European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana: The Year in Review

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1 European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana: The Year in Review Monica L. Cooper UC Cooperative Extension, Napa Viticulture Farm Advisor November 4, 2010 Jack K Clark Jack K Clark

2 Life cycle Adult (Moth) eggs per Egg Larva (caterpillar) Monica Cooper Jack Kelly Clark

3 Larva is the damaging life stage; Larval health determines adult fitness. Monica Cooper Monica Cooper

4 Life cycle Adult (Moth) Generation: Egg to adult 3 generations per year Spring-Summer-Summer Pupa Egg Jack Kelly Clark Larva (caterpillar) Monica Cooper Jack Kelly Clark

5 1st generation pre-bloom to berry set Monica Cooper Monica Cooper

6 1st generation pre-bloom to berry set Full bloom is easy time to scout Monica Cooper

7 2nd generation Pea-sized berry to veraison Do we have photos? Javier Saénz Zangheri et al. 1992

8 2nd generation Pea-sized berry to veraison Scouting Do we have photos? Monica Cooper Monica Cooper

9 3rd generation Post-veraison to harvest Do we have photos? Monica Cooper LuciaVarela

10 Projects and Experiments 2010 Monitoring Program Alternate Host Survey Insecticide Trials Jack K Clark

11 Monitoring Program, 2010 UC Cooperative Extension

12 Pheromone traps to monitor male flight 5 vineyards 2 olive groves Oakville, Rutherford, St Helena, 3 rd Ave Traps checked 3 times per week Results published in online newsletter

13 70 60 Spring flight 50 Males per trap per day Mar Apr May

14 Trap Data Summary 1 st flight 2 nd flight 3 rd flight Start date Feb 22 June 10 Aug 12 End date May 31 Aug 6 Sep 30 Duration 98 days 55 days 49 days Peak flight Apr 22 June 30 Sep 8 Start of Egg hatch Apr 29- May 3 not observed not observed

15 Monica Cooper Host Monitoring 2010

16 Main hosts: V. vinifera Daphne gnidium Daphne gnidium Secondary hosts: Olive Blackberry Gooseberry Black & Red currant Cherry Prune Persimmon Kiwi Pomegranate JF Gaffard

17 Olive flowers may host larvae in the spring. Olive fruit is not a host Monica Cooper

18 UC Monitoring Grape Olive Trapped Males Feb 22-May 31 Jun 10-Aug 6 Aug 12-Sep 30 7,277 (3) 224 (3) 13 (4) Within 200 m/ Outside 200 m 1, Eggs 2079 Apr 1-Jun 14 Larvae Apr 1-Jun

19 Alternate Host Survey Greg Simmons Napa River (Rutherford to Oakville) 3 rd Ave (John s Creek) May, June, August, September Total number inspected Blackberry flowers and fruit: 2,125 Wild grape flowers and fruit: 2,991 Plums: 1,511 Elderberry fruit: 1,115 Rose hips: 30

20 Alternate Host Survey Greg Simmons Napa River (Rutherford to Oakville) 3 rd Ave (John s Creek) May, June, August, September Total number inspected Blackberry flowers and fruit: 2,125 No Eggs Wild grape flowers and fruit: 2,991 Plums: 1,511 Elderberry fruit: 1,115 Rose hips: 30 No Larvae No pupae of Lobesia botrana One non-target larva in plum

21 Insecticide Trials 2010 Large Ovicide: plot trials: Grower Applied applied before egg is laid Small Larvicide: plot trials: Backpack most effective applied against young larvae Viticulture/European_Grapevine_Moth/

22 Treatment- Grower applied Conventional: Trial Rate per acre (50 gpa) Label rate Altacor (chlorantraniliprole) 3.25 oz oz Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 12 oz 8-16 oz Organic: Dipel (B. thuringiensis Kurstaki) 1 lb lb Entrust (spinosad) 2 oz oz

23 Rows 3 & 4 Sampling Treatment: May 7, (14, 20) Treatment timing: Egg hatch Evaluation: May 26, treatments Cab Sauv (4, 7, 15, 337) planted in 2000 Lyre/ Quad 4 replications, RCB design Evaluations: Each replicate (~2 ac): 60 vines 4 clusters per vine 240 clusters Each treatment: 960 clusters

