Measured effects of elevated temperature on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Measured effects of elevated temperature on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes"

Transcription

1 Measured effects of elevated temperature on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes Victor Sadras, Martin Moran & Paul Petrie South Australian R&D Institute, Treasury Wine Estates Funded by Grape and Wine R&D Corporation State NRM Program Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Vintage Melbourne, 19 th June 2013

2 Aims Methods, data sources and reliability Measured effects of elevated temperature on: time of harvest yield berry traits juice and wine attributes

3 Papers retrieved searching temperature + grapevine (Web of Science) 160 Number of publications Number of citations Year

4 Effect of temperature on vines and wines: indirect vs direct methods Indirect methods comparison between regions, vintages, row orientation large confounded effects Direct methods side-by-side experimental comparison of treatments involving different temperatures large to small confounded effects

5 Sadras & Petrie 2011 Austr J Grape Wine Res 17, 199 Regional or seasonal comparisons confound temperature with radiation, humidity, etc (+ soil, + management) Indirect methods cannot prove cause and effect Regional classification as a function of temperature is ok for marketing but is an oversimplification

6 Sadras & Petrie 2011 Austr J Grape Wine Res 17, 199 Regional or seasonal comparisons confound temperature with radiation, humidity, etc (+ soil, + management) Indirect methods cannot prove cause and effect Regional classification as a function of temperature is ok for marketing but is an oversimplification

7 Sadras & Petrie 2011 Austr J Grape Wine Res 17, 199 Regional or seasonal comparisons confound temperature with radiation, humidity, etc (+ soil, + management) Indirect methods cannot prove cause and effect Regional classification as a function of temperature is ok for marketing but is an oversimplification

8 Sadras & Petrie 2011 Austr J Grape Wine Res 17, 199 Regional or seasonal comparisons confound temperature with radiation, humidity, etc (+ soil, + management) Indirect methods cannot prove cause and effect Regional classification as a function of temperature is ok for marketing but is an oversimplification

9 Sadras & Petrie 2011 Austr J Grape Wine Res 17, 199 Regional or seasonal comparisons confound temperature with radiation, humidity, etc (+ soil, + management) Indirect methods cannot prove cause and effect Regional classification as a function of temperature is ok for marketing but is an oversimplification

10 Large scale open-top heating systems (9 vines per rep x 3 reps + buffers) Passive, daytime +2 to 4 o C Active/Passive, day & night +2 o C Experiments 1 and 2 Experiment 3

11 Temperature (ºC) /10/10 10/10/10 19/10/10 28/10/ /1/11 10/1/11 19/1/11 28/1/ /3/11 10/3/11 19/3/11 28/3/ Spring control heated 1/10/10 10/10/10 19/10/10 28/10/10 Summer 1/1/11 10/1/11 19/1/11 28/1/11 Autumn 1/3/11 10/3/11 19/3/11 28/3/11 Winter Vapor pressure deficit (kpa) Design Criteria 1. Reproduces the daily and seasonal cycles of temperature and vapour pressure deficit. 2. Does not increase relative humidity, hence allowing for increased vapour pressure deficit. 3. Minimises biologically important secondary effects. 4. Has structural strength to withstand the weather (particularly wind) to ensure a reasonable longevity. 5. Allows for number and size of replicates required for statistical resolution and viticultural needs, including sufficient fruit for meaningful wine production. 0 1/6/11 10/6/11 19/6/11 28/6/11 1/6/11 10/6/11 19/6/11 28/6/11 Date 0.0

12 Probing for experimental artefacts

13 Malic acid (mg g fwt -1 ) Sweetman et al (unpublished) Control Heated Time after anthesis (d) Thermal time after anthesis ( o C d)

14 100 control Living tissue (%) heated Days after anthesis Thermal time after anthesis ( o Cd) Bondada et al 2013 Austr J Grape Wine Res 19: 97

15 Experiments Exp 1 2 temperatures (high, control) x 4 varieties x 3 seasons Exp 2 (Shiraz) 2 temperatures x 2 fruit loads (thinned, control) x 2 seasons Exp 3 (Shiraz) 2 temperatures x 2 water regimes (irrigated, deficit) x 2 seasons

16 experiments explored a good range of Barossa seasonal variation Temperature ( o C) th 90 th 10 SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR Month

17 Traits Phenology Yield and components Pruning weight and components Starch reserves in trunk and roots Stomatal conductance, density and size Photosynthesis Leaf chlorophyll Pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential Canopy and bunch temperature Sap flow Berry: dynamics of TA, ph, TSS and anthocyanins Berry progression of cell death Sensory traits in berries and wines

18 divergent parallel convergent Phenological stage heated control Time (d) Temperature effect (heated - control) divergent parallel convergent Phenological stage in control 20

19 nonlinear thermal effect on grapevine phenology lag-phase to onset of rapid sugar accumulation active sugar accumulation in fruit 6 Temperature effect ( o Brix) Shiraz, Exp. 1, irrigated Shiraz, Exp. 1, deficit Shiraz, Exp. 2, unthinned Shiraz, Exp. 2, thinned Cab Franc, Exp Chardonnay, Exp Semillon, Exp Shiraz, Exp Shiraz, Exp. 1, irrigated Shiraz, Exp. 1, deficit Shiraz, Exp. 2, unthinned Shiraz, Exp. 2, thinned Cab Franc, Exp Chardonnay, Exp Semillon, Exp Shiraz Exp ± 0.37 Developmental stage in control ( o Brix) Sadras & Moran 2013 Agric Forest Meteorol 173:107 21

20 smaller than expected effect of temperature on maturity (21.6 o Brix) Experiments Approx 3 d o C -1 Indirect methods 6.6 ± 0.92 d o C -1 (Petrie and Sadras 2008) 8 d o C -1 (Tomasi et al 2011) 9.8 ± 0.94 d o C -1 (Sadras and Petrie 2011) Sadras & Moran 2013 Agric Forest Meteorol 173:107

