83%) merchandise exports), /18/ (50%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 29 All food items 9 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials Fuels 19 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 53 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (285) Aluminium ores and concentrates (incl. alumina) 51 (273) Stone, sand and gravel 81 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 19 (112) Alcoholic beverages 8 (112) Alcoholic beverages 7 (277) Natural abrasives, n.e.s. (incl. industri. diamonds) 8 percentage of 86 percentage of United States, EU (27), Canada, Norway, Iceland 47/18/13/5/3 Anguilla, EU (27), British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles, United States Export concentration ratio (2000) () /18/13/10/7 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,485 (49%) percentage of merchandise import value), (63%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 610 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1990/92 / /92 /

70 CARIBBEAN NETHERLANDS ANTILLES SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 201 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 52 Labour force (1,000 workers), 98 Labour force (1,000 workers), 23 force), agriculture), 49 force), agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 4,242 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 550 merchandise exports), /16/ (83%) merchandise exports), /20/ (6%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 3 All food items 89 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 3 Fuels 91 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 5 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 7 91 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 83 (112) Alcoholic beverages 40 (335) Residual petroleum products, n.e.s., related mater. 4 (111) Non-alcoholic beverages, n.e.s. 15 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) percentage of United States, Guatemala, Singapore, EU (27), Dominican Republic Export concentration ratio (2000) () (022) Milk, cream and milk products (excluding butter, cheese) 62 percentage of 22/13/13/7/7 United States, Dominica, Saint Lucia, EU (27), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines /16/16/8/8 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,602 (62%) percentage of merchandise import value), (29%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 161 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

71 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SAINT LUCIA SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 174 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 109 Labour force (1,000 workers), 84 Labour force (1,000 workers), 54 force), agriculture), force), 24 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 973 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 561 merchandise exports), /16/ (63%) merchandise exports), /23/70 10 (23%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 50 All food items 94 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels 46 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 3 87 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 30 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 23 (112) Alcoholic beverages 14 (054) Vegetables 14 percentage of EU (27), Republic of Korea, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Barbados Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 44/14/13/8/5 Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, EU (27), Antigua and Barbuda /24/12/10/9 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (83%) percentage of merchandise import value), (46%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 18 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

72 CARIBBEAN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS Total area (square kilometres), ,130 Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,341 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 38 Labour force (1,000 workers), 714 Labour force (1,000 workers), 17 force), agriculture), 45 7 force), 17 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 22,181 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,161 merchandise exports), /51/49 6,983 (73%) merchandise exports), /22/ (35%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 4 All food items 90 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 3 Fuels 92 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (03) Fishery products 68 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 28 (288) Non-ferrous base metal waste and scrap, n.e.s. 5 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 16 3 percentage of 80 percentage of United States, EU (27), Jamaica, Barbados, Suriname 54/14/7/3/2 United States, Ethiopia, EU (27), Guyana, Mexico 91/3/2/2/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ICCO, ISO, ITTO Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 2,957 (44%) percentage of merchandise import value), (33%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 587 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

73

74 CENTRAL AMERICA

75 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BELIZE COSTA RICA Total area (square kilometres), ,970 Total area (square kilometres), ,100 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 312 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 4,659 Labour force (1,000 workers), 129 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,117 force), agriculture), force), 3 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,381 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 35,810 merchandise exports), /20/ (76%) merchandise exports), /26/68 2,473 (29%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 65 All food items 89 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 7 Fuels 34 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 3 77 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 34 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 52 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 22 (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 6 (059) Fruit and vegetable juices, unfermented, no spirit 21 (098) Edible products and preparations, n.e.s. 6 percentage of United States, EU (27), Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 39/28/16/4/3 EU (27), United States, Mexico, Nicaragua, Guatemala 43/29/3/3/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), (44%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,771 (24%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 15 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 1, /92 / /92 /

