Using Less Water and Liking It

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1 Using Less Water and Liking It Vineyard Water Conservation Demo Project Mark Greenspan, Ph.D. Advanced Viticulture, LLC Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

2

3 Irrigation Management Water Management Floor Management Irrigation initiation Irrigation scheduling Strategy Monitoring Frost, Cooling, other. Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

4 Initiation Biggest variable in N. Coast Wet winter climates: no irrigation until shoot tips stop, unless the slow down too early Dry winter climates: pre-season irrigation is desirable if profile is not full at budbreak Extend root system Wait for soil moisture to decline before commencing regular irrigation Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

5 Visual Indicators Growing Slowing Stopped Dead Tip

6 Irrigation Scheduling Volume and Interval Need to learn about your soils and your root systems Light Textured and/or gravelly Heavy Textured Shallow (< 24 ) Deep (>36 ) Very Low Vol. & Very Frequent Low Vol. & Frequent Hillsides Moderate Vol. & Frequent High Volume & Infrequent Valley Floor Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

7 Steps to accomplish irrigation management with drip/trickle irrigation 1. Identify your root zone 2. Identify your soil types 3. Install soil moisture devices 4. Determine ideal volume per application 5. Determine nominal irrigation interval 6. Monitor vine and soil moisture regularly 7. Check against targets (strategy) 8. Adjust interval 9. Repeat #6 - #8 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

8 Identify rooting depth

9 Rooting depth map

10

11

12 Irregular root zone and/or soil Determining proper volume

13 Irregular root zone and/or soil Irrigation volume to weakest portion of block

14 Monitoring Monitoring is feedback used to adjust irrigation schedule Methods include: Visual Indicators shoot elongation rates, shoot tips, droopy tendrils, leaf sun-avoidance Soil Moisture: Discrete; Profile; Portable; continuous-logging Plant instruments: Pressure Chamber Porometer Sap Flow (?) Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

15 Soil Moisture Measurement Measure at multiple levels to determine depth of irrigation Measure continuously (electronic datalogger)! For drip irrigation, measure close to the dripper (4in., 10cm) Use to determine nominal irrigation volume per application Use to determine nominal irrigation interval between applications Use in conjunction with plant moisture measurements to adjust intervals Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

16 Soil Moisture measurement Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC Soil matric potential sensors Soil water content probe / logger

17 emitter 18 in 9 in 0

18 0 hours

19 4 hours

20 8 hours

21 1 day

22 4 days

23 8 days

24 12 days

25 Plume Demo Conclusions Very limited volume of wetted soil Pear-shaped & slightly more than 3 deep and wide at widest point of plume. Demo was in clay loam soil. Would be deeper and narrower in lighter-textured soils. Drip irrigation greatly reduced the available soil volume for water and nutrient uptake Avoid drip irrigating until as late as possible in the CA North Coast Soak and wait in more arid climates Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

26 Alexander Valley Demo

27 Soil moisture measurements

28

29 Soil Moisture Directly below Emitter Under Dripper 12" Under Dripper 24" Under Dripper 36" 8/1 8/11 8/21 8/31 9/10 9/20 9/30 10/10 Soil Matric Potential (cbar, kpa)

30

31 Volumetric Water Content (% v/v) Soil Moisture 0 4 Feet 32 1gph emitter/vine L Volume/H Frequency H Volume/L Frequency 30 Daytime Irrigation 13 Bar Target 15 Bar Target /22 6/5 6/19 7/3 7/17 7/31 8/14 8/28 9/11 9/25 10/9 10/23 11/6 11/20 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

32 Soil Moisture Levels 0 12 inches inches inches inches inches Irrigation 9/9/10 9/16/10 9/23/10 9/30/10 Volumetric Water Content (% v/v)

33 Soil Moisture 0 4 Feet 1gph emitter/vine H Volume/L Frequency 13 Bar Target 9/7 9/12 9/17 9/22 9/27 10/2 10/7 10/12 Volumetric Water Content (% v/v)