21 Traits Phenology Yield and components Pruning weight and components Starch reserves in trunk and roots Stomatal conductance, density and size Photosynthesis Leaf chlorophyll Pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential Canopy and bunch temperature Sap flow Berry: dynamics of TA, ph, TSS and anthocyanins Berry progression of cell death Sensory traits in berries and wines

22 asymmetric effect of warming on yield 46% reduction to 177% increase Yield heated (kg per vine) y= x Yield control (kg per vine) Cab Franc 2010 Cab Franc 2011 Cab Franc 2012 Chardonnay 2010 Chardonnay 2011 Chardonnay 2012 Semillon 2010 Semillon 2011 Semillon 2012 Shiraz 2010 Shiraz 2011 Shiraz 2012 Shiraz, thinned 2011 Shiraz, unthinned 2011 Shiraz, thinned 2012 Shiraz, unthinned 2012 Shiraz, irigated 2011 Shiraz, deficit 2011 Shiraz, irrigated 2012 Shiraz, deficit 2012 exp. 1 exp. 2 exp. 3 Sadras & Moran 2013 Agric Forest Meteorol 173:116

23 2 Temperature effect on yield (%) (a) no temperature effect significant interaction significant temperature effect -50 r 2 = 0.92 P < Residuals (%) Temperature effect on bunch number (%)

24 Temperature effect on bunch number (%) Temperature effect on bunch number (%) 120 r 2 = 0.32 P = (c) Bunch number in control (vine -1 )

25 elevated temperature reduced starch concentration in trunk Starch concentration in heated (%) 25 (a) root 15 (b) trunk y = x P = y = x Starch concentration in control (%) P = Sadras & Moran 2013 Agric Forest Meteorol 173:116

26 leaves formed under high temperature had larger stomata Frequency (%) control (n = 1025) heated (n = 886) P < Stomata lenght ( m) Sadras et al Agric Forest Meteorol 165:35

27 Traits Phenology Yield and components Pruning weight and components Starch reserves in trunk and roots Stomatal conductance, density and size Photosynthesis Leaf chlorophyll Pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential Canopy and bunch temperature Sap flow Berry: dynamics of TA, ph, TSS and anthocyanins Berry progression of cell death Sensory traits in berries and wines

28 temperature effect on TA and ph is strongly dependent on variety Vintage Variety TA (g L -1 ) ph control heated control heated 2010 Semillon 6.4 ± ± ± ± Chardonnay 4.9 ± ± ± ± Shiraz 5.7 ± ± ± ± Cab Franc 5.3 ± ± ± ± Semillon 4.9 ± ± ± ± Chardonnay 5.3 ± ± ± ± Shiraz 7.2 ± ± ± ± Cab Franc 6.6 ± ± ± ± Source of variation variety (V) temperature (T) season (S) V x T V x S T x S V x T x S Sadras et al Austr J Grape & Wine Res 19, 107

29 Phenotypic plasticity allows for complex variety x environment interaction Trait high plasticity low plasticity Environment

30 text-book expected increase in ph and reduction in TA with high temperature is an oversimplification Titatrable acidity (g L -1 ) 9 6 (a) Cabernet Franc Chardonnay Plastic b P < b P < (b) Semillon Shiraz Non-plastic Titratable acidity environmental mean (g L -1 ) b = 0 P = 0.72 b = 0 P = 0.82 Sadras et al Austr J Grape & Wine Res 19, 107

31 text-book expected increase in ph and reduction in TA with high temperature is an oversimplification ph Cabernet Franc Chardonnay Semillon Plastic b P < b P < 0.06 b P < 0.02 (c) (d) Shiraz Non-plastic b = 0 P = ph environmental mean Sadras et al Austr J Grape & Wine Res 19, 107

32 trait decoupling Thermal decoupling is the consequence of differential responses of related traits. Balanced fruit Decoupled fruit Sugars Anthocyanins ph TA Flavour compounds temperature TA Sugars Anthocyanins ph Flavour compounds

33 elevated temperature decoupled anthocyanins and sugars in Shiraz and Cab franc 3 Anthocyanins (mg g -1 ) 2 1 n = 300 Exp. 1, 2010 Exp. 1, 2011 Exp. 2, 2011 Exp. 3, 2011 R 2 = 0.88 P < phase 1 phase Total soluble solids ( o Brix) Sadras & Moran 2012 Austr J Grape & Wine Res 18, 115

34 elevated temperature decoupled anthocyanins and sugars Anthocyanins (mg g -1 ) Residuals (mg g -1 ) control P < heated Total soluble solids ( o Brix) R 2 = 0.76 P < n = 268 control heated Sadras & Moran 2012 Austr J Grape & Wine Res 18, 115

35 elevated temperature decoupled anthocyanins and sugars by delaying pigment development in a brix scale Anthocyanins (mg/g) 1.5 Exp. 3, Shiraz control heated TSS ( o Brix)

36 water deficit partially restored the anthocyanin : sugar balance 1.5 Antocyanins (mg/g) Total soluble solids ( o Brix) fully irrigated water deficit Sadras & Moran 2012 Austr J Grape & Wine Res 18, 115

37 temperature decoupled sensory berry traits Cabernet Franc 2010 skin herebaceus aromas skin fruity aromas skin tannic intensity berry colour berry softness control heated skin desintegration berry stalk removal skin astringency pulp acidity skin acidity pulp detachment seed tannic intensity** pulp fruity aromas seed flavours* seed crushability* seed colour*** pulp herbaceus aromas pulp juiciness pulp sweetness seed astringency Sadras et al Austr J Grape & Wine Res 19, 95

38 temperature decoupled sensory berry traits Cabernet Franc 2010 skin herebaceus aromas skin fruity aromas skin tannic intensity berry colour berry softness control heated skin desintegration berry stalk removal skin astringency pulp acidity skin acidity pulp detachment seed tannic intensity** pulp fruity aromas seed flavours* seed crushability* seed colour*** pulp herbaceus aromas pulp juiciness pulp sweetness seed astringency Sadras et al Austr J Grape & Wine Res 19, 95

