Research Project: American Indians in the 19th Century 4.G.iii, 4.G.v

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1 Name: USA Studies Weekly Date: Week 10, 2nd Quarter Research Project: American Indians in the 19th Century 4.G.iii, 4.G.v Read the article below to get some background information for the research project. American Indians in the 19th Century Imagine depending on the natural world around you for everything. American Indians hunted for food in the forests and plains, made their own tools from bones and rocks and wore clothes made from animal skins. The American Indians way of life also depended on their community. In each community, tribal members helped each other survive. As the people lived, worked and played together, every American Indian community developed its own unique culture (a way of life). The geography of the land determined where the American Indians lived. North America s diverse geography made it possible for many diverse American Indian cultures to exist. The American Indians depended on the natural world. Sometimes that dependence and their cultures clashed with the white settlers who spread across America in the 19th century. Many American Indian tribes were wiped out by war or disease after European settlers arrived. However, some features of these native cultures survived. Many American Indians took advantage of their often-limited opportunities, and many made important contributions to 19th century America. The Northeastern Culture Area (Iroquoian and Algonquian tribes): This area included land from the Great Lakes to the Ohio River and from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Coast. The American Indians in this area used the huge forests to survive. They hunted animals and gathered nuts and berries in the forests. These American Indians also grew food including corn, beans and squash. Those three foods are often called the Three Sisters because they were so important to the American Indians diet. The wood from the forests was used to make homes, tools and weapons. Tribes also fished in the lakes, rivers and the ocean. The Southeastern Culture Area (The Five Civilized Tribes Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole): This area included land from the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico and from Texas to the Atlantic Ocean. Because this area is a mixture of forests and grasslands, homes ranged from grass huts to wooden houses. The American Indians who lived in this area were mainly farmers who grew corn, beans and squash. The southeastern tribes were also hunters, fishers and gatherers. The Southwestern Culture Area (Pueblo, Navajo, Apache and many others): This area stretched from Utah and Colorado to northern Mexico and from Texas to the Pacific Ocean. Because this area is so dry, it was sometimes difficult to grow food. American Indians tried to grow corn, beans and squash. Some tribes raided other tribes and stole food. Others wandered the dry land looking for animals or plants to eat. The tribes lived near sources of water and made their homes from animal skins, rock or adobe. Adobe is a mixture of mud and straw that was shaped into blocks or bricks and dried. continued...

2 The Great Basin Culture Area (Paiute, Ute and Shoshone): This desert area is present-day Utah and Nevada. In some parts of this harsh environment, temperatures can range from 130 degrees during the day to below freezing at night. Water is scarce. So how did tribes live here? They gathered seeds, nuts and berries. They also dug in the ground for snakes, insects and rodents. Their houses were made from dry brush or rock. The Plateau Culture Area (Chinook, Nez Perce, Flathead and Spokane): This area includes the Columbia Plateau: present-day Washington, Oregon, a bit of California, northern Idaho and western Montana. The rivers in this area were very important to the tribes who lived here. They used salmon as their main food source. They also traveled the rivers to the Pacific Ocean to trade with other tribes. The Northwestern Culture Area (Haida, Chinook, Tillamook, Chimakum): This 150-mile wide area stretched from southern Alaska to northern California. It was a forested area that bordered the Pacific Ocean and included many rivers. These tribes lived in large cedar wood houses, and they had plenty of food. They did not go to war with other tribes. They made totem poles to honor their ancestors. One of their important traditions was the potlatch ceremony in which tribe members would show their wealth by giving away their possessions. The California Culture Area (Chumash, Shasta, Pomo): This area includes the western side of California, extending down into Baja California. This land was the most densely populated area of American Indians. They had plenty of food and lived peacefully. These tribes lived in wooden houses. The Great Plains Culture Area (Dakota, Pawnee, Blackfoot, Crow, Cheyenne, Arapaho): This area includes the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from central Canada to northern Texas. In this grassland region, water was sometimes scarce. American Indians hunted the buffalo as their main source of food. They used the buffalo, or American bison, for food, tools and weapons. They made clothing and built shelters from buffalo hides. These tribes roamed the grasslands as they followed the moving herds. They also gathered berries, nuts and seeds. Early on, these tribes used dogs to help them move their tent homes, carry their supplies and warn them of enemies. Life was difficult during these times because the American Indians could hunt only on the edges of the herds of buffalo. If the buffalo got even a whiff of the tribes getting close, they would run away. Hunting was so difficult, that they were not able to kill many buffalo and sometimes went hungry. Life changed when the American Indians discovered horses in the 17th century. The horses had run away from the Spanish. Riding the horses allowed the American Indians to kill many buffalo. Food became plentiful, and many more American Indians moved into this area. The Arctic/Subarctic Culture Area (Eskimo, Aleut, Inuit): This area includes Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. It was hard to survive in this environment of snow, ice and cold. The American Indians hunted and fished for their food. Food was scarce so the people shared food with each other. Cooperation was the only way they were able to survive.

3 Name: USA Studies Weekly Date: Week 10, 2nd Quarter Directions: Choose an American Indian tribe that was around during the 19th Century. Feel free to choose one of the tribes mentioned in the American Indians in the 19th Century article or another that you find. After you choose a tribe, prepare a presentation to share with your class. Focus on describing the opportunities and contributions of the tribe you have chosen. Try to answer the following questions: What major choices did American Indians in your tribe face during the 1800s? Who were some important leaders from your tribe during the 1800s? What contributions did these leaders make that helped their people? What are some things your tribe is still known for today? What were some of the often-limited opportunities American Indians had in the 19th century? Use the research project guide on the next page to help you organize information as you find it.

4 Name Date Steps of Creating a Research Project Research Project Template Identify the research question: Your teacher may assign a topic or allow you to choose one of your own. Locate information: Locate and use primary and secondary sources in print and online. You can find online primary and secondary sources by using an Internet keyword search. You can find primary and secondary sources in print by checking the library catalog or asking the reference librarian for help. Take notes: You can do this on the computer, on note cards or in a notebook. List sources: Make a list of the primary and secondary sources you used. Organize information: Put your notes into an outline to follow when you create your project. Choose a type of project: Your teacher may assign a type or allow you to choose one of your own. Include additional representations of information: You can add graphs, charts, timelines, maps, databases or illustrations to make your project more informative and interesting. Create the project: Start with a first draft, and then edit, revise and proof the project before making a final draft. Be sure to use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure and punctuation. Use the list of sources as a bibliography. Research Report Checklist (Check off each item as you complete the steps. Write specific information about your report on the lines.) Research question or topic: Notes (computer, note cards, notebook, other): Primary sources: Secondary sources: continued...

5 Outline complete Type of project: Additional representations of information (graph, chart, timeline, map, database, illustration, other): First draft complete Edit/revise/proof Final draft complete Bibliography complete

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