76 CENTRAL AMERICA EL SALVADOR GUATEMALA Total area (square kilometres), ,040 Total area (square kilometres), ,890 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6,193 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 14,389 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,591 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5,371 force), agriculture), force), 9 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 21,701 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 41,079 merchandise exports), /27/60 1,188 (29%) merchandise exports), /28/60 4,621 (59%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 79 All food items 77 Agricultural raw materials 2 Agricultural raw materials 7 Fuels 8 Fuels 7 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 11 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 9 43 (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 20 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 16 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 13 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 15 percentage of 74 percentage of United States, Guatemala, EU (27), Honduras, Nicaragua 26/18/17/9/4 United States, EU (27), El Salvador, Mexico, Honduras 41/8/8/7/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,851 (37%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,404 (35%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 512 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 1, /92 / /92 /

77 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 HONDURAS MEXICO Total area (square kilometres), ,490 Total area (square kilometres), ,964,380 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 7,601 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 113,423 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,776 Labour force (1,000 workers), 48,747 force), agriculture), force), 21 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 15,649 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,025,713 merchandise exports), /26/63 2,466 (47%) merchandise exports), /36/60 65,674 (25%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 77 All food items 26 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 5 Fuels 54 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 14 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 27 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 47 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 14 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 8 concentrates) (03) Fishery products 10 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 7 percentage of 83 percentage of United States, EU (27), El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico 39/29/6/5/4 United States, EU (27), China, Canada, Japan 78/7/3/2/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, ISO, ITTO Membership in international commodity bodies ICSG, ICO, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,642 (34%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,819 (19%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1, /92 / /92 /

78 CENTRAL AMERICA NICARAGUA PANAMA Total area (square kilometres), ,370 Total area (square kilometres), ,420 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 5,788 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 3,517 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,381 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,599 force), agriculture), force), 8 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 6,748 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 27,480 merchandise exports), /29/54 1,037 (64%) merchandise exports), /16/78 1,009 (9%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 89 All food items 86 Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 1 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 10 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 21 (03) Fishery products 27 (011) Meat of bovine animals, fresh, chilled or frozen 17 (112) Alcoholic beverages 21 (03) Fishery products 10 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts, fresh or dried) 16 percentage of United States, El Salvador, EU (27), Canada, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 40/12/11/6/6 United States, EU (27), Colombia, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Canada /18/11/44 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICCO, ICO, ISO Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,529 (40%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,570 (10%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

79

80 SOUTH AMERICA

81 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 ARGENTINA BOLIVIA (PLURINATIONAL STATE OF) Total area (square kilometres), ,780,400 Total area (square kilometres), ,098,580 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 40,412 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 9,930 Labour force (1,000 workers), 18,966 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,800 force), agriculture), 42 7 force), 11 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 370,470 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 19,208 merchandise exports), /32/61 40,966 (67%) merchandise exports), /35/52 5,289 (93%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 76 All food items 19 Agricultural raw materials 2 Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels 15 Fuels 49 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 8 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (081) Feeding stuff for animals (no unmilled cereals) (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s (289) Ores & concentrates of precious metals; waste, scrap 11 percentage of 59 percentage of EU (27), China, Brazil, Chile, United States 22/12/12/7/6 Brazil, EU (27), Argentina, Republic of Korea, United States 35/9/8/8/7 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, IGC, ICAC, IOOC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 6,777 (14%) percentage of merchandise import value), ITTO 1,220 (25%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 32,334 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

