MANAGING INSECT PESTS IN BERRIES AND FRUITS. Small Farm School 8 September 2012 Bruce Nelson, CCC Horticulture Department

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1 MANAGING INSECT PESTS IN BERRIES AND FRUITS Small Farm School 8 September 2012 Bruce Nelson, CCC Horticulture Department

2 RASPBERRIES TO START

3 ORANGE TORTRIX ON RASPBERRY

4 Raspberry Crown Borer

5 RASPBERRY CROWN BORER ADULT LOOKS LIKE A YELLOW JACKET WASP

6 RASPBERRY ARMYWORMS AND CUTWORMS Chewing mouthparts Number of prolegs, crochets

7 RASPBERRY - VOLES

8 VOLE PATHS

9 RASPBERRY SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA

10 The New Scare on Berries and other fruit

11 Size perspective for eggs on cherry of spotted wing drosophila

12 BLUEBERRIES AZALEA BARK SCALE BIRDS BLACK VINE WEEVIL CHERRY FRUITWORM SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA DEER

13 Oregon Soon will be the #1 Grower of Blueberries in the USA

14 Azalea bark scale on blueberry Eggs Example of parasitization

15 Black vine weevil on blueberries Larvae feed on roots Adults feed on foliage Multiple species of root weevil that could be potentially a pest

16 Black vine weevil eggs and larva

17 BLUEBERRY BIRD FEEDING DAMAGE Multiple birds feed on ripe fruit Can cause extensive loss one year and none the next

18 BIRD EXCLUSION NETTING IS ONE SOLUTION

19 DEER NEED FENCES TO KEEP THEM OUT Too low to do any good High enough to exclude deer

20 CHERRY FRUITWORM ON BLUEBERRIES Larva Adult

21 STRAWBERRIES

22 Insect Pests include aphids, root weevils, lygus bugs and mites. Aphids can be problematic as they vector various viral diseases. Root weevil species can significantly affect the root vigor. Lygus bugs may affect fruit cell development. STRAWBERRY APHID SHOWN TO RIGHT.

23 GRAPES TABLE AND WINE

24 Grape mealybug Multiple generations Protective body covering as ages makes certain pesticides ineffective. May vector diseases.

25 THRIPS ON GRAPES

26 APPLES

27 CODLING MOTH ON APPLES Egg near hatching Mature larva

28 More on Codling Moth Control approaches include mating disruption, foliar sprays that could be virus applications, contact insecticides and more But monitoring for timing is very important!

29 Monitoring via pheromone traps

30 FRUIT FLY COMPARISONS VIA WING PATTERN

31 APPLE MAGGOT MONITORING After overwintering in the soil underneath the tree, adults emerge and fly for a short time before mating. Mated females then deposit eggs into developing fruit where larval maggots remain until they drop from the fruit into the soil. LIFE CYCLE MAKES THESE DIFFICULT TO CONTROL HENCE TIMING IS ESSENTIAL IF USING ANY SORT OF CHEMICAL CONTROL. MONITORING VIA TRAPS IS KEY.

32 APPLE MAGGOT LARVA AND ADULT

33 PEARS

34 Pear Psylla

35 Pear Psylla Sampling via a beating tray Adults overwinter. Multiple generations/yearly. Piercing-sucking mouthparts Monitor via beating tray and leaf observation. Many predators possible unless use broad spectrum insecticides.

36 Beating Tray in Action

37 SWEET AND SOUR CHERRIES Weather during fruit ripening critical as must be dry during final ripening or fruit readily and quickly rots. Have selected problems of major concern: tree height, birds, maggots, and rain in June/July.

38 WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY

39 ADULTS

40 WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY ON STICKY TRAP

41 PLUMS AND PRUNES

42 PLUMS AND PRUNES Plum leaf curl aphid

43 PLUMS AND PRUNES Plum mealy plum aphid

44 PEACHES SUCH A TREAT WHEN RIPE

45 Lygus BUG DAMAGE TO PEACHES Catfacing damage Lygus bug feeding

46 SAN JOSE SCALE ON PEACHES On stems On fruit

47 PEACH TWIG BORER

48 PEACH TWIG BORER ADULT MOTH

49 MANAGEMENT KEYS Correctly identify pest so can learn about life cycle and control options; Monitoring? Thresholds? Biological/cultural management feasible/practical? Other controls physical, chemical, educational

50 RESOURCES TO USE Other growers of fruit; Extension agents; Pest control handbooks available on web; Focus on local resources as pests described for other parts of country and world may not exist or be problematic here; See examples of resources.

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