1 University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Bulletins AgResearch Burley Tobacco Leaf Composition according to Position on the Stalk University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station David R. Bowman Beryl C. Nichols Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Agriculture Commons Recommended Citation University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station; Bowman, David R.; and Nichols, Beryl C., "Burley Tobacco Leaf Composition according to Position on the Stalk" (1953). Bulletins. The publications in this collection represent the historical publishing record of the UT Agricultural Experiment Station and do not necessarily reflect current scientific knowledge or recommendations. Current information about UT Ag Research can be found at the UT Ag Research website. This Bulletin is brought to you for free and open access by the AgResearch at Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. t has been accepted for inclusion in Bulletins by an authorized administrator of Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. For more information, please contact
2 BULLETN No. 229 FEBRUARY, 1953 Agriculture MAR BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON ACCORDNG TO POSTON ON THE STALK DAVD R. BOWMAN AND BERYL C. NCHOLS THE UNVERSTY OF TENNESSEE AGRCULTURAL EXPERMENT STATON in cooperation with THE BUREAU OF PLANT NDUSTRY, SOLS AND AGRCULTURAL ENGNEERNG, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRCULTURE
3 BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON ACCORDNG TO POSTON ON THE STALKl David R. Bowman and Beryl C. Nichols 2 NTRODUCTON Published analytical data on burley tobacco are not as extensive as on other tobacco types. A survey of the literature reveals very few data on the composition of the tobacco leaf in relation to its position on the plant. The primary object of this study was to determine the distribution of several chemical constituents in the lamina and midrib of each leaf on the plant and in the stalk. The study of each leaf position separately gives much more information on the relation of chemical composition to leaf position than is obtained when the usual method of separating into lower, middle, and upper leaves is employed. Also it was desired to determine whether the new variety Burley 1 is comparable in chemical composition to the established variety Kentucky 16. Chemical analyses for one crop year are included in this publication which is largely a preliminary report. Additional data are being accumulated and subsequent papers are planned. Burley tobacco is marketed on a grade basis, and the position of the leaves on the stalk is closely related to the grade. Therefore, the chemical composition of the leaves as related to position on the stalk should supply valuable information regarding their suitability for a particular use. Also it is of interest to determine the distribution of the various chemical constituents in different portions of the tobacco plant from an academic point of view. t is particularly important to know whether any sharp breaks occur in composition due to leaf position, because, if so, these would indicate differences in use value of the leaf. t is generally stated that tobacco, up to a certain grade but not beyond, is suitable for making cigarettes and it is important to know whether a sharp change occurs at this point with respect to any of the chemical constituents thought to be associated with quality. Anderson, Swanback and Street (1), and Hanmer, Street and Anderson (2), reported analyses of tobacco leaves according to position on the stalk in Connecticut cigar tobacco. Moseley, Harlan, and Hanmer (3) reported analyses of the nitrogenous fractions 1 Grateful acknowledgment is made to Dr. C. W. Bacon, Senior Physiologist; Dr. R. N. Jeffrey, Senior Physiologist; Dr. J. E. McMurtrey, Principal Physiologist; and Dr. D. M. Crooks, Head Horticulturist in Charge, Division of Tobacco, Medicinal and Special Crops, Beltsville, Maryland, for their assistance in the preparation of this paper; and to University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station staff members at Knoxville and Greeneville for their help in the preparation of samples and in the determination of analyses. 2 Plant Physiologist, and Agronomist respectively, Division of Tobacco, Medicinal and Special Crops.