82 SOUTH AMERICA BRAZIL CHILE Total area (square kilometres), ,514,880 Total area (square kilometres), ,100 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 194,946 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 17,114 Labour force (1,000 workers), 100,776 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7,293 force), agriculture), force), 25 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 2,061,352 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 206,258 merchandise exports), /25/69 109,276 (63%) merchandise exports), /42/55 54,756 (89%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 52 All food items 21 Agricultural raw materials 6 Agricultural raw materials 7 Fuels 15 Fuels 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 27 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (281) Iron ore and concentrates 19 (682) Copper 41 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 12 (283) Copper ores and concentrates; copper mattes, cemen (03) Fishery products 6 percentage of 59 percentage of EU (27), China, United States, Japan, Russian Federation 24/21/7/4/3 China, EU (27), Japan, United States, Republic of Korea 28/19/11/11/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ICCO, ICO, ILZSG, INSG, ICAC, ISO, ITTO Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 38,789 (25%) percentage of merchandise import value), INBAR, ICSG 16,454 (34%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 52,405 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 6, /92 / /92 /

83 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 COLOMBIA ECUADOR Total area (square kilometres), ,141,750 Total area (square kilometres), ,370 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 46,295 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 14,465 Labour force (1,000 workers), 23,923 Labour force (1,000 workers), 6,637 force), agriculture), force), 25 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 280,992 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 65,142 merchandise exports), /36/55 27,542 (76%) merchandise exports), /38/55 14,185 (91%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 17 All food items 36 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 5 Fuels 70 Fuels 58 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 9 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 68 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 39 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 52 (321) Coal, whether or not pulverized, not agglomerated 20 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 14 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 9 (03) Fishery products 12 percentage of United States, EU (27), China, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), Switzerland Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, ICAC, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), percentage of 51/16/4/3/3 United States, EU (27), Panama, Peru, Chile 40/15/13/6/5 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 6,499 (18%) percentage of merchandise import value), INBAR, ICCO, ICO, ISO, ITTO 5,495 (31%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 3, /92 / /92 /

84 SOUTH AMERICA FALKLAND ISLANDS GUYANA Total area (square kilometres), ,170 Total area (square kilometres), ,970 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 3 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 754 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2 Labour force (1,000 workers), 342 force), agriculture), 50 force), agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 2,234 merchandise exports), (97%) merchandise exports), /33/ (94%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 94 All food items 45 Agricultural raw materials 6 Agricultural raw materials 5 Fuels 1 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (03) Fishery products 90 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 32 concentrates) (268) Wool and other animal hair (incl. wool tops) 6 (042) Rice 17 (012) Other meat and edible meat offal 3 (061) Sugar, molasses and honey 15 percentage of 90 percentage of EU (27), Croatia, United States, South Africa, Ukraine 50/15/14/6/5 EU (27), Canada, United States, Jamaica, Ukraine 27/27/17/5/5 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (34%) percentage of merchandise import value), (38%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

85 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 PARAGUAY PERU Total area (square kilometres), ,750 Total area (square kilometres), ,285,220 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6,455 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 29,077 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3,356 Labour force (1,000 workers), 15,277 force), agriculture), force), 8 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 18,460 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 155,397 merchandise exports), /22/54 3,439 (89%) merchandise exports), /37/56 27,361 (89%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 95 All food items 18 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels Fuels 10 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 26 concentrates) (011) Meat of bovine animals, fresh, chilled or frozen 21 (283) Copper ores and concentrates; copper mattes, cemen 18 (081) Feeding stuff for animals (no unmilled cereals) 11 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 10 percentage of 69 percentage of Uruguay, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, EU (27) 22/14/13/11/9 EU (27), China, United States, Switzerland, Canada 18/17/16/14/10 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICSG, ILZSG, ICAC, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), ,868 (22%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,126 (28%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 3,128 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 2, /92 / /92 /

