The Low Down on High Yields: Challenging Yield-Quality Standards for Oregon Pinot Noir

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1 February 22, 2017 Oregon Wine Symposium, Portland, OR The Low Down on High Yields: Challenging Yield-Quality Standards for Oregon Pinot Noir Dr. Patty Skinkis, Viticulture Extension Specialist & Associate Professor, OSU 1

2 tons/acre Harvest Yields Highest yields on record year mean: 2.2 T/A Increasing plant density/a Pinot Noir All cultivars USDA-NASS , SOURCE

3 Yield Management of Pinot noir 73% Reasons for cluster thinning Hasten ripening Increase fruit quality Decrease Botrytis Sustain vine health/balance Target inventory Yield reduction: 25 to 50% Cost: $ /A 89% conduct cluster thinning 67% target 2 to 2.75 T/A Uzes & Skinkis, J. of Extension 2016

4 Statewide Crop Load Project Patty Skinkis, James Osborne, Elizabeth Tomasino, Paul Schreiner, Katie McLaughlin Can we better manage yields? Objectives 1. Engage industry directly in research 2. Understand crop level, site characteristics, and vintage variation on vine health, fruit/wine quality 3. Define metrics for yield management to balance quality with market price and production economics

5 Industry Collaborators companies 5 AVAs Adelsheim Airlie Atlas Vineyard Management Dion Vineyard Bethel Heights Domaine Drouhin Lemelson Chehalem Johan Vineyards Domaine Serene Ken Wright Cellars A to Z Archery Summit Stoller Willakenzie Winemakers Investment Properties Results Partners LLC Van Duzer Winters Hill

6 Experimental Design Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Buffer Row Buffer Row Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) 2 or more crop levels 3 replicates 1-3 acre blocks Protocols for data collection 10-vine sections for data collection Clusters/ Shoot Thinning pattern No thinning -

7 Vineyard Data Collection Fruitfulness (inflorescences/shoot) Cluster thinning Lag phase - cluster counts, weights Véraison - Mineral Nutrient Sampling (macro- and micros) Harvest - yield, fruit composition, wine production Air temp GDD Winter - Dormant pruning weights Phenology Reports

8 Yield & Fruit Composition Ripeness Nutrients Color Phenolics/ Indicators Brix Potassium Total Anthocyanin Catechin ph YAN (ammonia, AAA) Polymeric Anthocyanin Tannin TA Quercetin

9 Summary statistics report one site, one year ANOVA 2015 VINEYARD 6810 Treatments: 1 cluster/shoot 50% of Full Crop No Thin p-value* fruitfulness (# inflorescences/shoot) fruitfulness # Shoots/vine fruitfulness clusters/vine pre-thinning - # clusters/vine yield (kg/vine) 2.07 ab 1.48 b 2.92 a yield (kg/m) 0.57 ab 0.41 b 0.80 a - yield (lb/ft) 0.38 ab 0.27 b 0.54 a - harvest - # clusters/vine 29 b 25 b 43 a harvest - cluster wt (g) , KW dormant shoots/vine pruning weight (kg/vine) Cumulative 0.78 Results: pruning weight (kg/m) pruning weight (lb/ft) cane weight (g) all years Ravaz (yield/pruning Wt) Partridge TSS ( Brix) all sites ph TA (g/l) malate (g/l) tartrate (g/l) glucose + fructose (g/l) ammonia N (mg/l) alpha amino acid N (mg/l) YAN (mg/l) K (mg/l) catechin (mg/l) quercetin glycosides (mg/l) tannin (mg/l) polymeric anthocyanins (mg/l) total anthocyanins (mg/l) 1116 a 979 b 968 b p-value indicates statistical significance or difference in means If p<0.05, then means are different How do the means differ? Means separation procedures used Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test. Different letters mean that treatments are different.

10 GDD50 Seasonal Heat Units & Phenology Cumulative GDD 50 vs Phenology Date Harvest Bud Break Bloom 0 3/16 4/15 5/15 6/14 7/14 8/13 9/12 10/12 Date Air temperatures from Agrimet - Aurora, OR Lag Véraison

11 GDD50 Heat Units & Phenology by Site GDD 50 Accumulation Veraison - Harvest Lag Phase - Veraison Bloom - Lag Phase Budbreak - Bloom April 1 - Nov 1 Vineyard

12 Véraison to Harvest GDD & TSS

13 Yield (lb/ft) Yield Variation Year 1.20

14 Yield (lb/ft) Yield Variation Treatment x Year % 38% 23% 12% cl/sht 1 cl/sht 1.5 cl/sht 2 cl/sht no thinning Cluster thinning treatment

15 Yield (lb/ft) Yield Variation Treatment x Year Heavy crop years cl/sht 1 cl/sht 1.5 cl/sht 2 cl/sht no thinning Cluster thinning treatment