39 strong variety x season x temperature effect on wine sensory traits 2010 vintage 1.0 Semillon more intense trait in controls no temperature effect Score green leaf *** * rich mouth feel ** ripe flavours Shiraz more intense trait in heated treatment 1.0 Cabernet Franc berry floral ripe flavours *** cooked fruit -1.0 green leaf lighter palate tannin structure varietal character Wine attribute Sadras et al Austr J Grape & Wine Res 19, 107

40 Conclusions

41 In a warmer Barossa Nonlinear effect on phenology Smaller than expected effect on maturity (3 days per o C) Asymmetric effect on yield mediated by bunch number 46% reduction to 177% increase Apparent depletion of starch in trunks? Larger, more open stomata; leaf transpiration and photosynthesis per unit leaf area Variety-dependent responses (ph, TA) Decoupling of berry traits and wine attributes

42 Can we shift phenology and restore berry and wine balance with late pruning? By Paul Petrie, this meeting

43 A window into hotter and drier futures: questions, comments, report: phenological shifts and adaptive practices Final Report to Grape and Wine Research & Development Corporation Project Number: SAR July June 2012 Victor Sadras, Martin Moran and Paul Petrie December 2012 Thank you

Wine is G x E x M, twice

Wine is G x E x M, twice Growing quality grapes in a warming climate Victor Sadras, Martin Moran, Marcos Bonada, Paul Petrie Wine is G x E x M, twice 7 th Australian Wine Industry Environment Conference, 5 Sep 1 The phenotype

More information

What Effect do Nitrogen Fertilization Rate and Harvest Date Have on Cranberry Fruit Yield and Quality?

What Effect do Nitrogen Fertilization Rate and Harvest Date Have on Cranberry Fruit Yield and Quality? What Effect do Nitrogen Fertilization Rate and Harvest Date Have on Cranberry Fruit Yield and Quality? Bernadine Strik, Professor of Horticulture Extension Berry Crops Specialist, Oregon State University

More information

Do lower yields on the vine always make for better wine?

Do lower yields on the vine always make for better wine? Grape and wine quality Increasing quality Do lower yields on the vine always make for better wine? Nick Dokoozlian Viticulture, & Enology E&J Gallo ry Do lower yields on the vine always make for better

More information

The impact of smoke exposure on different grape varieties. Renata Ristic and Kerry Wilkinson

The impact of smoke exposure on different grape varieties. Renata Ristic and Kerry Wilkinson The impact of smoke exposure on different grape varieties Renata Ristic and Kerry Wilkinson Flavours Colour Tannins TA ph Anthocyanins SMOKE TAINT MAGIC BOX OF KNOWLEDGE What Grape to do varieties in a

More information

Optimising harvest date through use of an integrated grape compositional and sensory model

Optimising harvest date through use of an integrated grape compositional and sensory model Optimising harvest date through use of an integrated grape compositional and sensory model Alain DELOIRE, Katja ŠUKLJE, Guillaume ANTALICK, Campbell MEEKS, John W. BLACKMAN & Leigh M. SCHMIDTKE National

More information

Phenolics of WA State Wines*

Phenolics of WA State Wines* Phenolics of WA State Wines* Jim Harbertson Washington State University * And Grapes! Introduction Impacts of deficit irrigation on grape and wine phenolics Impacts of grape ripening on wine phenolic development

More information

Impact of Vineyard Practices on Grape and Wine Composition

Impact of Vineyard Practices on Grape and Wine Composition Impact of Vineyard Practices on Grape and Wine Composition James A. Kennedy UC Davis April 20, 2018 Davis, CA Outline Assumption: Managing wine composition in the vineyard is effective General thoughts

More information

Ripening Tomatoes. Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis

Ripening Tomatoes. Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis Ripening Tomatoes Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis micantwell@ucdavis.edu Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Management Workshop Postharvest Technology Center, UC Davis, March 7-8, 0 Quality of

More information

Grapevine Cold Hardiness And Injury: Dynamics and Management

Grapevine Cold Hardiness And Injury: Dynamics and Management Grapevine Cold Hardiness And Injury: Dynamics and Management Dr. Robert Wample California State University- Fresno Low Temperature Tolerance Vs Avoidance Tolerance Supercooling Avoidance (?)(Permanent

More information

Fruit Set, Growth and Development

Fruit Set, Growth and Development Fruit Set, Growth and Development Fruit set happens after pollination and fertilization, otherwise the flower or the fruit will drop. The flowering and fruit set efficiency could be measured by certain

More information

Timing of Treatment O 2 Dosage Typical Duration During Fermentation mg/l Total Daily. Between AF - MLF 1 3 mg/l/day 4 10 Days

Timing of Treatment O 2 Dosage Typical Duration During Fermentation mg/l Total Daily. Between AF - MLF 1 3 mg/l/day 4 10 Days Micro-Oxygenation Principles Micro-oxygenation is a technique that involves the addition of controlled amounts of oxygen into wines. The goal is to simulate the effects of barrel-ageing in a controlled

More information

Effects of Plastic Covers on Canopy Microenvironment and Fruit Quality. Matthew Fidelibus Viticulture & Enology UC Davis

Effects of Plastic Covers on Canopy Microenvironment and Fruit Quality. Matthew Fidelibus Viticulture & Enology UC Davis Effects of Plastic Covers on Canopy Microenvironment and Fruit Quality Matthew Fidelibus Viticulture & Enology UC Davis Justification and importance Table grapes are costly to produce Late-harvested fruit

More information

Climate Limitations and Vineyards in Arizona

Climate Limitations and Vineyards in Arizona Climate Limitations and Vineyards in Arizona Arizona Grape Growers Symposium March 23, 2018 Jeremy Weiss Climate and Geospatial Extension Scientist School of Natural Resources and the Environment University

More information

Grape Berry Ripening: Environmental Drivers and Spoilers

Grape Berry Ripening: Environmental Drivers and Spoilers Grape Berry Ripening: Environmental Drivers and Spoilers Bogs et al. (2007) Markus Keller A winemaker s dream Loose clusters Small berries Uniform composition Nature s reality Large spatial and temporal