86 SOUTH AMERICA SURINAME URUGUAY Total area (square kilometres), ,820 Total area (square kilometres), ,220 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), 2009 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 525 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 3,369 Labour force (1,000 workers), 195 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,652 force), agriculture), force), 24 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 3,358 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 40,496 merchandise exports), /44/50 1,345 (96%) merchandise exports), /26/65 4,461 (74%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 14 All food items 79 Agricultural raw materials 2 Agricultural raw materials 17 Fuels 4 Fuels 2 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 81 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 2 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) (011) Meat of bovine animals, fresh, chilled or frozen 25 (285) Aluminium ores and concentrates (incl. alumina) 30 (042) Rice 10 (03) Fishery products 8 (268) Wool and other animal hair (incl. wool tops) 9 percentage of Canada, EU (27), United States, United Arab Emirates, Norway Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 38/24/11/9/6 EU (27), Brazil, China, Russian Federation, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) /17/13/5/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ITTO Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), (32%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,911 (38%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 78 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 2, /92 / /92 /

87 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 VENEZUELA (BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF) Total area (square kilometres), ,050 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 28,980 Labour force (1,000 workers), 13, force), 6 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 389,650 4/56/40 54,944 (91%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 1 Agricultural raw materials Fuels 95 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 95 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 70 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 23 (684) Aluminium 2 81 percentage of United States, China, EU (27), Singapore, India 54/9/8/5/5 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, ITTO 8,413 (22%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), 5, /92 /

88 EASTERN ASIA

89 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 CHINA (INCLUDING HONG KONG SAR, MACAO SAR, AND TAIWAN PROVINCE OF CHINA) DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF KOREA Total area (square kilometres), ,600,000 Total area (square kilometres), ,540 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,372,148 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 24,346 Labour force (1,000 workers), 823,260 Labour force (1,000 workers), 13,161 force), agriculture), force), 48 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 6,558,013 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 12,035 merchandise exports), /45/45 151,360 (8%) merchandise exports), /47/32 1,190 (49%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 32 All food items 10 Agricultural raw materials 7 Agricultural raw materials 5 Fuels 24 Fuels 45 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 37 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 18 (321) Coal, whether or not pulverized, not agglomerated 33 (03) Fishery products 9 (281) Iron ore and concentrates 13 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 8 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 11 percentage of China, China Hong Kong SAR, Japan, United States, Republic of Korea Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICSG, ILZSG, ITTO, ICAC (Taiwan) percentage of merchandise import value), percentage of 12/11/9/8/6 China, Malaysia, China Hong Kong SAR, Brazil, EU (27) 70/23/2/1/1 545,652 (30%) Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,442 (48%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 35,812 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

90 EASTERN ASIA MONGOLIA REPUBLIC OF KOREA Total area (square kilometres), ,564,120 Total area (square kilometres), ,900 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,756 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 48,184 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,229 Labour force (1,000 workers), 24,440 force), agriculture), force), 48 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 5,582 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,007,561 merchandise exports), /32/45 2,295 (96%) merchandise exports), /37/61 49,642 (12%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 2 All food items 9 Agricultural raw materials 7 Agricultural raw materials 7 Fuels 11 Fuels 59 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 80 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (283) Copper ores and concentrates; copper mattes, cemen 46 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 55 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 15 (682) Copper 8 (287) Ores and concentrates of base metals, n.e.s. 14 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 5 percentage of 98 percentage of China, Canada, EU (27), Russian Federation 80/9/6/3 China, Japan, Singapore, United States, China Hong Kong SAR Export concentration ratio (2000) () /13/8/7/7 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, ILZSG, ICAC, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (36%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,034 (44%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 362 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 17, /92 / /92 /

91

92 SOUTHERN ASIA

93 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 AFGHANISTAN BANGLADESH Total area (square kilometres), ,230 Total area (square kilometres), ,000 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 31,412 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 148,692 Labour force (1,000 workers), 10,119 Labour force (1,000 workers), 70,769 force), agriculture), force), 32 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,853 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 99,428 merchandise exports), /27/ (53%) merchandise exports), /29/53 1,511 (8%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 61 All food items 62 Agricultural raw materials 25 Agricultural raw materials 24 Fuels 4 Fuels 9 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 11 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 5 61 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 42 (03) Fishery products 48 (292) Crude vegetable materials, n.e.s (263) Cotton 9 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 percentage of 81 percentage of India, Pakistan, Nigeria, EU (27), Russian Federation 34/31/6/5/5 EU (27), United States, India, China, Pakistan 34/14/13/5/5 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, IJSG percentage of merchandise import value), ,692 (49%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,576 (36%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 545 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 4, /92 / /92 /