4 BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON 3 of burley tobacco on farm grade basis from composite samples of a large number of farm crops of unknown varieties grown under many different but unknown cultural conditions. Other authors (4, 5, 6, 7) have reported analyses but only in relation to lower, middle, and top of plant. The tobacco used in these tests was grown in special plots at Greeneville, Tennessee, in 1949; and two varieties, Kentucky 16 and Burley 1, were used. Kentucky 16 is a variety widely grown throughout the burley belt. Burley 1 is a new variety, highly resistant to black root rot, (8) released jointly in 1950 by the Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture. The two varieties were set in adjacent plots of Hermitage silt loam soil on June 10, The land previously had received 10 tons of barnyard manure and 800 pounds of fertilizer per acre. Growing conditions in the early part of the season were excellent. Table 6 shows the daily rainfall for the months of June, July and August, Near the end of the growing season a period of relatively hot, dry weather caused some firing of the bottom leaves. The tobacco reported on in this paper, however, made goodgrowth and tobacco of similar size and appearance in nearby plots yielded about one ton of cured leaf per acre. When approximately 20 percent of the plants showed open flowers, Kentucky 16 was topped to 17 and Burley 1 to 22 leaves, these topping heights being considered normal for the varieties concerned. n order to prevent the loss of bottom leaves, four leaves were primed from Burley 1, and two from Kentucky 16 on September 1. Thirty plants of each variety were cut and placed in the curing barn on September 9. When properly cured, each variety was stripped according to leaf position. All No.1 leaves (beginning at the base of the stalk) of a variety comprised one sample, all No.2 leaves another sample, and so on. The leaves were stemmed, dried, weighed, and ground to pass a 1 mm. screen in a Wiley Mill. Leaf lamina, midrib, and stalk samples were analyzed separately. METHODS OF ANALYSS Nicotine. A modification of the method given by Garner, Bacon, Bowling, and Brown (9) was used. The sample size and the amounts of reagents were reduced one-half. The sample was put into a 4-ounce screw-cap bottle. A stainless steel fork was found better for mixing than a spatula and a small brush ("Mascara" brush) was found best for removing adhering particles from the fork. Marine white gasoline or petroleum ether was used as the solvent. A more efficient filtering device was developed consisting of a piece of 7 mm. glass tubing about four inches long, to one end of which was attached a piece of neoprene tubing about 11/2 inches long. The glass tube was loosely packed with absorbent cotton for about 2Vz inches. When prepared, the filter-tube can be attached
5 4 BULLETN No. 229 readily to a pipette, and a clear aliquot filtered and pipetted in one operation without having to place the bottle in a slanting position. One drop of modified methyl red indicator was added before titrating. (Modified methyl red: grams of methyl red and grams of methylene blue in 100 ml. of 95% ethanol). Chlorine. The method used was a modification of the official method (10, p. 129) for chlorine in plant tissue. A gram sample was put into a 250 ml. beaker and only enough 9570 ethanol added to moisten the tobacco. The ethanol acts as a wetting agent, so the silver nitrate solution added in the next step will readily mix with the tobacco. This step saves considerable time which otherwise would be required to get the tobacco into the silver nitrate solution. Enough standard N/10 AgN0 3 solution was added to insure an excess (usually 5 ml.) and the beaker swirled. Then 5 ml. of HNO R was added and the reaction allowed to subside. (The addition of too much ethanol can cause quite vigorous reaction at this point since ethanol and HNO R react violently in concentrated solutions). Another 5 ml. of HN0 3 was added and again the reaction was allowed to subside. The sides of the beaker were washed down with a little water and a final 5 ml. of HN0 3 was added. The beaker was placed on a steam bath for one-half hour, or until reaction ceased. The beaker was then removed and 15 ml. of 5% KMn04 solution was cautiously added from a pipet, swirling the beaker. The sides of the beaker were again washed down with water and it was returned to the bath. After one hour the beaker was removed, allowed to cool and 100 ml. of water added. To the contents of the beaker were added 1 ml. of mononitrobenzene, 2 ml. of a saturated solution of ferric ammonium sulfate, and 2 ml. of 0.1% tartrazine solution. The solution was titrated with strong stirring with a standardized thiosulfate solution. The use of nitrobenzene makes it possible to titrate the solution without filtering; and the tartrazine gives a yellow background for the titration and increases the sharpness of the end point. Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorus. The method by Toth, et al. (11) was used for preparation of the sample for analysis. A Perkin- Elmer Model 52-A flame photometer was used for the determination of potassium and calcium, and the internal standard procedure was followed. Phosphorus was determined, on an aliquot of the solution prepared for potassium and calcium, colorimetrically as the reduced phosphomolybdate complex, using a Klett Colorimeter. Magnesium. The colorimetric thiazole yellow method of Sterges and Macntire (12) was followed on an aliquot from the solution prepared for potassium and calcium. Total Nitrogen. The official method (10, p. 27, 2.27) was followed.