More information

Effects of Leaf Removal and UV-B on Flavonoids, Amino Acids and Methoxypyrazines

Effects of Leaf Removal and UV-B on Flavonoids, Amino Acids and Methoxypyrazines Effects of Leaf Removal and UV-B on Flavonoids, Amino Acids and Methoxypyrazines Professor Brian Jordan Centre for Viticulture & Oenology, Lincoln University What are the major factors to be considered

More information

Lack of irrigation in 2002 reduced Riesling crop in Timothy E. Martinson Finger Lakes Grape Program

Lack of irrigation in 2002 reduced Riesling crop in Timothy E. Martinson Finger Lakes Grape Program Lack of irrigation in 2002 reduced Riesling crop in 2003 Timothy E. Martinson Finger Lakes Grape Program Lailiang Cheng, Alan Lakso, Thomas Henick-Kling and Terry Acree Depts. Horticulture Ithaca, Horticultural

More information

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE RELATIONSHIPS OF STRESS AND LEAF HEALTH OF THE GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) ON GRAPE AND WINE QUALITIES

INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE RELATIONSHIPS OF STRESS AND LEAF HEALTH OF THE GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) ON GRAPE AND WINE QUALITIES INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE RELATIONSHIPS OF STRESS AND LEAF HEALTH OF THE GRAPEVINE (VITIS VINIFERA L.) ON GRAPE AND WINE QUALITIES by Reuben Wells BAgrSc (Hons) Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements

More information

Practical Aspects of Crop Load and Canopy Management

Practical Aspects of Crop Load and Canopy Management Practical Aspects of Crop Load and Canopy Management Jim Wolpert Extension Viticulturist Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California, Davis Penn State Grape Day August 10, 2011 Presentation

More information

IMPOSING WATER DEFICITS TO IMPROVE WINE QUALITY AND REDUCE COSTS

IMPOSING WATER DEFICITS TO IMPROVE WINE QUALITY AND REDUCE COSTS IMPOSING WATER DEFICITS TO IMPROVE WINE QUALITY AND REDUCE COSTS Terry L. Prichard, Water Management Specialist University of California Davis 420 S. Wilson Way, Stockton, CA 95205 (209) 468-2085; fax

More information

Training system considerations

Training system considerations Comparative results of three training systems in Winchester VVA Meeting: 13-15 Feb 2003 Tony K. Wolf Professor of Viticulture Training system considerations Why research training systems in Virginia? increase

More information

Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard

Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard Washington Winegrowers Convention Kennewick, WA, February 6-8, 2018 Growing Grapes for White Wine Production: Do s and Don ts in the Vineyard Markus Keller Aroma, flavor: Volatiles for white wine Norisoprenoids

More information

Vineyard Water Management

Vineyard Water Management Vineyard Water Management Pierre Helwi Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Grape Camp November 7, 2016 Lady Bird Johnson Park Pioneer Pavilion, Fredericksburg, TX Terroir Concept Climate Human factor

More information

2 Grapevine Development and

2 Grapevine Development and 2 Grapevine Development and Basic Physiology Pat Bowen, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre Summerland BC V0H 1Z0 The Goals of Viticulture The common goal of viticulture is to make a profit but strategies

More information

Pruning decisions for premium sparkling wine production. Dr Joanna Jones

Pruning decisions for premium sparkling wine production. Dr Joanna Jones Pruning decisions for premium sparkling wine production Dr Joanna Jones Background Cane pruning dominates Perceived basal bud infertility is the basis for pruning decision Cane pruning is considerably

More information

ARIMNet2 Young Researchers Seminar

ARIMNet2 Young Researchers Seminar ARIMNet2 Young Researchers Seminar How to better involve end-users throughout the research process to foster innovation-driven research for a sustainable Mediterranean agriculture at the farm and local

More information

Late season leaf health CORRELATION OF VINEYARD IMAGERY WITH PINOT NOIR YIELD AND VIGOUR AND FRUIT AND WINE COMPOSITION. 6/22/2010

Late season leaf health CORRELATION OF VINEYARD IMAGERY WITH PINOT NOIR YIELD AND VIGOUR AND FRUIT AND WINE COMPOSITION. 6/22/2010 // Not all vineyard blocks are uniform This is because of soil variation primarily, especially in factors which affect the supply of water This has a direct effect on vine vigour, which in turn has a direct

More information

Washington State Wine 101

Washington State Wine 101 Washington State Wine 101 Washington 2 nd Largest Producer in US Washington State produces: Premium wines of superior quality Range of varieties Distinctive character Unique balance of Old World and New

More information

Bounty71 rootstock an update

Bounty71 rootstock an update Bounty71 rootstock an update Grant Thorp, Andrew Barnett, Kevin Patterson Presentation prepared for ZESPRI R&D meeting June 2013. Bounty71 rootstock an update Bounty71 rootstock has been planted in increasing

More information

Berry sugar and water loading. Principles and a few observations

Berry sugar and water loading. Principles and a few observations Berry sugar and water loading Principles and a few observations Prof Alain Deloire deloire@sun.ac.za Department of Viticulture and Oenology Stellenbosch University UC-Davis, 10 May 2012 Berry sugar and

More information

Causes and Prevention of Thompson Seedless Berry Collapse

Causes and Prevention of Thompson Seedless Berry Collapse Causes and Prevention of Thompson Seedless Berry Collapse Davinder Singh, Michael Treeby, Kristen, Pitt and Peter Clingeleffer 7 th International Table Grape Symposium, November 2014 CSIRO AGRICULTURE

More information

Performance of cool-climate grape varieties in Delta County. Horst Caspari Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center

Performance of cool-climate grape varieties in Delta County. Horst Caspari Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center Performance of cool-climate grape varieties in Delta County Horst Caspari Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center Introduction The vineyard area in Delta County increased substantially

More information

Treating vines after hail: Trial results. Bob Emmett, Research Plant Pathologist

Treating vines after hail: Trial results. Bob Emmett, Research Plant Pathologist Treating vines after hail: Trial results Bob Emmett, Research Plant Pathologist Treating vines after hail: Trial results Overview Hail damage recovery pruning trial Background and trial objectives Post-hail

