Borers. What kinds of insects are borers? How do borers find stressed trees?

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1 What kinds of insects are borers? Moths Shoot tip moths (several families) Clear wing moths Others, pyralid moths, carpenter worms Beetles Metallic wood boring beetles (Flat headed borers) Long horned beetles Bark beetles Ambrosia beetles Sap beetles Weevils Wasps Horn tails Sawflies Borers Which trees get borers? How can sanitation reduce borer problems? Can you control borers with reduced site stress? How can resistant varieties be used? What is the potential for biological control? How do borers find stressed trees? Trees that have been freshly wounded or are under water stress tend to give off a stronger smell. Fresh cuts release volatiles. Water stress causes greater rates of anaerobic glycolysis and ethanol production. Ethanol extracts essential oils of plants and increases the strength of the scent 1

2 Borer Chemical Control Trunk insecticides Emulsifiable concentrate formulation long lasting Pyrethroids, bifenthrin (Onyx), Systemic insecticides Imidacloprid Kills beetle borers only Does NOT kill caterpillar borers Won t work if vascular system is damaged How topical insecticides kill borers As adults feed on leaf tissue Metallic wood boring beetles (Flat headed borers) As they chew their way into the tree Adults chew an egg laying niche, or mating chamber (Beetles) Larvae of many beetles bore directly into trunk of tree after eggs are laid so they avoid insecticide Larvae chew into the bark after egg hatches (Moths) How topical insecticides kill borers As adults chew their way out of the trunk Beetles, Wasps Note: Horn tail and Sawfly wasps have ovipositors that deposit eggs beneath bark and insecticide, But adults are likely to contact enough insecticides to be killed as they look for an oviposition site 2

3 How systemic insecticides kill borers Material is injected into trunk or soil. Moves through xylem and diffuses into phloem so that vascular system is penetrated Diffusion through vascular system and protection is poor on injured trees. Wounds may add stress to trees and contribute to borer injury Anatomy of a tree trunk A- Outer Bark- water proof, made of old phloem B- Inner bark phloem C- Cambium cell layer- - Growing part, makes phloem and xylem D- Sapwood -Young Xylem, Conducts water, fertilizer, and pesticides E- Heartwood -Old Xylem, Does not conduct water,provides structural support Porosity of Sapwood Describes where in sapwood injected materials can be taken up in transpiration stream. Ring Porous Species- 99% taken up by vessels beneath bark in current annual growth ring Diffuse or Non Porous Species Taken up by vessels in most recent 3-4 growth rings Source; W. Chaney, Arbor Age 11:

4 Ring Porous Ring Porous M. Benjamin Yale Forestry Diffuse Porous Diffuse Porous M. Benjamin Yale Forestry Non-Porous Conifers have non-porous sapwood M. Benjamin Yale Forestry 4

5 Common Ring Porous Species Oaks Hickories Elms Ashes Hackberry Black locust Sassafras Mulberry For more information: Zimmerman Pine Moth Damage Zimmerman Pine Moth 5

6 Evaluation of Resistant Varieties Management Strategy Dogwood Borer 6

7 Borer Injury Pupal Skin of Dogwood Borer Dogwood borers attack trees wrapped in plastic 7

8 Pheromone Traps Clearwing borers Dogwood Banded Ash Rhododendron Common Clear Wing Borers Common Name Banded Ash Clearwing Dogwood borer Lesser peach tree borer Lilac borer Oak borer Peach tree borer Rhododendron Borer Hosts attacked Ash Flight Period Late July-Sept Dogwood, apple,pear Late May Peach, cherry, plum, Ash, lilac, privet, fringe tree Oak Peach, Cherry Rhododendron May-July, July-Sept May- July May- June Mid-June-August May 8

9 Lilac Borer Banded Ash, or Lilac Clearwing Borer Lilac Borer Damage 9

10 Peach Tree Borer Damage Carpenter Worm Carpenter worm gallery 10

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