Fruit Maturity and Quality. Jim Mattheis USDA, ARS Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, Wenatchee, WA

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1 Fruit Maturity and Quality Jim Mattheis USDA, ARS Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, Wenatchee, WA

2 Apples $2,250 million Sweet Cherries $500 Leavenworth Pears $206 USDA, NASS 2012 Seattle Spokane Yakima Tri-cities Portland Hood River

3

4

5 Washington State Apple Production Granny Smith Fuji Red Delicious Gala 2012: 2.2 million tonnes 120 million 20 kg boxes 30+% exported Washington Apple Commission

6 Projected WA State Apple Volume GoodFruit Grower

7 Oregon-Washington State Pear Production d Anjou Bartlett (Williams) 2014: 418,561 tonnes 21 million 20 kg boxes 30+% exported

8 U.S. Apple Production millions Million of pounds (1 pound=0.453 kg) U.S. Total Washington New York Michigan USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service

9 Washington State apples: 50-75% stored bulk in controlled atmosphere (CA): 0.5-3% O 2, 0.5-2% CO 2 CA rooms bins

10 Topics Maturity definitions Ethylene Maturity and quality indicators Firmness Disorders

11 Apple Fruit Maturation Color change Starch, firmness loss Soluble solids, titratable acidity increase Aroma change Greasiness development Patterns characteristic for each variety, strain

12 Respiration heat oxygen + malic acid chemical energy carbon dioxide + water

13 Physiological Change During Apple Fruit Maturation and Ripening ethylene, CO 2 production ethylene production respiration rate maturation, ripening

14 Apple Fruit Maturity Physiological: will ripen after harvest Horticultural: appearance, marketability Starking Delicious Scarlet Spur II

15 Apple Fruit Maturity Physiological: will ripen after harvest Horticultural: appearance, marketability 100 % red color Scarlet Spur II Starking harvest

16 Apple Fruit Maturity Physiological: will ripen after harvest Horticultural: appearance, marketability lbs % red color Scarlet Spur II Starking firmness harvest

17 Apple Fruit Maturity Physiological: will ripen after harvest Horticultural: appearance, marketability lbs % red color ul L -1 Scarlet Spur II Starking firmness ethylene harvest

18 Climacteric respiration and ethylene 100 Ethylene production control 1-MCP ethylene 1-methylcyclopropene Delicious firmness Respiration rate control 1-MCP lbs Days at 20 o C Days at o FC Fan et al., JASHS, 1999

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20 Apple Fruit Maturation: Ethylene,Firmness,Starch 1000 Bisbee Delicious ethylene ppm year lbs starch

21 Assessing apple fruit maturity Bisbee Delicious Sep Oct ul L -1 starch ul L -1 Fuji 6 5 starch ethylene harvest date harvest date starch Aug Sep Oct starch ethylene

22 Starch Polymers in Apple and Pear Fruit amylose amylopectin

23 Amylose staining with I 2 -KI solution amylose amylose plus iodine

24 Starch Hydrolysis

25 Soluble Solids and Starch during Gala Maturation 6 starch 12 starch rating SSC soluble solids content % Harvest: Days after full bloom 7

26 Soluble Solids Content at Harvest and after Storage Gala Braeburn Fuji % Harvest Days after Full Bloom Weeks in Storage 0 (at harvest) Plotto et al., Fruit Var J, 1995

27 Honeycrisp Maturity: grouped by titratable acidity lots TA % starch (1-6) SSC % color (1-5) ethylene ppm A:1-5 B:6-10 C:

28 Honeycrisp titratable acidity after storage A B C % weeks in air at 237 o C o F

29

30 Granny Smith Scald months RA + 7 days ripening Incidence % Ck weeks 1-MCP delay

31 BramleySeedless external CO 2 injury % injured fruit Harvest Date Sept 12 Sept 26 Oct 10 CA Fidler and North, 1961

32 Braeburn internal CO 2 injury Harvest date Starch Oct % Injury air CA o C, CA: 1.2 % O 2, 1.0 % CO 2 Lau, 1999

33 CO 2 injury First weeks after harvest pose highest risk for CO 2 damage Delaying CA or CO 2 accumulation can reduce injury