24 Insecticide efficacy against L. botrana at Oakville, CA 8% 7% Evaluation: May 26, 2010 Clusters with damage but no larva found Clusters with larva Average % Clusters from 240 sampled 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 2.81% a 1.67% b 1.98% a 3.02% b 1.25% a 2.92% b 0.63% a 0.1% a 0% Altacor Dipel Entrust Intrepid 3.25 oz 1 lb 2 oz 12 oz

25 Summary of Insecticide Trial #1, 1 st generation Treatments applied at egg hatch (May 7) Flight ended May 31 Treatments with longer residuals (21 d) should have covered the period between egg hatch and end of flight Intrepid efficacious at mid-rate (12 oz)

26 Treatment- Grower applied Ovicide: June 18 Trial Rate per acre (100 gpa) Label rate Altacor (chlorantraniliprole) 3.25 oz oz Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 12 oz 8-16 oz Larvicide: June 25 Altacor (chlorantraniliprole) 3.25 oz oz Intrepid (methoxyfenozide) 12 oz 8-16 oz

27 Rows 3 & 4 Sampling 4 treatments 4 replications, RCB design 2 evaluation dates: July 7/8 July 15 Cab Sauv (4, 7, 15, 337) planted in 2000 Lyre/ Quad

28 Evaluation date: July 7, 8 Intrepid Ovicide Altacor Ovicide Intrepid Larvicide Live Eggs 4 0.5% % % Dead Eggs Hatched Eggs % % Ovicide applied: June 18 Larvicide applied: June 25 Larvae Total Clusters Altacor Larvicide %

29 Evaluation date: July 15 Intrepid Ovicide Altacor Ovicide Intrepid Larvicide Altacor Larvicide Live Eggs % 0.0 Dead Eggs % % % Hatched Eggs % % Ovicide applied: June 18 Larvicide applied: June 25 Larvae Total Clusters

30 Summary of Insecticide Trial #2, 2 nd generation Treatments applied at egg hatch (June 8) and larvae (June 25) Intrepid (12 oz) and Altacor (3.25 oz) efficacious at MID-rate Both efficacious at ovicide and larvicide timing NO live larvae found

31 Small plot trial (1 st generation) Large larvae (4 th and 5 th instar) Back-pack applied: 8-Jun-10 Evaluation date: 10-Jun-10 4 replications 7 vines per replicate 60 clusters evaluated from each replicate Oakville Cab Sauv (4, 7, 15, 337) planted in 2000 Lyre/ Quad

32 Insecticide efficacy 5th instar Lobesia botrana 16 c Percent of clusters infested a Agri-Mek 10 oz a Delegate 3.6 oz a Avaunt 4.0 oz b Altacor 3.0 oz Control June 10, 2010

33 Small plots insecticide trial 1 st generation EGVM larvae Plot design: 5 vine plots Replicated 6 times Application: air-blast mist back-pack sprayer 50 gallons/acre Treatments: 22 treatments with 8 insecticides High or low registered rates Timed as ovicide: on April 26 larvicide (single or multiple applications): on May 6, 13 and/or 20 Evaluation: 5 cluster in center 3 vines/plot (15 cluster/plot) Feeding damage evaluated on June 3 Entire plot over-sprayed with Agri-mek at 10oz/acre on May 28