94 SOUTHERN ASIA BHUTAN INDIA Total area (square kilometres), ,390 Total area (square kilometres), ,287,260 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 726 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,224,614 Labour force (1,000 workers), 335 Labour force (1,000 workers), 495,467 force), agriculture), force), 34 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,461 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 1,623,804 merchandise exports), /42/ (51%) merchandise exports), /28/55 88,233 (43%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 25 All food items 21 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 5 Fuels 56 Fuels 33 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 18 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 41 commodity exports), (351) Electric current 56 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 32 (075) Spices 11 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 23 (682) Copper 9 (281) Iron ore and concentrates 8 percentage of 99 percentage of India, Bangladesh 91/8 United Arab Emirates, China, EU (27), China Hong Kong SAR, United States Export concentration ratio (2000) () /13/13/8/7 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICSG, ICO, IGC, ILZSG, IRSG, ICAC, IJSG, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (36%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,844 (58%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 15 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 10, /92 / /92 /

95 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF) MALDIVES Total area (square kilometres), ,745,150 Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 73,974 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 316 Labour force (1,000 workers), 30,278 Labour force (1,000 workers), 151 force), agriculture), force), 46 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 395,910 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,278 merchandise exports), /44/47 79,554 (91%) merchandise exports), /17/ (93%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 3 All food items 97 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials Fuels 93 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 4 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 2 92 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 87 (03) Fishery products 96 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 3 (282) Ferrous waste, scrape; remelting ingots, iron, steel 1 2 (288) Non-ferrous base metal waste and scrap, n.e.s. 1 percentage of 75 percentage of EU (27), China, Japan, India, Taiwan Province of China 21/17/16/13/8 EU (27), Thailand, Sri Lanka, Japan, Iran (Islamic Republic of) 40/37/9/4/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, ILZSG, ICAC, IOOC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 13,610 (24%) percentage of merchandise import value), (41%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 4,724 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

96 SOUTHERN ASIA NEPAL PAKISTAN Total area (square kilometres), ,180 Total area (square kilometres), ,100 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 29,959 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 173,593 Labour force (1,000 workers), 12,981 Labour force (1,000 workers), 62,760 force), agriculture), force), 48 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 16,167 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 176,888 merchandise exports), /16/ (31%) merchandise exports), /24/55 4,791 (25%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 72 All food items 67 Agricultural raw materials 11 Agricultural raw materials 8 Fuels Fuels 20 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 17 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 5 44 (054) Vegetables 25 (042) Rice 42 (292) Crude vegetable materials, n.e.s. 10 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 20 (075) Spices 9 (263) Cotton 5 percentage of 90 percentage of India, Bangladesh, China, United States, Singapore 65/20/2/2/1 Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, EU (27), China, Saudi Arabia Export concentration ratio (2000) () /14/7/6/5 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ITTO Membership in international commodity bodies IGC, ICAC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), ,880 (42%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,185 (50%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 459 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1, /92 / /92 /

97 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SRI LANKA Total area (square kilometres), ,610 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 20,860 Labour force (1,000 workers), 9, force), 37 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 50,561 14/32/55 2,833 (37%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 73 Agricultural raw materials 10 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (074) Tea and mate 45 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 14 (03) Fishery products 6 49 percentage of EU (27), India, Russian Federation, United Arab Emirates, Iran 24/7/7/6/5 (Islamic Republic of) Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, IRSG 4,270 (39%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 /