34 Fuji internal browning after 8 months % %CO 2 with Weeks CA delay Months CO 2 1.5% O 2 1.5% O 2 /3% CO 2 Delay (final 3%)

35 Fuji firmness after 8 months lbs %CO 2 with Weeks CA delay Months CO 2 1.5% O 2 1.5% O 2 /3% CO 2 Delay (final 3%)

36 Fuji firmness after 8 months 9 8 kgs %CO 2 with Weeks CA delay Months CO 2 1.5% O 2 1.5% O 2 /3% CO 2 Delay (final 3%)

37 Golden Delicious peel injury % MCP control

38 Golden Delicious firmness kgs 1-MCP

39 % injury Golden Delicious CO 2 injury control 1-MCP weeks CA delay (1% O 2, 3% CO 2 )

40 Golden Delicious firmness 8 kgs 6 4 control 1-MCP weeks CA delay (1% O 2, 3% CO 2 )

41 Summary Physiological and Horticultural Maturity Ethylene required for ripening Starch as a maturity index SSC, acidity, firmness as quality indicators Disorders incited close to harvest CA, 1-MCP management to reduce disorders

42 Acknowledgements Dave Buchanan Janie Countryman Luiz Argenta Xuetong Fan Anne Plotto

43 Physiological and Horticultural Maturity Ethylene required for ripening Starch as a maturity index SSC, acidity, firmness as quality indicators Disorders incited close to harvest Volatiles/aroma maturity dependent Greasiness: A sign of ripening

44 Firmness Penetrometers measure outer portion fruit

45

46 Firmness Change with Distance into Fruit force distance

47 Firmness Softening can be non-uniform within fruit Firmness Texture

48 Fruit Firmness/Texture outer to coreline Core boundary Crispness Visco-elasticity (creep) Quality Factor

49 Fruit Firmness/Texture M1=lbs M2=lbs Co=creep QF=quality factor P(lb) QF: T(s) C(in) M1 M D(in)

50 Golden Delicious P(lb) QF: 94.9 Harvest Sep T(s) C(in) M1=15.5 M2= P(lb) QF: 55.9 Harvest Oct T(s) C(in) M1=15.5 M2= D(in) D(in)

51 Golden Delicious P(lb) Harvest Sep QF: T(s) C(in) M1=15.8 M2= P(lb) 0.3 Harvest Sep o C QF: T(s) C(in) M1= M2= D(in) D(in)

52 Gala: 2 months storage P(lb) QF: 16.3 air T(s) C(in) M1=14.4 M2= P(lb) QF: 78.0 CA T(s) C(in) M1=14.4 M2= D(in) D(in)

53 Apple Fruit Volatiles >300, aldehydes, alcohols, esters cultivar specific harvest maturity ethylene regulated storage environment

54 Apple Fruit Volatiles Unripe: aldehydes -green, grassy Ripe: esters -fruity, sweet Ester production regulated by ethylene

55 Delicious Volatile Production nl kg -1 h -1 August September

56 Fuji CO 2 Injury

57 Fuji firmness: 8 months lbs O 2 /CO 2 weeks CA delay

58 Delicious Volatile Production ul L -1 nl kg -1 h -1 August September

59 18 Golden Delicious firmness lbs control 1-MCP weeks CA (1% O 2, 3% CO 2 ) delay

60 Fuji internal browning: 8 months visual rating O 2 /CO 2 weeks CA delay

61 Maturity, ester, and ethylene production 100 µg or µl L Gala esters Gala ethylene Delicious esters Delicious ethylene days after full bloom

62 Golden Delicious volatile production Song and Bangerth, PBT, 1995

63 Peel Greasiness Can be present on mature fruit (Gala, Honeycrisp) A sign of ripening Fruit resources used to produce Prompt management for storage

64 Fuji CO 2 and C 2 H 4 production CO 2 C 2 H 4

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