Late season leaf health CORRELATION OF VINEYARD IMAGERY WITH PINOT NOIR YIELD AND VIGOUR AND FRUIT AND WINE COMPOSITION. 6/22/2010

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1 // Not all vineyard blocks are uniform This is because of soil variation primarily, especially in factors which affect the supply of water This has a direct effect on vine vigour, which in turn has a direct effect on wine quality So a vineyard block contains zones which produce grapes with different potential for wine quality Should we mix them by harvesting grapes together? CORRELATION OF VINEYARD IMAGERY WITH PINOT NOIR YIELD AND VIGOUR AND FRUIT AND WINE COMPOSITION. Reuben Wells Dr Richard Smart Dr Steve Wilson Late season leaf health Tamar Ridge Sauvignon blanc Differential harvesting used to improve quality Identification of burn zone

2 Leaf count Counts Vigour score Node count YAN (mg/l) Shoot Diameter (mm) // Burn zone impact Additive Also a loss of topsoil from scalping around pile. 7 Fruit from the burn zone had: Higher ph and lower TA Lower sugars Higher YAN Vigour Brix ph TA (g/l).7b.a 7.7b.a.b.a 7 Vigour scorecard Assessed leaf layer number, leaf size, percent gaps, fruit exposure, leaf colour and leaf loss. A higher score means more vigour.... Leaf layer and external leaves Leaf layer External leaves Gap counts and yellow leaves Yellow leaves Gaps Vigour zone 9 7 Main shoot nodes Lateral nodes Shoot diameter Node numbers and shoot diameters

3 Acid (g/l) CCM reading YAN (mg/l) kg YAN (mg/l) // Cane wt Pruning wt.a.9a.a.9a.b 7.b 9.7c.c Pruning weight also rose with vigour class CCM reading Fv/m Leaf health differences across the vigour zones. Yield impact So, as we expected, the PCD was very good at discriminating between different vigour classes. We then went on to assess the fruit differences across the vigour zones..... yield per vine 7 yield per vine In this situation vigour mapping cannot be classed as a de facto yield mapping... Row Row Row Row 7 TA 7 Malic acid No significant sugar differences No ph differences in 7 Acid notable increase in both years, probably due to malic acid. YAN 7 YAN

4 Baumé Tannin g/l //... Fermentation rates Anthocyanin ionization Anthocyanin ionization Vig (Low) Vig Vig Vig (High) A measure of the percent of anthocyanins visible in the wine.. V V V V 7 -. Hours post inoculation Colour Density Colour density There was no major differences in the colour density between vigour zones Tannin content...9. Tannin A major difference in tannin content between vigour zones..... V V V V. V V V V Colour Stability SO Resistant Pigments V V V V There was also an increase in the colour stability of the wines from lower vigour zones. Wine colour Vigour Density Hue.9b.7a.b.7a.a.79b.a.c

5 Col density (AU) // Low Vigour High Vigour Low High WINE COLOUR DENSITY 9 7

6 Total phenolics (AU) Anthocyanin Total Pigment (AU) Tannin (g/l) // ANTHOCYANIN TOTAL PIGMENT TOTAL PHENOLICS TANNIN..... Europes largest vineyard, ha Owned by members of Codorniu family Growers are winery owners Asked me in to develop a wine grape classification system to allow fair pricing and payment for quality. Had to be science-based, transparent, verifiable To be applied to 9 ha of Cabernet, Merlot, Tempranillo, Syrah Aerial infrared imagery, Specterra WA, flown veraison Vineyard monitoring, each th vine in th row timing veraison, lignification Growing tips at veraison Sunlight into Wine scorecard Leaf health and water stress Microvinification with sensory and chemical analysis

7 // A ultrapremium 7 B premium C commercial D E reject because of high vigour reject because of high variability (or differential harvest) Winery reported substantial improvement in quality Due to much better irrigation using growing tips as a guide Due to differential harvesting Evaluated microvins by chemical and sensory analysis 7

8 // Most useful attributes: Shoot length Shoot spacing Canopy gaps Leaf layer number Mean and SD of PCD Growing tips Lignification Rate of veraison

9 // VARIABILIDAD STD PCD PUNTAS CRECIMIENTO % s/brotes VIGOR PCD CLASIFICACION ALTA STD PCD> E MEDIA >STD PCD> >% PUNTAS <% PUNTAS VIGOR > > VIGOR > D C B, C > VIGOR B, C BAJA STD PCD< >% PUNTAS <% PUNTAS > VIGOR D B, C 9

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