Citrus. Response Program

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1 PATHOLOGY TRAINING Citrus Health Response Program

2

3 Why is Huanglongbing g g important? In areas where the disease is endemic, citrus trees live 6-8 years, and most never bear usable fruit. So producing citrus is no longer economically feasible in the area. The disease has 6 month - 3 yr latency period before symptoms develop. An adequate cure for infected trees is not known to exist

4 HLB is caused by: A bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter Three important species are described. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus heat-tolerant, produces symptoms in either warm or cool climates Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (Africa) heat-sensitive, produces symptoms in cool climates Candidatus Liberibacter americanus (Brazil 2004) characterization still under study ALL THREE SPECIES RECENTLY SUCCESFULLY CULTIVATED Phytopathology Vol. 99, No.5, 2009 Asian type found in Miami-Dade County in August 2005.

5 More about the bacterium Is present only in the phloem Moves very slowly Is not uniformly Is not uniformly distributed in the plant, causing sectoring of the symptoms

6 Insect Vectors Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama Found in Florida June 1998 Photo: Jeff Lotz, DPI African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae Del Guercio»Not found in Western Hemisphere Photo: Stephen M. Garnsey

7 Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) Detection Nymphs Nymphs Eggs Eggs E d h b Eggs and nymphs can be found on new growth

8 45 Adults are found on stems and on the lower side of the leaves

9 Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) Detection Photo by B. Reyes- Mexico Waxy tubules direct the honeydew from the nymphs.

10 ACP Damage Leaf notching Burnt tips of citrus foliage Sooty mold associated to honeydew

11 HLB Detection: Photo: T Riley, USDA APHIS PPQ Classic symptom: Leaf blotchy mottle

12 Blotchy mottle Asymmetrical

13 Mottle symptom can be seen through leaf and on both sides. Upper side Lower side

14 Look on both sides of the leaf. Leaf miner can mimic HLB chlorotic symptoms Front Back

15 HLB symptoms vs. nutritional mottling Blotchy Mottle effect crosses leaf veins whereas a deficiency related mottle does not. Veins can turn yellow Mottle between veins, veins stay green

16 Taking a closer look Blotchy mottle symptoms may not be visible to just an exterior canopy evaluation. Examine the tree closer by parting branches to view older leaves within the canopy. Pay close attention to bud sports or re-growth after pruning. This classic blotchy mottle symptom get the lab s attention quickly.

17 Classic Blotchy Mottle Citrus aurantiifolia Key lime

18 Citrus aurantiifolia Persian lime

19 Citrus sinensis Sweet orange

20 Citrus aurantium Sour orange

21 Citrus macrophylla Alemow

22 Citrus limon Lemon

23 Citrus x paradisi Grapefruit

24 Citrus maxima Pummelo

25 Citrus hystrix Kafir lime Poncirus trifoliata Trifoliate orange

26 Citrofortunella microcarpa Calamondin

27 Other symptoms on leaves Vein yellowing Corky veins Thicker leaves

28 Zinc-like deficiency Leave mottling Zinc deficiency i

29 Rabbit ears

30 Rabbit ears

31 Green islands

32 Approaching a grove block: Viewing from a distance allows you to judge abnormalities on a macro scale. How does one tree compare to others.

33 Symptoms on the tree Yellow shoot Twig dieback

34 Severe ere leaf drop

35 Premature fruit drop

36 Off season blossom

37 Fully mature leaves, away from the tips and on branches on the inside of trees, show the most reliable symptoms and are better defined during the cooler months of the year. From J.M. Wallace, The Citrus Industry, Volume IV, 1978.

38 Fruit symptoms poorly colored, hence the name greening lopsided and hard seeds abort juice is high in acids and low in soluble solids abnormally bitter to the taste

39 Color inversion Small fruit

40 Lopsided fruit Curved columella

41 Seed abortion Normal seed (light color) Aborted seed (dark color)

42 Another symptom on fruit Orange-brown stain of the vascular columella

43 THE END

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