Appalachian State University s. Enology Services Lab Report

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1 Appalachian State University s Enology Services Lab 2012 Report

2 Introduction Data pulled from over 1,000 samples submitted between July 2010 and January 2012 (roughly 5,000 data points) In this report we will go through juice then wine sample data

3 Full List of Varietals Submitted (Juice and Wine Samples) Aglianico Maréchal Foch Seyval blanc Albariño Marquette St. Croix Barbera Merlot Symphony Cabernet Franc Montepulciano Syrah Cabernet Sauvignon Muscat Tempranillo Carlos Nebbiolo Touriga Nacional Catawba Niagara Traminette Chambourcin Noble Vermentino Chancellor Noiret Vidal blanc Chardonel Norton Viognier Chardonnay Petit Mensing Vogue blanc Concord Petite Verdot Zinfandel Diamond Pinot gris Frontenac Pinot noir Landot noir Riesling Also Submitted: Magnolia Sangiovese Cider Malbec Sauvignon blanc Fruit Wine

4 Juice Samples Over 250 juice samples submitted, with 222 having varietal specified Nine varietals made up 64% of juice submissions; the remaining 36% dispersed between 25 additional varietals Sample Variety (Juice) Percent Chardonnay 11.0% Viognier 7.8% Cabernet Sauvignon 7.3% Merlot 7.3% Seyval Blanc 7.3% Cabernet Franc 6.4% Sangiovese 6.4% Chambourcin 5.5% Traminette 5.0% Total 64%

5 Juice Varietals Breakdown Vinifera Red (38% of Total) Percent Vinifera White (29% of Total) Percent Merlot 18.8% Chardonnay 37.5% Cabernet Sauvignon 18.8% Viognier 26.6% Cabernet Franc 16.5% Pinot Gris 14.1% Sangiovese 16.5% Riesling 12.5% Syrah 10.6% Vermentino 6.3% Petite Verdot 5.9% Petit Mensing 1.6% Tempranillo 4.7% White Vinifera Blend 1.6% Aglianico 2.4% Malbec 2.4% Barbera 2.4% Syrah/Viognier 0.0% Nebbiolo 1.2% Zinfandel 0.0% Hybrid Red (12% of Total) Percent Hybrid White (18% of Total) Percent Chambourcin 46.2% Seyval Blanc 41.0% Maréchal Foch 15.4% Traminette 28.2% Frontenac 7.7% Vidal Blanc 10.3% Norton 7.7% Chardonel 5.1% St. Croix 7.7% Hybrid White (unspecified) 15.4% Landot Noir 7.7% Marquette 3.8% Noiret 3.8%

6 Now some juice data: All Juice Samples BRIX TA ph Malic YAN Mean Max Min Std Dev

7 Distribution:

8 Distribution:

9 Vinifera Red BRIX TA ph Malic YAN Mean Max Min Std Dev Vinifera White BRIX TA ph Malic YAN Mean Max Min Std Dev Hybrid Red BRIX TA ph Malic YAN Mean Max Min Std Dev Hybrid White BRIX TA ph Malic YAN Mean Max Min Std Dev Notes: YAN on Vinifera Reds low on average. TAs for Hybrid Reds higher than those for Vinifera Reds in this data. Brix for Vinifera Whites higher than those of Hybrid Whites.

10 Juice data by varietal: Harvest 2010 and 2011 Brix Averages in Popular Varietals 2010 and 2011 Varietal Mean Std Dev Sangiovese Cabernet Franc Merlot Chardonnay Viognier Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Gris Riesling ph of selected varieties with multiple samples of ph < 3.5 Varietal Mean Std Dev Seyval Blanc Traminette Chambourcin TA of selected varieties with multiple samples of TA > 8g/L Varietal Mean Std Dev Seyval Blanc Cab Sauv Cab Franc

11 Brix Brix TA TA Brix Brix TA TA

12 Average Brix and TA Juice Samples 2010 and 2011 Reds Brix Std Dev TA Std Dev Hybrids Hybrids Vinifera Vinifera Whites Brix Std Dev TA Std Dev Hybrids Hybrids Vinifera Vinifera All Juice Samples Brix Std Dev TA Std Dev 2010 and

13 Brix and TA for Selected Varietals 2010 and Brix Brix (g/100ml) TA TA (g/l) Cab Sauv Chardonnay Chambourcin Seyval /9 8/19 8/29 9/8 9/18 9/28 10/8 10/18 10/28 11/7 Analysis Date (Harvest 2010 and 2011)

14 TA (g/l) Brix v TA All Juice Samples with Brix > 13.0 o y = ln(x) R² = o Brix Statistically, this is not showing a relationship in grape development between Brix and TA. However, one challenge is not knowing if some samples are chaptalized juice.