98 SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

99 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BRUNEI DARUSSALAM CAMBODIA Total area (square kilometres), ,770 Total area (square kilometres), ,040 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 399 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 14,138 Labour force (1,000 workers), 191 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7,541 force), agriculture), 45 1 force), agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 12,797 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 11,362 merchandise exports), /73/26 8'035 (98%) merchandise exports), /26/ (10%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items All food items 26 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 31 Fuels 100 Fuels Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold - Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 56 (231) Natural rubber & similar gums, in primary forms (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 18 concentrates) (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 1 (273) Stone, sand and gravel 16 percentage of 87 percentage of Japan, Republic of Korea, Australia, Indonesia, China 48/13/11/9/6 Singapore, Viet Nam. Thailand, China, EU (27) 34/30/14/6/3 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), (23%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,356 (36%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 647 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

100 SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDONESIA LAO PEOPLE S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Total area (square kilometres), ,904,570 Total area (square kilometres), ,800 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 239,871 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6,201 Labour force (1,000 workers), 119,541 Labour force (1,000 workers), 3,161 force), agriculture), force), 39 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 708,396 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 6,457 merchandise exports), /48/37 84,572 (62%) merchandise exports), /25/43 1,114 (81%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 27 All food items 10 Agricultural raw materials 9 Agricultural raw materials 16 Fuels 47 Fuels 17 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 17 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (321) Coal, whether or not pulverized, not agglomerated 19 (682) Copper (283) Copper ores and concentrates; copper mattes, cemen (351) Electric current 16 percentage of 60 percentage of Japan, China, Republic of Korea, India, EU (27) 20/13/10/9/8 Thailand, China, Viet Nam, EU (27), Japan 47/39/9/3/1 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 38,837 (34%) percentage of merchandise import value), (33%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 14,309 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

101 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 MALAYSIA MYANMAR Total area (square kilometres), ,800 Total area (square kilometres), ,590 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 28,401 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 47,963 Labour force (1,000 workers), 12,660 Labour force (1,000 workers), 28,011 force), agriculture), force), 21 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 236,261 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,989 merchandise exports), /44/47 55,953 (32%) merchandise exports), /16/36 6,484 (78%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 37 All food items 26 Agricultural raw materials 8 Agricultural raw materials 25 Fuels 49 Fuels 43 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 7 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (24+25) Forestry products 22 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 15 (054) Vegetables 12 percentage of 52 percentage of Japan, Singapore, China, EU (27), India 16/13/11/6/6 Thailand, India, China, Japan, Malaysia 48/18/9/5/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICCO, IRSG, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 36,542 (26%) percentage of merchandise import value), INBAR, ITTO 1,500 (32%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 10,824 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 1, /92 / /92 /

102 SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA PHILIPPINES SINGAPORE Total area (square kilometres), ,000 Total area (square kilometres), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 93,261 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 5,086 Labour force (1,000 workers), 39,780 Labour force (1,000 workers), 2,775 force), agriculture), force), 24 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 188,402 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 215,166 merchandise exports), /30/55 6,660 (15%) merchandise exports), /26/74 63,666 (22%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 43 All food items 10 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 1 Fuels 18 Fuels 76 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 35 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (682) Copper 18 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 74 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 11 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 5 concentrates) 9 (112) Alcoholic beverages 2 percentage of 62 percentage of China, Japan, United States, Singapore, EU (27) 15/14/12/11/10 Malaysia, China Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Australia, China 14/14/13/10/9 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, ISO, ITTO percentage of merchandise import value), Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 17,244 (33%) percentage of merchandise import value), IRSG 89,021 (33%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 2,683 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 2, /92 / /92 /