6 BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON 5 Acid nsoluble Nitrogen. The acetic acid method for protein nitrogen given by Garner, Bacon, Bowling, and Brown (9) was followed. Crude Ash. The sample was ashed at C in an electric muffle to a white or gray-white ash. Calculation. The percent of a component on the basis of the whole leaf was obtained by dividing the sum of the actual weights of that component in the two leaf parts by the dry weight of the whole leaf. All results are reported on the oven-dry basis. 35 (f) <t w a :::> a:: <.) l.l.. o f- Z w <.) a:: wa.. ::2: :::> (f) (f) ~ oa.. l.l.. o f- Z w <.) a:: wa POSTON OF LEAF COUNTNG FROM BASE OF STALK Figure.-Composition of individual leaves of burley tobacco according to position on the stalk. Burley 1: 0 lamina o midrib Kentucky 16: x lamina x midrib
7 6 BULLETN No. 229 RESULTS n Tables 1 to 4 are shown for each leaf on the plant of the two burley varieties the analyses of the leaf lamina, midrib, whole leaf and stalk. n Table 5 the maximum, minimum and mean ~ (J') (!)~ 3.5 -<t Wa::: 3:(!) 2.5 >-z a::: J ~ ~ ll. Z 40 0 ~ 3.0 Z W 2.5 O...J <teo ll.=> 1.5 O...J 0 ~(J') 0.5 Z 60 W 5.0 Z <..) Z 3.0 ll ~ 1.0.~.'...:::::::::::::::..~.....'X.0...0'.. _x_x _'' )(".- 0..' x_x_)t--x-x "'S::-x-x-x_X--x 0- _ '~_x/-, _0-0-0 ~~ 0"",,- 0 0 _ ~:~:.:::::::::::::::.::~:.:::~::::~::.::&::::li::::!!.::::~:':::~:::::~:"::~'::::ll:::::~...o-... o""o X---l(--lC-X-X-X-x_x-x-X-X-X--l(-X =:-x:: 0- _ o.. o POSTON OF LEAF COUNTNG FROM BASE OF STALK Figure 2.-Composition of individual leaves of burley tobacco according to position on the stalk. Burley 1: 0.lamina 0 midri b Kentucky 16:..x lamina x midrib
8 BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON 7 values of the same plant parts for the several constituents determinedare shown. Graphs of the values of crude ash, and potassium in the same plant parts of each variety are shown in Figure 1; and Figure 2 shows corresponding data for dry weight, total and acid insoluble nitrogen and nicotine. The graphs indicate the trends in chemical composition of the leaves more clearly than can be seen from the tables. Dry Weight. The dry weight of the lamina per leaf increases slightly at the higher leaf positions, but there is little difference in the midrib or whole leaf with stalk position. Nicotine. There is a rise in nicotine content of both lamina and midrib from bottom to top of plant. The results confirm previous observations that the midrib contains much less nicotine than the leaf lamina. The middle leaves in Kentucky 16 are slightly higher in nicotine than the middle leaves of Burley 1. The percent nicotine in the stalk is low and is approximately half that of the midrib, in both varieties. Nitrogen. There is a rise in the total nitrogen content of the leaves from base to top of plant, but the acid insoluble nitrogen shows no trends. Both fractions are lower in Burley 1 than in Kentucky 16. The acid insoluble fraction is composed predominantly of protein nitrogen which is vital to the life of the cell. The increase in nicotine content with leaf position is not sufficient to explain the increase in total nitrogen, thus there must be also an additional form or forms of soluble nitrogen which increase very markedly toward higher stalk position. The average percent of nitrogen in the stalk lies within the range of values found in the lamina and midrib fractions. Crude Ash. There is an overall tendency in both varieties for the ash content of the leaves to drop from base to at least the middle of the plant. t is not possible to determine how much of this decrease, particularly in the lower leaves, is due to differences in the quantity of soil particles, due to splashing from rain on the leaves near the ground. The percent of crude ash content of the midrib fractions is consistently higher than in the lamina. The percent ash in the stalk is lower than in either fraction of the leaf and is about half that of the total leaf. Potassium. There is an overall drop in potassium content of the leaves from base to middle of the stalk. This drop is not as great in the leaf lamina as in the midrib. The potassium content of the stalk more nearly approximates that of the lamina than the midrib, and is near that of the whole leaf. Calcium. The calcium content of the lamina falls from the base to the middle of the stalk, then remains nearly constant; whereas, the amount in the midrib continues to decrease. The