More information

Berry = Sugar Sink. Source: Sink Relationships in the Grapevine. Source: Sink Relations. Leaf = Photosynthesis = Source

Berry = Sugar Sink. Source: Sink Relationships in the Grapevine. Source: Sink Relations. Leaf = Photosynthesis = Source Source: Sink Relationships in the Grapevine S. Kaan Kurtural Department of Viticulture and Enology Source: Sink Relations Leaf = Photosynthesis = Source Berry = Sugar Sink 2 3/4/2018 1 Sink growing apex

More information

WALNUT HEDGEROW PRUNING AND TRAINING TRIAL 2010

WALNUT HEDGEROW PRUNING AND TRAINING TRIAL 2010 WALNUT HEDGEROW PRUNING AND TRAINING TRIAL 2010 Carolyn DeBuse, John Edstrom, Janine Hasey, and Bruce Lampinen ABSTRACT Hedgerow walnut orchards have been studied since the 1970s as a high density system

More information

Vintage conditions. If 6 was 9

Vintage conditions. If 6 was 9 Vintage conditions If 6 was 9 The 2016 vintage began with a mild winter and late rainfall. However, the almost 500 mm of rain that fell in the second part of the winter (see Figure 1) between January and

More information

HANDS-ON SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME FAST GRAPE RIPENING

HANDS-ON SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME FAST GRAPE RIPENING HANDS-ON SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME FAST GRAPE RIPENING 1 Techniques based on modification of growing and ripening pattern Increase of vine yield (> bud load) Late shoot trimming Late irrigation (i.e. just

More information

Session 4: Managing seasonal production challenges. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Cabernet Sauvignon.

Session 4: Managing seasonal production challenges. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Cabernet Sauvignon. Session 4: Managing seasonal production challenges Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Cabernet Sauvignon Keren Bindon Cristian Varela, Helen Holt, Patricia Williamson, Leigh Francis,

More information

World of Wine: From Grape to Glass

World of Wine: From Grape to Glass World of Wine: From Grape to Glass Course Details No Prerequisites Required Course Dates Start Date: th 18 August 2016 0:00 AM UTC End Date: st 31 December 2018 0:00 AM UTC Time Commitment Between 2 to

More information

Influence of climate and variety on the effectiveness of cold maceration. Richard Fennessy Research officer

Influence of climate and variety on the effectiveness of cold maceration. Richard Fennessy Research officer Influence of climate and variety on the effectiveness of cold maceration Richard Fennessy Research officer What is pre-fermentative cold maceration ( cold soak ) and what are the benefits? Introduction

More information

Crop Development: Why things sometimes go wrong. Markus Keller

Crop Development: Why things sometimes go wrong. Markus Keller Crop Development: Why things sometimes go wrong Markus Keller Grape berry: a job description Seed production Seed dispersal Color/aroma advertising Sugar ticket price from Coombe (AV, 2001) photo courtesy

More information

Strategies for reducing alcohol concentration in wine

Strategies for reducing alcohol concentration in wine Strategies for reducing alcohol concentration in wine Cristian Varela Senior Research Scientist Alcohol in Australian wine 2014 2005 Average 13.6% 14.5% Ethanol Godden et al. 2015 Why is alcohol increasing?

More information

Postharvest Paradox. Harvest Maturity and Fruit Quality. Fruit Maturity, Ripening and Quality. Harvest Maturity for Fruits: A balancing Act

Postharvest Paradox. Harvest Maturity and Fruit Quality. Fruit Maturity, Ripening and Quality. Harvest Maturity for Fruits: A balancing Act Fruit Maturity, Ripening and Quality Maturity at harvest very important to determine final fruit quality and storage life With few exceptions, fruits reach best eating quality when allowed to ripen on

More information

Using Less Water and Liking It

Using Less Water and Liking It Using Less Water and Liking It Vineyard Water Conservation Demo Project Mark Greenspan, Ph.D. Advanced Viticulture, LLC www.advancedvit.com Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC www.advancedvit.com Irrigation

More information

Growing your blend Georgia Wine Producers Conference. January 24, Cain Hickey

Growing your blend Georgia Wine Producers Conference. January 24, Cain Hickey Growing your blend 2018 Georgia Wine Producers Conference January 24, 2018 Cain Hickey Why blend? Single cultivar does not have the desired: Composition Therefore, sensory features and microbial stability

More information

Smoke Taint Risk Management Tools

Smoke Taint Risk Management Tools Smoke Taint Risk Management Tools Glynn Ward, Art Diggle, Michael Saam-Renton 2, and Michael Airey 2, Kristen Kennison, Diana Fisher, Drew Haswell 3, John Gillard 3 Department of Agriculture and Food WA

More information

Coonawarra Wine Region. Regional summary report WINEGRAPE UTILISATION AND PRICING SURVEY 2007

Coonawarra Wine Region. Regional summary report WINEGRAPE UTILISATION AND PRICING SURVEY 2007 Coonawarra Wine Region Regional summary report 2007 WINEGRAPE UTILISATION AND PRICING SURVEY 2007 45 46 Coonawarra Vintage overview Vintage report A low yielding vintage, with warm ripening conditions,

More information

Condensed tannin and cell wall composition in wine grapes: Influence on tannin extraction from grapes into wine

Condensed tannin and cell wall composition in wine grapes: Influence on tannin extraction from grapes into wine Condensed tannin and cell wall composition in wine grapes: Influence on tannin extraction from grapes into wine by Rachel L. Hanlin Thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy The University of Adelaide

More information

Deficit Irrigation Scheduling for Quality Winegrapes

Deficit Irrigation Scheduling for Quality Winegrapes Deficit Irrigation Scheduling for Quality Winegrapes Terry Prichard, Water Management Specialist Dept. LAWR, Hydrology UC Davis Improving Fruit Quality Improving Fruit Quality Crop Crop Load Management

More information

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. ASVO SEMINAR : MILDURA, 24 July 2014 AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. ASVO SEMINAR : MILDURA, 24 July 2014 AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP Flavonoids in grapes Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey ASVO SEMINAR : MILDURA, 24 July 2014 AGRICULTURE FLAGSHIP Flavonoids in grapes Grape Flavonoids Flavonoids are important