15 Another way to look at balance in your grapes: divide Brix by TA 35.5 % of valid values from 2010 and 2011 harvest are between desired range of 3.5 to 5 (n=200)

16 Something to think about: Vineyard altitude blending Samples grown at various vineyards at ~ 2,000 to 3,000' altitude compared to all other samples: Some top TA numbers produced at higher altitudes: Some top Brix numbers from general samples: Sample Variety TA BRIX ph Malic Sample Variety TA BRIX ph Malic Marquette Cabernet Sauvignon Seyval Blanc Vermentino Maréchal Foch Merlot Seyval Blanc Merlot Petit Verdot Petite Verdot Noiret Cabernet Franc Cabernet Sauvignon Viognier Riesling Syrah Seyval Blanc Viognier Seyval Blanc Petite Verdot Chardonnay Cabernet Franc Chardonnay Petite Verdot Seyval Blanc Cabernet Franc Maréchal Foch Chardonnay Chardonel Viognier Note: TA values for higher altitude group are statistically higher than general samples. (No statistical difference in Brix)

17 18.00 Brix v TA: Altitude Grapes and All Samples TA (g/l) y = x R² = All Juice Samples Altitude Juice Samples y = x R² = Brix (g/100ml)

18 Moving on to Wine Samples

19 Wine: Varietals Submitted Of roughly 800 wine samples, only 452 had varietal designations (something for us to work on) 45 varietals total More info on regional origin of grape would also improve data utility Wine Types of Labeled Samples (n=452) Wine Type Percent Vinifera 69.07% Hybrid 20.99% American 5.64% Fruit 3.16% Cider 1.13% Out of designated samples, 52% were from these varietals: Sample Variety Percent Chardonnay 12.61% Cabernet Sauvignon 8.63% Syrah 8.63% Chambourcin 7.96% Cabernet Franc 7.30% Merlot 7.08%

20 Wine Stats I All Wine Samples Malic FSO2 TSO2 TA ph VA Alcohol RS Mean Max Min Std Dev Vinifera Malic FSO2 TSO2 TA ph VA Alcohol RS Mean Max Min Std Dev

21 Wine Stats II Hybrids Malic FSO2 TSO2 TA ph VA Alcohol RS Mean Max Min Std Dev American Malic FSO2 TSO2 TA ph VA Alcohol RS Mean Max Min Std Dev

22 Malic v VA All Wine Samples Volatile Acidity (g/100ml) y = -6E-05x R² = Malic (mg/100ml)

23 Problem Wines: Total Sulfur TSO2: 150ppm range is good, 350ppm is legal max of 600 wines tested for TSO2 levels, 184 have levels over 150, 29 had over 250; but only 1 over 350 Over 150ppm: 31% Over 250ppm: 5% Group Mean Std Dev Vinifera Red Hybrid White Vinifera White Hybrid Red American All Wine* *"All Wine" category includes samples not designated by varietal type. Note: Vinifera reds do have statistically lower TSO2 levels than All Wine group.

24

25 Problem Wines: Volatile Acidity Of the 383 samples run for VA (g/100mls) : 49% had levels over % had levels over % had levels of.14 or above Prominent varietals with high VAs include: Cabernet Franc, Chambourcin, Petit Verdot, Chardonnay, and Cabernet Sauvignon Group Mean Std Dev Hybrid White Hybrid Red American All Wine Vinifera White Vinifera Red No differences between wine types are statistically significant here.

26 Legal Limits: Whites: 0.12 g/100ml Reds: 0.14 g/100 ml 3.4% of Reds and 6.9% of Whites are on or over legal limit. (Of samples requesting VA analysis)

27 0.400 VAs in ML Wines and Those Showing Malic Acid VA (g/100mls) Legal limit for reds: 0.14 Legal limit for whites: 0.12 Reds Showing 0 Malic Whites Showing 0 Malic Reds with Malic Acid Whites with Malic Acid /10/10 11/18/10 2/26/11 6/6/11 9/14/11 12/23/11 4/1/12 Analysis Date ( )

28 Breakdown of Wine Types Showing High VA levels: Of Samples with VA Level Over.05: Sample Variety Percent Wine Type Percent Chambourcin 13.98% Vinifera Red 55.21% Chardonnay 12.90% Hybrid Red 14.58% Cabernet Sauvignon 11.83% Vinifera White 13.54% Cabernet Franc 8.60% Hybrid White 6.25% Sangiovese 8.60% Fruit Wine 5.21% American Red 2.08% Muscadine 2.08% American White 1.04% Of Samples with VA Level Over.10: Sample Variety Percent Wine Type Percent Cabernet Franc 19.05% Vinifera Red 61.90% Chambourcin 14.29% Hybrid Red 14.29% Petit Verdot 14.29% Vinifera White 9.52% Chardonnay 9.52% Hybrid White 9.52% Cabernet Sauvignon 9.52% American White 4.76% Vidal blanc 9.52% Fruit Wine 0.00% American Red 0.00% Muscadine 0.00%

29 Last mention of altitude: Malic Comparisons in Wine Group Mean Std Dev Altitude Hybrid White Vinifera White All Wine Hybrid Red American Vinifera Red

30 Full List of Varietals Submitted (Juice and Wine Samples) Aglianico Maréchal Foch Seyval blanc Albariño Marquette St. Croix Barbera Merlot Symphony Cabernet Franc Montepulciano Syrah Cabernet Sauvignon Muscat Tempranillo Carlos Nebbiolo Touriga Nacional Catawba Niagara Traminette Chambourcin Noble Vermentino Chancellor Noiret Vidal blanc Chardonel Norton Viognier Chardonnay Petit Mensing Vogue blanc Concord Petite Verdot Zinfandel Diamond Pinot gris Frontenac Pinot noir Landot noir Riesling Also Submitted: Magnolia Sangiovese Cider Malbec Sauvignon blanc Fruit Wine

31 Conclusion: Our goal is to provide accurate, valuable data in a timely manner coupled with interpretation and process assistance We are looking to accumulate comprehensive data about fruit and wine throughout NC Starting from the ground up; learning what clients need; what s going to be useful to growers and winemakers We need your help; give us information about your fruit and wine; tell us what you need Hollis Price: Wine Analysis Coordinator Seth Cohen, Ph.D.: Director Enology and Vititulture Franya Hutchins: Research Associate

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