9 8 BULLETN No. 229 calcium content of the stalk is much lower than that of either leaf fraction or whole leaf. Phosphorous. The phosphorus content of both varieties, and both fractions and stalk, is relatively constant throughout the plant. Chlorine. The chlorine content of the leaf lamina increases slightly toward the top of the plant. n the midrib fraction the chlorine content seems to remain constant in Kentucky 16 and decreases slightly in Burley 1 at the higher leaf positions. The chlorine content of the stalk lies between that of lamina and midrib and is a little lower than that of the whole leaf. Magnesium. The magnesium percentage shows no definite trend according to leaf position. On the whole, the midrib fraction shows a slightly higher percent than the lamina. There is no consistent varietal difference in the magnesium content. The magnesium content of the stalk is much lower than that of either leaf fraction or the whole leaf. CONCLUSONS The rate of change in leaf composition with respect to the inorganic constituents with position on the plant is much more rapid on the lower half of the stalk than on the upper half. n moving from the bottom to the middle of the plant the percentage of crude ash, potassium, and calcium in the lamina decreases rapidly. The midrib fraction contains larger percentages of potassium, chlorine, magnesium and ash than the lamina. The percentage of total nitrogen and nicotine in the lamina increases in moving from the bottom of the plant upward. n the case of the data here reported this increase continues to the top of the plant, though the rate of increase in the upper half of the plant is less than in the lower half. The chemical composition of the new strain, Burley 1, is so similar to that of Kentucky 16 that the two varieties should be equally acceptable for manufacturing purposes as far as can be determined by analysis for these constituents.
10 TABLE -Dl)' weight, total nittogen, acid insoluble nittogen, nicotine, and ctude ash of individual leaves of Kentucky 16 butley tobacco accotding to position on the stalk. (Data on oven-dry basis) Position Dry Weight Total Nitrogen Acid nsoluble Nitrogen Nicotine Crude Ash t:d on c:: Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole ::0 Stalkl Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf t"' Grams Grams Grams Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent t':l ~ ~ t:d ;J> (') (') : t"' t':l ;J> t'%j (') ~ 'tl CJ ~ Z Average Stalk Stalk Stalk Stalk Stalk Counting from the base of the stalk.
11 TABLE 2-Elemental composition of individual leaves of Kentucky 16 burley tobacco accotding to position on the stalk. (Data on oven-dry basis)... o Position on Stalk = Average -Counting Potassium Calcium Magnesium Phosphorous Chlorine Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Stalk from the base of the stalk Stalk , Stalk Stalk Stalk
12 TABLE 3-Dry weight, total nitrogen, acid insoluu le nit1~ogen" nicotine and ctude ash of individual leaves of Burley 1 tobacco according to position on tlte stalk. (Data on oven-dry basis) Position Dry Weight Total Nitrogen Acid nsoluble Nitrogen Nicotine Crude Ash tli on Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole c:: Stalkl. Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf ::l:l Grams Grams Grams Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent t-< --- t%j ~ > tli >- (') (') t-< t%j > >%j (') , ~ "d r.tj > Z Average Stalk Stalk Stalk Stalk Stalk Counting from the base of the stalk
13 TABLE 4-Elemental composition of individual leaves of Burley 1 tobacco accol'ding to position on the stalk. (Data on oven-dry basis) ~ l\j Position Potassium Calcium Magnesium Phosphorous Chlorine on Whole Whole Whole Whole Whole Stalkl. Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Lamina Midrib leaf Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent tjj c::: t"' t"' t:<j ~ Z Z ? l\j l\j co Average Stalk Stalk Stalk Stalk Stalk i-counting from the base of the stalk.