16 Yield (lb/ft) Harvest Yields by Treatment 2.50 Comparison of 1 cluster/shoot and No Thin lb/ft T/A cl/sht 1 cl/sht 1.5 cl/sht 2 cl/sht no thinning Cluster thinning treatment

17 Crop Level Differences by Site Fruit Composition TSS (Brix) ph TA glucose + fructose tartaric acid malic acid potassium Yeast assimilable N (YAN) polymeric anthocyanin total anthocyanin catechin quercetin glycosides tannin catechin: tannin poly anthocyanin: tannin Total sites

18 Crop Load (Yield/PW) and Basic Ripening BRIX ph TA

19 Crop Level Differences by Site Fruit Composition TSS (Brix) ph TA glucose + fructose tartaric acid malic acid potassium Yeast assimilable N (YAN) polymeric anthocyanin total anthocyanin catechin quercetin glycosides tannin catechin: tannin poly anthocyanin: tannin Total sites

20 Yield & Anthocyanin anthocyanin concentration with yield Total Anthocyanin: 10-40% of sites 171 mg/l Polymeric Anthocyanin: 20-42% of sites 2.2 mg/l Higher yielding years = greater impact 3 sites have shown consistent effect for 3 years

21 Crop load (yield/pruning wt) effect Total Anthocyanin by Year Total Anthocyanin x Site Crop Load = yield relative to vine size

22 Crop load (yield/pruning wt) effect Polymeric Anthocyanin by Year Polymeric Anthocyanin x Site Crop Load = yield relative to vine size

23 Total Anthocyanin (mg/l) Yield & Anthocyanin 1200 Vineyard 3370, y = x R² = p= y = x R² = p= y = x R² = p< Tons/A Yield (lb/ft)

24 Anthocyanin Physiology or Microclimate? Overlapping clusters Full crop > thinned High yield years, big clusters Cluster zone leaf removal Full crop less removal with fewer labor passes

25 total Anthocyanin (mg/l) Anthocyanin Physiology or Microclimate? Vineyard y = x R² = p< Leaf removal effect? Quercetin increases in Pinot noir under sunlight exposure Quercetin glycosides (mg/l)

26 Summary Site and year impacts quality > yield Greater yield-quality potential than expected (full crop not best) Lowest yield not a guarantee for quality Impacts on vine size, nutrient status may be minor or take many years Cluster thinning effects may not be related to source limitations (canopy) Anthocyanin effect only in high yield years suggests microclimate effect Further statistical analyses underway

27 Continued Work Vine balance effects (source-sink) Microclimate effects Whole system analysis Vineyard Winery Economics Decision making Develop dynamic metrics Vine size/balance Nutrition Production goals Site characteristics Vintage variation and prediction

28 Continued Work: Wine Quality Impact OWRI Winemaker Panel NEW: In-house wine evaluation Individual vs group Comparative quality rank Preference Fate of production

29 Wine Tasting 1. Chehalem Wines 2014 Cultivar Clone Rootstock AVA Planted Vines/A Pinot noir Pommard 3309 C Ribbon Ridge Ken Wright Cellars 2014 Cultivar Clone Rootstock AVA Planted Vines/A Pinot noir Pommard 3309 C Eola Amity Adelsheim Vineyard Cultivar Clone Rootstock AVA Planted Vines/A Pinot noir Wadenswil 3309 C Chehalem Mountain

30 Crop Levels Revealed Label Company Vintage Crop Level Yield (lb/ft) 1A Chehalem T/A B Chehalem T/A A Ken Wright Cellars cluster/shoot B Ken Wright Cellars 2014 No thinning A Adelsheim cluster/shoot B Adelsheim cluster/shoot /2/2017 3:34 PM 30

31 Acknowledgements Funding: Oregon Wine Research Institute Oregon Wine Board Industry collaborators Skinkis Lab Members (present & past) Amelia Doyle Michael Kennedy Justin Litwin Alejandra Navarrete Alison Reeve Miranda Ulmer 3/2/2017 3:34 PM

32 Questions? Patty Skinkis, Ph.D. Department of Horticulture Oregon Wine Research Institute Oregon State University 3/2/2017 3:34 PM

33 Grape Day, April 6, 2017 Management of Trunk Disease, Grapevine Viruses and Fungicide Resistance Management of Grapevine trunk diseases: a difficult but not impossible task- José Ramón Úrbez-Torres, Pacific Agri-food Research Centre, British Columbia Red Blotch in Oregon- Vaughn Walton, OSU Oregon State University Campus, Corvallis Grapevine Leafroll Disease Impact- Laurent Deluc, OSU Grape Powdery Mildew Management: An Integrated Approach- Brent Warneke, OSU Effects of Red Blotch on Wine Quality- Anita Oberholster, UC Davis Interactive Poster Session featuring more of the latest research and information! For more information and registration:

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