103 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 THAILAND TIMOR-LESTE Total area (square kilometres), ,120 Total area (square kilometres), ,870 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 69,122 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,124 Labour force (1,000 workers), 39,762 Labour force (1,000 workers), 442 force), agriculture), force), 45 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 319,293 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), merchandise exports), /43/45 49,912 (29%) merchandise exports), /14/56 11 (91%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 47 All food items 9 Agricultural raw materials 16 Agricultural raw materials Fuels 17 Fuels 90 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 19 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 39 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil (03) Fishery products 13 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 13 (231) Natural rubber & similar gums, in primary forms 12 (071) Coffee and coffee substitutes 8 percentage of 45 percentage of China, Japan, United States, EU (27), Switzerland 11/10/9/9/6 Republic of Korea, Japan, EU (27) 62/19/15 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ICO, ILZSG, IRSG, ISO, ITTO Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies 52,829 (33%) percentage of merchandise import value), ICO 120 (45%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 16,404 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

104 SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA VIET NAM Total area (square kilometres), ,050 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 87,848 Labour force (1,000 workers), 46, force), 49 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 99,312 21/40/39 27,009 (42%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 48 Agricultural raw materials 9 Fuels 37 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 5 56 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 28 (03) Fishery products 18 (042) Rice percentage of China, EU (27), United States, Japan, Australia 17/12/10/9/9 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies INBAR, ICO, ISO 20,760 (27%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 8, /92 /

105

106 WESTERN ASIA

107 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 BAHRAIN IRAQ Total area (square kilometres), Total area (square kilometres), ,240 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,262 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 31,672 Labour force (1,000 workers), 627 Labour force (1,000 workers), 7,929 force), agriculture), 18 1 force), agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 22,661 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 32,172 merchandise exports), /41/59 9,228 (74%) merchandise exports), /61/34 45,192 (99%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), n.r. All food items 6 All food items Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials Fuels 49 Fuels 99 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 45 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 81 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 40 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 98 (684) Aluminium 30 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 0.8 (281) Iron ore and concentrates 11 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 0.4 percentage of 40 percentage of Japan, EU (27), India, Saudi Arabia, Republic of Korea 10/9/8/8/5 United States, EU (27), India, China, Republic of Korea 26/21/17/10/9 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies IOOC percentage of merchandise import value), ,332 (24%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,384 (31%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 900 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 11, /92 / /92 /

108 WESTERN ASIA JORDAN KUWAIT Total area (square kilometres), ,320 Total area (square kilometres), ,820 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 6,187 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,737 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,803 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,385 force), agriculture), 17 6 force), 61 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 27,543 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 131,300 merchandise exports), /30/67 1,785 (27%) merchandise exports), /52/48 53,822 (91%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 55 All food items Agricultural raw materials 1 Agricultural raw materials Fuels 3 Fuels 99 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 41 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 55 (272) Crude fertilizers (excluding those of division 56) 24 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 78 (054) Vegetables 21 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 17 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 10 4 percentage of Iraq, India, United Arab Emirates, Syrian Arab Republic, Lebanon Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 21/15/8/7/6 Japan, Republic of Korea, India, United States, China 19/16/16/9/9 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies IOOC Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,930 (41%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,422 (21%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1,437 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 3, /92 / /92 /

109 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 LEBANON OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORY Total area (square kilometres), ,450 Total area (square kilometres), ,020 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 4,228 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 4,039 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,551 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,380 force), agriculture), 26 2 force), 32 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 38,801 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), ,848 merchandise exports), /18/76 1,756 (39%) merchandise exports), /25/ (35%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 44 All food items 68 Agricultural raw materials 4 Agricultural raw materials 3 Fuels 1 Fuels 3 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 50 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 26 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 12 (273) Stone, sand and gravel 12 (282) Ferrous waste, scrape; remelting ingots, iron, steel 9 (122) Tobacco, manufactured 9 percentage of Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, EU (27), United Arab Emirates, Turkey Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 22/14/13/9/7 Israel, Jordan, EU (27), United States 84/7/3/2 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies IOOC Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,642 (39%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,930 (49%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1,997 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