34 Insecticide Rate # Applications ApplicationDate(s) Mean % damage (June 3) Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz 2 April 26 (O), May 13 (L) 0.0 a Intrepid 2F 8.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Intrepid 2F 16.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Altacor 35WG 2.0 oz 2 April 26 (O), May 13 (L) 0.0 a Altacor 35WG 2.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Altacor 35WG 4.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Delegate 25WDG 3.0 oz 2 May 6 (L), May 20 (L) 0.0 a Delegate 25WDG 3.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Delegate 25WDG 5.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Avaunt 30WDG 4.0 oz 2 May 6 (L), May 20 (L) 0.0 a Avaunt 30WDG 4.0 oz 1 May 13 (L) 0.3 a Avaunt 30WDG 6.0 oz 1 May 13 (L) 0.0 a Belt 4SC 3.0 oz 2 April 26 (O), May 13 (L) 0.0 a Belt 4SC 3.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Belt 4SC 4.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Tourismo SC 14.0 oz 2 April 26 (O), May 13 (L) 0.0 a Tourismo SC 14.0 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Entrust 80WP 1.25 oz 2 May 6 (L), May 20 (L) 0.0 a Entrust 80WP 2.50 oz 1 May 6 (L) 0.0 a Dipel DF 16.0 oz 3 May 6, May 13, May 20 (L) 0.0 a Dipel DF 32.0 oz 2 May 6 (L), May 13 (L) 0.0 a Untreated check 9.2 b

35 Insecticide Summary Very effective products on the market Appear to be minimally disruptive to natural enemies Be aware of resistance issues Conventional program in 2011 should explore the use of larvicides, rather than focusing strictly on ovicidal activity

36 Treatment timing summary: 1 st generation: (One application for conventional; 2-3 for organic) Conventional and Organic: Egg hatch 2 nd generation: (One application for conventional; 2 for organic) Ovicides: 3-5 days after 1 st moth caught Larvicides: Egg hatch (~14 days after 1 st moth caught) 3 rd generation: Ovicides: Peak flight (Peak egg-laying) days after 1 st moth caught Mating disruption

37 Mating disruption 2oo dispensers per acre JK Clark

38 Mating Disruption Best as Area-wide program, when populations are low, and when not too steep Informatore Agrario #20, Italy, 1999 Pacific Biocontrol Corporation, Shin-Etsu Fine Chemicals Division

39

40 Guidelines for Use of Pheromone Traps in 2011 Jack K Clark Jack K Clark

41 Sticky traps with pheromone lures used to monitor male flight Craig Graffin

42 Guidelines for use of pheromone traps in 2011 Start trapping 2 weeks before budbreak At least one trap for every 5-10 acres Check once per week from bud break to harvest Lure manufacturers: Alpha Scents Suterra Trece

43 Males in traps generally retain their color Craig Graffin

44 Bait traps vs. Pheromone traps Food attractant vs. Sex attractant Apple juice No preservatives (no Vitamin C) Molasses + Wine + Vinegar Bait traps capture 1/5 of what pheromone traps catch Bait traps work better in warmer weather Equivalent to pheromone traps for following a flight, but pheromone traps are better for following population levels Useful in Europe (Management program) Not useful for Eradication program Likely remain experimental/research tool in 2011.

45 The Year in Review 2010 Jack K Clark Jack K Clark

46 The Year in Review Olive flower: host 1 st generation high population pressure No populations found in Riparian hosts Pheromone Traps: Excellent monitoring tool, when they are in high enough densities and in absence of mating disruption; at least one trap per 5-10 acres Bait traps: Apple juice, best and easiest to use, although bait traps remain a research tool

47 Insecticide Summary Very effective products on the market Appear to be minimally disruptive to natural enemies Be aware of resistance issues Explore the use of conventional larvicides, rather than relying strictly on Altacor and Intrepid as ovicides

48 Treatment timing summary: 1 st generation: (One application for conventional; 2-3 for organic) Conventional and Organic: Egg hatch 2 nd generation: (One application for conventional; 2 for organic) Ovicides: 3-5 days after 1 st moth caught Larvicides: Egg hatch (~14 days after 1 st moth caught) 3 rd generation: Ovicides: Peak flight (Peak egg-laying) days after 1 st moth caught Mating disruption

49 Lucia Varela, Rhonda Smith, Jack Kelly Clark Acknowledgments Emily Smith, Molly Fanto Collaborating growers Napa County Ag Commissioner Martin Mochizuki NVG, NCFB, NVV CDFA, USDA Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, Valent Corporation, Wilbur Ellis (Ag Supply in St Helena) Pacific Biocontrol, Suterra, Alpha Scents, Trece Napa County grape growers and vintners

50 Additional Information UCCE Napa: UCCE Sonoma: NEWSLETTER: Moth_688/ Napa County Agricultural Commissioner:

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