DIY Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring/Management

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1 Outline DIY Spotted Wing Drosophila Monitoring/Management Alberta Farm Fresh School 2017 Olds, AB SWD fundamentals Impact / ID/ Life Cycle / Monitoring / Management DIY SWD Monitoring Setting up a trap Emptying a trap Evaluating a trap catch Comparing traps ID practice Spotted Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii Vinegar fruit fly There are lots of different fruit flies out there Most vinegar flies only attack overripe, decaying, fallen fruit (present in late summer) SWD Why are we concerned? SWD attacks intact, ripening fruit High reproductive potential Low consumer tolerance Continues to spread very rapidly across a wide geographic area All regions in Alberta Spread of SWD First ID d as a pest in 2008 in California Quickly moved into Florida, Oregon & Washington in 2009 Confirmed in British Columbia in 2009 Found in significant numbers in 2010 Discovered in Alberta in 2010 Now found in most Canadian provinces In some cases, it is found yearround Alberta Situation SWD Trapping/monitoring since 2010 Typically later season captures Main monitored crops = raspberry, strawberry, Saskatoon berry 1

2 Host Crops SWD Alberta Strawberry, raspberry, Saskatoon berries?, black currant?, sour cherries?, Haskap? Other host crops (cultivated & wild) Cherries, peaches, plums, nectarine, honeysuckle, apricot, blueberry, blackberry, grape, elderberry, dogwood, Oregon grape, etc. Spotted Wing Drosophila Higher risk host crops? Softer skinned fruit Later season crops Raspberries and Day neutral strawberries Spotted Wing Drosophila Adults 2 3mm light yellow brown flies with red eyes Males Single black spot on the end of each wing Females No spots, but distinctive saw like ovipositor (egglaying device) Male adult SWD wing spots Photo by Sheila Fitzpatrick AAFC Female SWD saw like ovipositor Photo by Sheila Fitzpatrick AAFC Drosophila suzukii female VS male character summary: Photos by Patty Reid, AAFC Male adult SWD wing spots Photo by Patti Reid AAFC Lacombe 2

3 SWD Pictures from Patty Reid SWD Pictures from Patty Reid Female adult SWD Photo by Patti Reid AAFC Lacombe Female adult SWD saw like ovipositor Photo by Patti Reid AAFC Lacombe SWD Life Cycle May spread by: Windblown adults (shorter distances) May be some long distance movement based on wind trajectory analysis in 2015 Transportation of infested fruit (long distances) Overwinter as adult flies Not known if overwinters in AB conditions Definitely possible in specific microclimates Can tolerate high heat and cold winters SWD Life Cycle Adults may be present from June to November (in some areas) Prefer warmer conditions (20 30 C) Females lay eggs inside intact, ripening fruit Lay over 350 eggs Eggs develop into larvae in 1 3 days 3

4 SWD Life Cycle Larvae hatch and feed within the fruit Mature within about 2 weeks Pupae stay within or on the fruit Up to 2 weeks SWD Symptoms / Damage Females saw through the intact flesh Pinprick size holes are visible in the soft areas of the fruit Larvae hatch and feed within the fruit Fruits soften where feeding is occurring Multiple larvae accelerates fruit collapse Fruit becomes unmarketable Disease may develop in infested fruit Fruit damaged by SWD note sunken flesh, oviposition holes, larvae & pupae Photos by BCMAF, OMAFRA, OSU SWD Monitoring / Trapping Monitor for adults from mid late May onwards Use baited traps Apple cider vinegar OR Yeast & Sugar SWD Monitoring / Trapping Place lure traps in different areas 1.Producing fields May rotate through crops as different crops come into season 4

5 SWD Monitoring / Trapping Example SWD Trapping Kit 2.In locations where ripe fruit might be present Waste / Cull areas Market areas Try and trap imported adults from other regions Can also test fruit for infestation Contech trap Apple Cider Vinegar Strainer Alcohol Wash bottle Funnel Vials/Lids Wooden stakes Electrical tape (to attach trap to stake) Permanent marker Transport tub SWD info sheets Vial tray SWD trap kit Photo by Dr. Jim Broatch AAF Clear 2. Monitoring Trap & Lure Comparisons Van Steenwyk Modified Haviland Red Strainer full of insects captured in SWD trap Photo by Dr. Jim Broatch AAF Contech SWD trap in raspberries Photo by Dr. Jim Broatch AAF Haviland Lure comparisons ACV, YSL, wine + antifreeze, muscadine wine, red wine Slide by Hannah Burrack NC StateU SWD Management SWD Management Ensure good sanitation Clean up leftover or fallen fruit In field, in storage, on equipment Bury (12+inches), freeze, solarize Composting IS NOT effective Cool harvested fruit to slow larval development Apply registered insecticides to control adult flies Apply if trapping indicates presence May need to spray to keep things from transferring to later crops Chemical choices Most effective = pyrethroids, organophosphates, spinosads Not effective = neonicotinoids 5

6 Registered s (for control of SWD) Success spinosad 480g/L mL/ha 3 Delegate g product/ha Spinetoram 25% Dow AgroSciences Strawberry (1) Raspberry (1) Bushberries (3) Based on presence of adults 5 days L H2O/ha (min) Dow AgroSciences Bushberries (3) Strawberry (1) Caneberries (1) Sour Cherries (5) 3 7 days Registered s (for control of SWD) Mako Cypermethrin 407g/L 3 150mL/ha 1 Entrust Cherries - 364ml/ha (in 1000L H 2 O) Bushberries mL/ha Caneberries / strawberries mL/ha spinosad 240g/L 3 Engage Agro Berries, stone fruit, caneberries, strawberries (2 days) 12 hours Based on adult monitoring N/A Ensure thorough coverage Dow AgroSciences Cherries (3) Caneberries (1) Bushberries (1) Strawberries (1) Based on monitoring and/or presence of ripe fruit 5 days Registered s (for control of SWD) Exirel mL/ha cyantraniliprole 100g/L E.I. DuPont Cherries & bushberries 3 days 4 5 days Not strawberries & caneberries QUESTIONS??? Rob Spencer, BSA, MSc, P.Ag. Commercial Horticulture Specialist Alberta Ag Info Centre 310 FARM 6

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