More information

The wine industry. a model for climate change attribution and adaptation studies. Professor Snow Barlow, ATSE,FAIAST

The wine industry. a model for climate change attribution and adaptation studies. Professor Snow Barlow, ATSE,FAIAST The wine industry a model for climate change attribution and adaptation studies Professor Snow Barlow, ATSE,FAIAST Viticulture the canary in the coalmine Evolution of Vitis vinifera Vitis vinifera evolved

More information

Comparing canola and lupin varieties by time of sowing in the Northern Agricultural Region

Comparing canola and lupin varieties by time of sowing in the Northern Agricultural Region Comparing canola and lupin varieties by time of sowing in the Northern Agricultural Region Martin Harries and Greg Shea, DPIRD Key messages Lupin yielded 3.0 t/ha and canola 2.0 t/ha from late May emergence.

More information

Novel methods for the amelioration of smoke tainted wine

Novel methods for the amelioration of smoke tainted wine Novel methods for the amelioration of smoke tainted wine Kerry Wilkinson, Renata Ristic and Anthea Fudge The University of Adelaide Life Impact The University of Adelaide Aims of ARC Smoke Taint Project

More information

Elderberry Ripeness and Determination of When to Harvest. Patrick Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist,

Elderberry Ripeness and Determination of When to Harvest. Patrick Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist, Elderberry Ripeness and Determination of When to Harvest Patrick Byers, Regional Horticulture Specialist, byerspl@missouri.edu 1. Ripeness is an elusive concept for many people a. Ripeness is often entirely

More information

CHATEAU CHEVAL BLANC SAINT-ÉMILION - FRANCE TÉL : 33 (0)

CHATEAU CHEVAL BLANC SAINT-ÉMILION - FRANCE TÉL : 33 (0) 33330 SAINT-ÉMILION - FRANCE TÉL : 33 (0)5 57 55 55 55 contact@chateau-chevalblanc.com 2014 VINTAGE The 2014 vintage acquired a special charm from being harvested late in the season. The vineyard team

More information

VINTAGE REPORT. Debbie Lauritz SENIOR WINEMAKER. Marty Gransden VITICULTURALIST MEDIA RELEASE: APRIL, 2016

VINTAGE REPORT. Debbie Lauritz SENIOR WINEMAKER. Marty Gransden VITICULTURALIST MEDIA RELEASE: APRIL, 2016 2016 VINTAGE REPORT Debbie Lauritz SENIOR WINEMAKER Marty Gransden VITICULTURALIST MEDIA RELEASE: APRIL, 2016 THE VINEYARD Good winter rainfall filled the dams and filled the soil moisture profile leading

More information

Harvest Maturity and Fruit Quality. Importance of Maturity Indices. Developmental Continuum. Development Growth. Maturation. Physiological Maturity

Harvest Maturity and Fruit Quality. Importance of Maturity Indices. Developmental Continuum. Development Growth. Maturation. Physiological Maturity Harvest Maturity and Fruit Quality Marita Cantwell Dept. Plant Sciences, UC Davis micantwell@ucdavis.edu Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Management Workshop UC Davis, April8-9, 9 California orange on plane

More information

Development of smoke taint risk management tools for vignerons and land managers

Development of smoke taint risk management tools for vignerons and land managers Development of smoke taint risk management tools for vignerons and land managers Glynn Ward, Kristen Brodison, Michael Airey, Art Diggle, Michael Saam-Renton, Andrew Taylor, Diana Fisher, Drew Haswell

More information

Coffee market ends 2016/17 coffee year in deficit for the third consecutive year

Coffee market ends 2016/17 coffee year in deficit for the third consecutive year Coffee market ends 2016/17 coffee year in deficit for the third consecutive year The ICO composite indicator continued its downward trend that started at the end of August, averaging 124.46 US cents/lb.

More information

A Climate for Sauvignon Blanc: Lake County

A Climate for Sauvignon Blanc: Lake County A Climate for Sauvignon Blanc: Lake County Viala et al (1901) Traite General de Viticulture Gregory V. Jones Director: Center for Wine Education Professor: Wine Studies & Environmental Studies Lake County,

More information

OUTLINE Plan of the talk. Introduction Vineyards are variable in space The efficient vineyard project. The field site in Sonoma Results

OUTLINE Plan of the talk. Introduction Vineyards are variable in space The efficient vineyard project. The field site in Sonoma Results UCCE Sonoma County Grape Day February 8, 2017 Assessing variability in the vineyard through a spatially explicit selective-harvest approach A case study in Sonoma L. Brillante, A. Beebee, R. Yu, J. Martinez,

More information

Crop Load Management of Young Vines

Crop Load Management of Young Vines Crop Load Management of Young Vines UC ANR Foothill Grape Day March 29, 2018 George Zhuang UC Cooperative Extension - Fresno County Thanks for Having Me Here! What is Crop Load? Crop load (Ravaz Index)

More information

Coffee market ends 2017/18 in surplus

Coffee market ends 2017/18 in surplus Coffee market ends 217/18 in surplus World coffee production in coffee year 217/18 is estimated 5.7% higher at 164.81 million bags as output of Arabica increased by 2.2% to 11.82, and Robusta grew 11.7%

More information

Mike Trought Plant and Food Research Marlborough Research Centre Blenheim, New Zealand

Mike Trought Plant and Food Research Marlborough Research Centre Blenheim, New Zealand Coping Strategies for a Warmer Climate: Irrigation and Canopy Management Mike Trought Plant and Food Research Marlborough Research Centre Blenheim, New Zealand Total producing area 2015 = 35,859 ha

More information

Mechanical Canopy and Crop Load Management of Pinot Gris. Joseph P. Geller and S. Kaan Kurtural

Mechanical Canopy and Crop Load Management of Pinot Gris. Joseph P. Geller and S. Kaan Kurtural Mechanical Canopy and Crop Load Management of Pinot Gris Joseph P. Geller and S. Kaan Kurtural 3.6 million tons of wine grapes grown in CA More than 50% comes from the San Joaquin Valley More than 60%