34

35 Plant Water status measurement Pressure Chamber Porometer

36 Pressure chamber Measures suction in the xylem vessels Advantages: Portability; repeatability; ruggedness Disadvantages: No indication of vine physiological response; reading depends on time since last irrigation, grape variety, daytime conditions, etc. Reading can be misleading on its own IMPORTANT: Place leaves in plastic bags immediately before removal and during measurement Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

37 Porometer Measures stomatal conductance (facility of pores to transpire water) Advantages: Portability; vine response to water status; indirect indication of photosynthesis Disadvantages: Less rugged instrument; sensitive to environmental conditions; more variability than leaf water potential measurements Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

38 Suzy Y. Rogiers*, Dennis H. Greer, Ron J. Hutton and Joe J. Landsberg Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 60, No. 13, pp , 2009 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

39 500 Units are in mmol/m 2 /s Luxury Mid-Range Slightly Stressed Stressed Extremely Stressed Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

40 Leaf Water Potential 2010 Demonstration Leaf Water Potential ( bars) 16 (1) One GPM emitter/vine (3) Long/Infrequent 14 (5) 13 Bar Target (6) 15 bar target 12 Commercial Control /22/10 6/11/10 7/1/10 7/21/10 8/10/10 8/30/10 9/19/10 10/9/10 10/29/10 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

41 Stomatal Conductance 2010 Demonstration Stomatal Conductance (mmol m 2 s 1 ) 700 (1) One GPM emitter/vine (3) Long/Infrequent 600 (5) 13 Bar Target (6) 15 bar target Commercial Control /22/10 6/11/10 7/1/10 7/21/10 8/10/10 8/30/10 9/19/10 10/9/10 10/29/10 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

42 Inches Accumulated Irrigation (Inches/Acre) 1 Single 1GPH Emitter 0.9 L. Volume/H. Frequency H. Volume/L. Frequency 0.8 Daytime Irrigation 13 Bar Irrigation Bar Irrigation /31/10 9/7/10 9/14/10 9/21/10 9/28/10 10/5/10 10/12/10 10/19/10 10/26/10 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

43 Inches Accumulated ETc Accumulated Irrigation 2010 Accumulated Irrigation Applied Irrigation was 18% of ETc from Sept. 1 through Oct. 31st Grower applied about 2" 8/30 9/6 9/13 9/20 9/27 10/4 10/11 10/18 10/25 11/1 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

44 Yield reduction Commercial yield was 6.5 T/Acre by machine All treatments yielded approx. 5.5 T/Acre Hand-harvest with select pick yielded 5.5 T/Acre in both demo rows and commercial row Essentially, no yield reduction this year with reduced irrigation Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

45 Savings from reduced irrigation Per Acre Savings Treatment # Gal./Acre In./Acre $/Acre kwh/acre lbs. CO 2 /Acre 1 to $ $ $ Avg. 29, $ Extrapolated over the 60,000 acres of vineyard in the RR basin: Treatment # Acre ft. $ kwh Tons CO 2 1 to 4 12,524 $ 1,149,389 6,456,154 3, ,031 $ 1,533,796 8,615,377 5, ,713 $ 1,841,315 10,342,723 6, Avg. 5,500 $ 506,000 2,853,000 1,677 Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

46 Sonoma Valley Malbec non-rocky portion Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

47 Sonoma Valley Malbec rocky portion Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

48 Very little WHC from 16-32

49 Advanced soil mapping NEW! Demo in Paso Robles on Nov. 18 th! Water management consulting and monitoring Nutrition / fertilizer management consulting Viticultural practices consulting Troubleshooting and correction Pre-plant consulting Technology equipment leasing and sales Accredited CCSW auditor Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

50 Mark Greenspan, Ph.D. Advanced Viticulture, LLC Santa Rosa, California Web: Copyright Advanced Viticulture, LLC

Copyright Advanced Viticulture, Inc. Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc.

Copyright Advanced Viticulture, Inc.   Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc. Mark Greenspan, Ph.D., CPAg, CCA Advanced Viticulture, Inc. www.advancedvit.com Irrigation Management Water Management Floor Management Weather Frost, Cooling, other. Strategy Physiology of vine water

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