110 WESTERN ASIA OMAN QATAR Total area (square kilometres), ,500 Total area (square kilometres), ,590 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 2,782 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 1,759 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,100 Labour force (1,000 workers), 1,140 force), agriculture), force), 7 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 63,748 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 129,486 merchandise exports), /63/36 24,805 (80%) merchandise exports), /61/39 54,655 (91%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 5 All food items Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials Fuels 83 Fuels 99 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 12 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 83 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 64 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude (684) Aluminium 9 7 percentage of China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand, United Arab Emirates Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 32/17/15/10/6 Japan, Republic of Korea, EU (27), Singapore, India 38/17/13/10/8 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies Membership in international commodity bodies percentage of merchandise import value), ,029 (23%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,466 (11%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 584 Net food imports (in millions of US$), 1, /92 / /92 /09 109

111 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 SAUDI ARABIA SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC Total area (square kilometres), ,149,690 Total area (square kilometres), ,180 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 27,448 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 20,411 Labour force (1,000 workers), 10,087 Labour force (1,000 workers), 6,689 force), agriculture), 16 5 force), 6 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 435,331 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 59,403 merchandise exports), /59/38 184,207 (86%) merchandise exports), /34/45 7,720 (67%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 1 All food items 39 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels 98 Fuels 53 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 6 97 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 86 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 41 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 11 3 (111) Non-alcoholic beverages, n.e.s. 9 percentage of Taiwan Province of China, Japan, United States, China, Republic of Korea Export concentration ratio (2000) () percentage of 16/15/13/11/10 EU (27), Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Turkey 42/21/9/4/4 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies IGC Membership in international commodity bodies ICAC, IOOC percentage of merchandise import value), ,568 (24%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,849 (40%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 13,350 Net food imports (in millions of US$), /92 / /92 /

112 WESTERN ASIA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES TURKEY Total area (square kilometres), ,600 Total area (square kilometres), ,560 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 7,512 Population (1,000 inhabitants), 72,752 Labour force (1,000 workers), 4,741 Labour force (1,000 workers), 24,847 force), agriculture), 14 3 force), agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 277,970 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 747,420 merchandise exports), /55/44 137,789 (75%) merchandise exports), /25/66 23,206 (22%) Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 5 All food items 48 Agricultural raw materials Agricultural raw materials 2 Fuels 66 Fuels 18 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 29 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 49 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 16 (667) Pearls, precious & semi-precious stones 11 (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and 14 concentrates) (971) Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold ores and concentrates) 11 (057) Fruits and nuts (excluding oil nuts), fresh or dried 14 percentage of 67 percentage of Japan, India, Republic of Korea, Thailand, EU (27) 27/20/8/8/4 EU (27), Switzerland, Iraq, China, Russian Federation 32/11/8/6/5 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ISO Membership in international commodity bodies ICO, IGC, ICAC, IOOC, ISO percentage of merchandise import value), ,500 (31%) percentage of merchandise import value), ,810 (32%) Net food imports (in millions of US$), 7,807 Net food imports (in millions of US$), - 4, /92 / /92 /

113 THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 2012 YEMEN Total area (square kilometres), ,970 Agricultural area (as a percentage of total area), Population (1,000 inhabitants), 24,053 Labour force (1,000 workers), 5, force), 40 agriculture), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (in millions of US$), 33,459 10/42/48 7,158 (97%) merchandise exports), Commodity exports (as a percentage of GDP), All food items 6 Agricultural raw materials Fuels 93 Ores, metals, precious stones and non-monetary gold 1 95 (333) Petroleum oils, oils from bitumin. materials, crude 84 (334) Petroleum oils or bituminous minerals > 70 % oil 8 (03) Fishery products 3 77 percentage of China, Thailand, India, United Arab Emirates, South Africa 27/20/18/6/6 Export concentration ratio (2000) () Membership in international commodity bodies ICO 4,764 (51%) percentage of merchandise import value), Net food imports (in millions of US$), 2, /92 /

114 OCEANIA

Assessed contributions payable by Member States and Associate Members

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