Prehistory Evolution of Man. AP World History Chapter 1a

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1 Prehistory Evolution of Man AP World History Chapter 1a

2 Development of Hominids Animals adapt themselves to environment Hominids adapt environment to themselves Use of tools Language Complex cooperative social structures

3 Unit 1 and 2 events

4 Australopithecus The southern ape Despite name a hominid Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Nicknamed Lucy 40% of SWF, 3 5, 55lb., bipedal, Brain 500 cc (modern human: 1400 cc), limited speech but opposable digit Estimated date of death: 3.5 million years ago

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9 Later Hominids Homo Erectus, upright man Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use, control of fire Homo Sapiens, consciously thinking human Largest brain, esp. frontal regions Most sophisticated tools and social organization Migrations of Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens

10 Global spread of hominids and Homo sapiens

11 The Natural Environment By 13,000 BCE Homo sapiens in every inhabitable part of the world Archaeological finds: Sophisticated tools Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows Cave and hut like dwellings Use of fire, animal skins Hunted several mammal species to extinction Climactic change may have accelerated process

12

13 Relative Social Equality Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of landbased wealth More likely determinants of status: age, hunting skill, fertility, personality Possible gender equality related to food production Men: protein from hunting Women: plant gathering

14 Paleolithic Era ( Old Stone Age ) Evidence: Archaeological finds Extrapolation from modern hunter-gatherer societies Nomadic existence precludes advanced civilization Groups of Division of labor along gender lines

15 Big Game Hunting Evidence of intelligent coordination of hunting expeditions Development of weaponry Animal-skin disguises Stampeding tactics Lighting of fires, etc. to drive game into kill zones Requires planning, communication

16 Paleolithic Settlements Natufian society Modern Israel and Jordan Wild wheat, herding Jomon society Japan Wild buckwheat, fishing Chinook society Pacific Northwest Berries, acorns, salmon runs Groups of 1000 or more

17 Neandertal Peoples Neander valley, western Germany Flourished in Europe & SW Asia, 200,000 35,000 years ago Also found in Africa, east Asia Evidence of spirituality: ritual burial Inhabited some of the same areas as Homo sapiens

18 Creativity of Homo sapiens Constructed flexible languages for communication of complex ideas Increased variety of tools stone blades, spear throwers, sewing needles, barbed harpoons Fabricated ornamental beads, necklaces and bracelets The bow and arrow a dramatic improvement in humans power over nature Venus figurines Cave paintings

19 Neolithic Era ( New Stone Age ) Corresponds with the end of the last Ice Age Distinction in tool production Chipped vs. polished Men: herding animals rather than hunting Women: nurtured vegetation rather than foraging Spread of Agriculture Slash-and-and burn techniques Exhaustion of soil promotes migration Transport of crops from one region to another

20 Origins and Early Spread of Agriculture

21 Agriculture and Population Growth Population (millions) BCE 2000 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE

22 Forming the Complex Basic development: Hunting and Foraging Agriculture Complex Society Society Key issue: surplus capital Major development of first complex societies 3500 BCE 500 BCE

23 Early Agricultural Society Emergence of villages and towns Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük a prominent village located in Turkey, occupied BCE Pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone, metal tools, wood carvings, carpets, beads, and jewelry Development of crafts pottery, metallurgy, and textile production

24 Social Distinctions Accumulation of landed wealth initiates development of social classes Individuals could trade surplus food for valuable items Archaeological evidence in variety of household decorations, goods buried with deceased members of society at Çatal Hüyük

25 Neolithic Culture Farmers closely observed the natural world an early kind of applied science Elements of natural environment essential for functioning Archaeological evidence of religious worship: thousands of clay figurines, drawings on pots, tool decorations, other ritual objects Fertility: Venus figurines

26 Beginnings of Urbanization Jericho: concentration of wealth, building a wall Craft specialization Social stratification Governance Cultural workers Development of the city a gradual process

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28 The body of Tollund Man, a person from Iron Age Denmark. The corpse was preserved in bog deposits for almost 2000 years.

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30 This is the body of a Bronze Age man that was found in the Italian Alps in 1991 by hikers during an unusually warm summer. He has been buried in this spot for 5200 years!

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