14 BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON 13 TABLE 5-Coll1posilion Of Kelltllcliy 16 alld Bur/ey varieties (meall lin/lies for nll lenves, and sin/lis). KENT CKY 16 BURLEY 1 Lamina Midrib Whole Stalk Lamina Midrib Whole leaf Dry weight (grams), Maximum ! Mean Minimum \ \ \ Maximum rl nr :,;;"i Mean Minimum Maximum Mean Minimum Maximum Mean Minimum \ Acid insoluble nitrolen % Nicotine % 3.75 \ leaf Stalk Maximum Mean Minimum Maximum Mean Minimum Maximum Mean Minimum Crude Ash % \ \ Potassium % \ Calcium % Maximum Mean Minimum Magnesium % ' Maximum Mean Minimum Phosphorus % Maximum Mean Minimum , Chlorine % 1.44 '
15 14 BULLETN No. 229 TABLE 6-Rainfall at G1"eeneville, Tennessee for june, ju/)' and August, Day June July August TOTAL
16 BURLEY TOBACCO LEAF COMPOSTON 15 LTERATURE CTED 1. Anderson, P. J., Swanback, T. R and Street, O. K Variations in chemical composition of leaves according to position on the stalk. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 422 pp (1939). 2. Hanmer, H. R, Street, O. K and Anderson, P. J. Variation in chemical composition of cured tobacco leaves according to their position on the stalk. Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 433, pp (1940). 3. Moseley, J. M., Harlan, W. R and Hanmer, H. R. Burley tobacco: relation of the nitrogenous fractions to smoking quality. nd. & Eng. Chern. 43, (1951). 4. Darkis, F. R, Dixon, L. F., Wolf, F. A. and Gross, P. M. Flue-cured tobacco. nd. & Eng. Chern., nd. Ed. 28, (1936). 5. Vladescu, 1. D., Dimofte, 1., and Zaporojani, 1. Chemical composition of tobacco leaves harvested at different heights on the stalk. Bul. cultivari fermentarii Tutunului 25, (in French 398-9) (1936). 6. Vladescu, 1. D. Distribution of nutrient substances in tobacco. 1. Dry matter and nitrogen. Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 75, (1938). 7. Vladescu, 1. D. Distribution of nutrient substances in tobacco.. Protein. Z. Untersuch. Lebensm. 75, (1938). 8. Heggestad, H. K and Clayton, K E. Burley 1. A new black root rot resistant tobacco. Tenn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 106 (1951). 9. Garner, W. W., Bacon, C. K, Bowling, J. D. and Brown, D. K The nitrogen nutrition of tobacco. U. S. Dept. of Agr. Tech. Bul. 414 (1934). 10. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official and tentative methods of analysis. Ed. 6, 932 pp. (1945). 11. Toth, S. J., Prince, A. L., Wallace, A., and Mikkilson, D. S. Rapid quantitative determination of eight mineral elements in plant tissue by a systematic procedure involving use of a flame photometer. Soil Science 56, (1948). 12. Sterges, A. J., and Macntire, W. H. Magnesium content of plant tissue. Anal. Chern. 22, (1950).
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Coffee weather report November 10, 2017. awhere, Inc., an agricultural intelligence company, is pleased to provide this map-and-chart heavy report focused on the current coffee crop in Brazil. Global stocks