More information

is pleased to introduce the 2017 Scholarship Recipients

is pleased to introduce the 2017 Scholarship Recipients is pleased to introduce the 2017 Scholarship Recipients Congratulations to Elizabeth Burzynski Katherine East Jaclyn Fiola Jerry Lin Sydney Morgan Maria Smith Jake Uretsky Elizabeth Burzynski Cornell University

More information

Climate Change and its Impact on the Wine World. Outline

Climate Change and its Impact on the Wine World. Outline Climate Change and its Impact on the Wine World James A. Kennedy Department of Viticulture and Enology California State University, Fresno Insight Cruises December 2, 2013 Somewhere on the Rhone Outline

More information

Use of natural bios/mulants to improve the quality of grapevine produc/on

Use of natural bios/mulants to improve the quality of grapevine produc/on Use of natural bios/mulants to improve the quality of grapevine produc/on Giovan Ba;sta Ma;i, Eleonora Cataldo, Linda Salvi, Sandro Secco SIPCAM and DiSPAA - Università degli Studi di Firenze To understand

More information

Revisiting the most recent Napa vintages

Revisiting the most recent Napa vintages Revisiting the most recent Napa vintages Wine observers agree: 212, 213 and 214 are extraordinary Napa vintages. Much has already been written on the first two vintages. The 214 vintage is now starting

More information

Impacts of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wine

Impacts of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wine Impacts of Regulated Deficit Irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wine Jim Harbertson, Richard Larsen, Federico Casassa, Markus Keller Washington State University Viticulture & Enology Program RDI

More information

AN ENOLOGY EXTENSION SERVICE QUARTERLY PUBLICATION

AN ENOLOGY EXTENSION SERVICE QUARTERLY PUBLICATION The Effects of Pre-Fermentative Addition of Oenological Tannins on Wine Components and Sensorial Qualities of Red Wine FBZDF Wine. What Where Why How 2017 2. October, November, December What the authors

More information

NE-1020 Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial

NE-1020 Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports 2014 NE-1020 Cold Hardy Wine Grape Cultivar Trial Paul A. Domoto Iowa State University, domoto@iastate.edu Gail R. Nonnecke Iowa State University, nonnecke@iastate.edu

More information

Vintage 2006: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report

Vintage 2006: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report Vintage 2006: Umpqua Valley Reference Vineyard Report Summary: The 2006 vintage started off slow with a cool, wet spring and was followed by a largely climatically favorable growing season. The summer

More information

wine la sorda La Sorda 2015 technical data:

wine la sorda La Sorda 2015 technical data: maker: Jesús Alvarez La Sorda 2015 type of Dry red 2015 A rainy winter prepared the ground with moisture, followed by a warm spring, which lead to fast and vigourous growth. Summer was warm and dry, and

More information

Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield in the Texas South Plains in 2001

Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield in the Texas South Plains in 2001 Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield in the Texas South Plains in 2001 Calvin Trostle, Extension Agronomy, Lubbock, (806) 746-6101, c-trostle@tamu.edu Brent Bean, Extension Agronomy,

More information

Developmental Continuum. Developmental Continuum. Maturity Indices PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURITY. Development. Growth. Maturation

Developmental Continuum. Developmental Continuum. Maturity Indices PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURITY. Development. Growth. Maturation Maturation and IMPORTANCE = Harvest Indices Sensory and Nutritional Quality Use Fresh market or Processed Adequate shelf-life Facilitate marketing standards Productivity Postharvest short Course, June

More information

World of Wine: From Grape to Glass Syllabus

World of Wine: From Grape to Glass Syllabus World of Wine: From Grape to Glass Syllabus COURSE OVERVIEW Have you always wanted to know more about how grapes are grown and wine is made? Perhaps you like a specific wine, but can t pinpoint the reason

More information

30/01/2013. Materials and Methods. Dr. Madan Gopal Saha. Project Personnel

30/01/2013. Materials and Methods. Dr. Madan Gopal Saha. Project Personnel 0/0/0 International Network on Preserving Safety and Nutrition of Indigenous Fruits and Their Derivatives Report on Mini Research Project -6 January 0, Phnom Penh, Cambodia MATURITY INDICES AND QUALITY

More information

Our Australian Vineyards

Our Australian Vineyards Vintage 2017 Report Our Australian Vineyards Katnook Estate, Coonawarra 2017 Vintage Chris Brodie, Viticulturist A cool growing season and above average rain leading into 2017 harvest saw a later start

More information

Enhanced Maturity Trial Wine Evaluation Isosceles Vineyard, Te Mata Estates Maraekakaho Rd, SH50, Hastings

Enhanced Maturity Trial Wine Evaluation Isosceles Vineyard, Te Mata Estates Maraekakaho Rd, SH50, Hastings Enhanced Maturity Trial 2016- Wine Evaluation Isosceles Vineyard, Te Mata Estates Maraekakaho Rd, SH50, Hastings November 2016 Prepared by: Helen Henry Reviewed by: Ant Mackenzie Consultant winemaker Hawke

More information

REPORT to the California Tomato Commission Tomato Variety Trials: Postharvest Evaluations for 2006

REPORT to the California Tomato Commission Tomato Variety Trials: Postharvest Evaluations for 2006 10 January 2007 REPORT to the California Tomato Commission Tomato Variety Trials: Postharvest Evaluations for 2006 Responsible: Marita Cantwell Project Cooperators: Scott Stoddard Michelle LeStrange Brenna

More information

Copyright Advanced Viticulture, Inc. Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc.

