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1 Name Class Date The Early Americas BIG IDEAS 1. The Maya developed a civilization that thrived in Mesoamerica from about 250 until the 900s. 2. The strong Aztec Empire, founded in central Mexico in 1325, lasted until the Spanish conquest in The Incas controlled a huge, orderly empire in South America, but it was conquered by the Spanish. REVIEWING VOCABULARY, TERMS, AND PEOPLE Use the clues provided to fill in the crossword puzzle below Across 3. He and his troops conquered the Aztec Empire. 5. Spanish soldiers who came to the Americas to find gold, claim land, and convert natives to Christianity. Down 1. The Maya built these buildings to study astronomy. 2. The Aztec leader killed by the conquistadors. 4. He and his troops conquered the Inca Empire. 6. The official language of the Incas. 28 The Early Americas

2 Name Class Date The Early Americas, continued COMPREHENSION AND CRITICAL THINKING Read each of the following pairs of sentences, and cross out the FALSE sentence. 1. a. The Inca Empire was in South America. b. The Inca Empire was in central Mexico. 2. a. Aztec civilization was made up of many city-states, with no single ruler. b. Maya civilization was made up of many city-states, with no single ruler. 3. a. The Spanish conquered the Mayas and the Aztecs. b. The Spanish conquered the Incas and the Aztecs. 4. a. Tenochtitlán was a grand city in the Aztec Empire. b. Tenochtitlán was a grand city in the Inca Empire. REVIEWING THEMES Using the themes listed below, determine which is identified by each statement. Themes geography politics economics technology and innovation society and culture religion 1. The Maya developed a calendar that was more accurate than the one used in Europe at that time. 2. Some Inca roads had steps cut into the hillside. REVIEW ACTIVITY: THREE CIVILIZATIONS COMPARISON CHART Create a chart that shows the similarities and differences of the civilizations of the Maya, the Aztecs, and the Incas. Model your chart based on the one shown below. For each theme, list examples for each civilization that show how each was alike and different from the others. Society and Culture Maya Aztec Inca 29 The Early Americas

3 History and MAP ACTIVITY 1. Tenochtitlán should be labeled. 2. Colors will vary. 3. Pacific Ocean 4. Gulf of Mexico ANALYZING MAPS 1. Mexico City 2. Lake Texcoco 3. Xoconocho 4. Tenochtitlán, Tlacopán, and Texcoco 5. The causeways and canals allowed for the Aztecs to travel back and forth from the shore to their capital city. These both made travel and trade much easier. EXTENSION ACTIVITY Answers will vary. Bridge models may include, stone, wood, rocks, gold, etc. and History WHAT DID YOU LEARN? You may wish to verify that students lists and answers to activity questions are properly completed. 1. The Inca government 2. The government 3. The government 4. Economies were simpler during the Inca era. There were not so many goods, services, and people to be controlled. Social Studies Skills PRACTICE THE SKILL Students answers will vary, but could demonstrate understanding that Maya farmers probably talked with each other and decided to move away from the cities in order to survive. REVIEWING VOCABULARY, TERMS, AND PEOPLE 1. observatories 2. Moctezuma 3. Cortés 4. Pizarro 5. conquistadors 6. Quecha COMPREHENSION AND CRITICAL THINKING 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b REVIEWING THEMES 1. technology and innovation 2. geography REVIEW ACTIVITY: THREE CIVILIZATIONS COMPARISON CHART Students charts will vary. The following chart shows a sampling of possible answers. Maya Central Mexico to Central America; Lowlands and tropical forests No central government; City-states, local kings Farming, trading, building. Goods: forest goods, cotton, cacao beans, obsidian, jade, bird feathers Lower class paid rulers with crops and goods APPLY THE SKILL Students might write that Parks, a tired middle-aged housekeeper, must have been afraid, but determined to go ahead. 39 The Early Americas

4 Technology and Society and Culture Used tools made of obsidian; constructed buildings; built canals and plazas; Built observatories; Created two calendars; Skilled mathematicians; Measured time accurately; Used number system for record-keeping; Used a symbol for zero; Developed writing system Villages, large cities, temples; local kings; Upper class: king, priests, merchants, and noble warriors; Lower class: most people Many gods; Human sacrifices Aztec Central Mexico; Swaps; Lake Texcoco; Capital was island city-tenochtitlán Central government; War-key to rise to power; Demanded tribute from conquered people; Ruled by an emperor Farming; Huge trade network; Imports: cotton, gold, food; Tenochtitlán, a bustling marketplace Built causeways and chinampas; Created calendar; Kept careful written records Society and Culture Highest class: emperor; nobles; noble positions passed down to sons; 2nd highest class: priests and warriors; Next level: merchants and artisans; Lower class: Farmers and laborers; Lowest class: slaves; Architects, sculptors, artisans, hand-woven cloth; Valued learning; Oral tradition Many gods; Many human sacrifices; War used to find victims for sacrifices Inca South America; Capital was Cuzco; Stretched from Ecuador to Chile; Coastal deserts, mountains, valleys, and forests Central government; Official language; Trained conquered people in Inca government and religion Farming; No markets; Controlled by government; Labor tax mita Masonry, road builders; art pottery and jewelry; weavers; No writing system 40 The Early Americas

5 Society and Culture Two social classes: upper and lower; Upper class: emperor, priest, government officials; Lower class: farmers, artisans, servants; No slaves; Oral tradition Official religion; Sun god; Believed rulers related to sun god; Sacrifices of llamas, cloth, or food 41 The Early Americas

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