Copyright Advanced Viticulture, Inc.   Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc. Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc. www.advancedvit.com Irrigation Management Water Management Floor Management Weather Frost, Cooling, other. Strategy Physiology of vine water

More information

G. Ferrara 1, A. Mazzeo 1, A.M.S. Matarrese 1, C. Pacucci 1, V. Gallo 2,3

G. Ferrara 1, A. Mazzeo 1, A.M.S. Matarrese 1, C. Pacucci 1, V. Gallo 2,3 G. Ferrara 1, A. Mazzeo 1, A.M.S. Matarrese 1, C. Pacucci 1, V. Gallo 2,3 1 Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - University of Bari Aldo Moro, via Amendola 165/A - 70126 Bari

More information

Leaf removal: a tool to improve crop control and fruit quality in vinifera grapes

Leaf removal: a tool to improve crop control and fruit quality in vinifera grapes Michigan Grape & Wine Industry Council 2015 Report of Research Activities Leaf removal: a tool to improve crop control and fruit quality in vinifera grapes PI Paolo Sabbatini Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan

More information

Performance of cool-climate grape varieties in Delta County. Horst Caspari Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center

Performance of cool-climate grape varieties in Delta County. Horst Caspari Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center Performance of cool-climate grape varieties in Delta County Horst Caspari Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center Introduction The vineyard area in Delta County has increased substantially

More information

Quadrilateral vs bilateral VSP An alternative option to maintain yield?

Quadrilateral vs bilateral VSP An alternative option to maintain yield? Quadrilateral vs bilateral VSP An alternative option to maintain yield? Horst Caspari & Amy Montano Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center Grand Junction, CO 81503 Ph: (970) 434-3264

More information

Katnook Odyssey. /KatnookEstateWines /katnookwine /Katnook

Katnook Odyssey.   /KatnookEstateWines /katnookwine /Katnook Katnook Odyssey 18th Vintage Release Katnook Odyssey Cabernet Sauvignon is one of 53 wines listed in the Outstanding category of the Langton s VI, Classification of Australian Wine. Katnook Estate creates

More information

Understanding Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Grapes. R. Paul Schreiner USDA - ARS - HCRL Corvallis, OR

Understanding Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Grapes. R. Paul Schreiner USDA - ARS - HCRL Corvallis, OR Understanding Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Grapes R. Paul Schreiner USDA - ARS - HCRL Corvallis, OR Research Profile Schreiner Lab Root Physiology in Grapes Defining & Characterizing AMF Diversity

More information

Record Exports for Coffee Year 2016/17

Record Exports for Coffee Year 2016/17 Record Exports for Coffee Year 2016/17 Total exports in September 2017 reached 8.34 million bags, compared to 9.8 million in September 2016. While coffee year 2016/17 registered a decrease in its final

More information

ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION

ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY ANITA OBERHOLSTER UCCE Sonoma Grape Day February 18 th, 2015 Introduction Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) First described

More information

Effects of feeding brown midrib dwarf. performance and enteric methane. pearl millet silage on lactational. emission in dairy cows

Effects of feeding brown midrib dwarf. performance and enteric methane. pearl millet silage on lactational. emission in dairy cows Effects of feeding brown midrib dwarf pearl millet silage on lactational performance and enteric methane emission in dairy cows M. Harper 1, A. Melgar 1, G. Roth 2, and A. N. Hristov 1 The Pennsylvania

More information

IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY

IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY IMPACT OF RED BLOTCH DISEASE ON GRAPE AND WINE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY ANITA OBERHOLSTER Foothills Grape Day 2016: Healthy Vines, Fine Wines Amador County Fairgrounds, Spur Emporium Building May 18 th,

More information

2018/19 expected to be the second year of surplus

2018/19 expected to be the second year of surplus 2018/19 expected to be the second year of surplus Coffee year 2018/19 is expected to be the second consecutive season of surplus, as global output, estimated at 167.47 million bags, exceeds world consumption,

More information

VITICISION. Vineyard Microclimates: What s your ripening curve? Get a Grape s-eye View

VITICISION. Vineyard Microclimates: What s your ripening curve? Get a Grape s-eye View Vineyard Microclimates: What s your ripening curve? VITICISION Get a Grape s-eye View J. Lohr Vineyards & Wines Project Goals: To measure Cabernet Sauvignon microclimates. Find sunburn probability in different

More information

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. 11 June 2014 PLANT INDUSTRY

Flavonoids in grapes. Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey. 11 June 2014 PLANT INDUSTRY Flavonoids in grapes Simon Robinson, Mandy Walker, Rachel Kilmister and Mark Downey 11 June 2014 PLANT INDUSTRY Grapes to wine a 2 metabolic zoo Grapevines Hundreds of different metabolites determine Wine

More information

Fundraising Partners information & product catalogue

Fundraising Partners information & product catalogue Fundraising Partners information & product catalogue 401-427 McDonalds Rd, POKOLBIN NSW p 02 4998 7559 e mywine@brokenwood.com.au w brokenwood.com.au Fundraising Campaign information About Established

More information

2012 BUD SURVIVAL SURVEY IN NIAGARA & ESSEX AREA VINEYARDS

2012 BUD SURVIVAL SURVEY IN NIAGARA & ESSEX AREA VINEYARDS BUD SURVIVAL SURVEY IN NIAGARA & ESSEX AREA VINEYARDS Prepared for: The Grape Growers of Ontario KCMS - Applied Research and Consulting 1215 Maple St. Box#13 Fenwick, Ontario L0S 1C0 Telephone: (905) 892-7050

More information

Monitoring Ripening for Harvest and Winemaking Decisions

Monitoring Ripening for Harvest and Winemaking Decisions Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D. Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit Western MD Research & Education Center 18330 Keedysville Road Keedysville, MD 21756-1104 301-432-2767 ext. 344; Fax 301-432-4089 jfiola@umd.edu

More information

Isis. DOK Malta Denominazzjoni ta Origini Kontrollata YEAR 2012

Isis. DOK Malta Denominazzjoni ta Origini Kontrollata YEAR 2012 YEAR 2012 a complex, aromatic blend of grapefruit and other exotic fruits; and a well-structured, citrus taste with a long, pleasantly acidic, finish. Although winter temperatures were colder than normal,

More information

Yeasts for low (and high) alcohol

Yeasts for low (and high) alcohol Yeasts for low (and high) alcohol Ana Hranilovic ASVO Adelaide Seminar 19.11.2015 ARC Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production adelaide.edu.au/tc-iwp/ Earlier, shorter, hotter vintages are stressful

More information