From root to fruit: How rootstocks alter the development, molecular phenology and chemical composition of the grape. Noam Reshef

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1 From root to fruit: How rootstocks alter the development, molecular phenology and chemical composition of the grape Noam Reshef

2 Grafting grapevines Wide practice started as a solution to the phylloxera crisis at the late 19 th century Grafting a susceptible European scion onto a tolerant American rootstock 2

3 Rootstock genotype affects scion performance Vegetative growth (Tandonnet et al. 2009; Paranychianakis et al. 2004; Clingeleffer and Emmanualli 2006) Fertility and yield (Archer & Fouche, 1987; Renouf et al. 2010) Timing of phenological stages (Hannah & Krstic 2003; Sanjun et al., 2005; Atkinson & Else 2001; Keller et al. 2001) Fruit quality (Gonçalves et al. 2006; Reynolds & Wardle, 2001) 3 N, Ca 2+, Mg 2+

4 Rootstock effect on fruit quality Direct/indirect? What mechanism? Grafting compatibility Water and nutrient uptake and conductivity Rootstock-scion signaling Metabolites Growth regulators RNA s Proteins and peptides 4

5 Experimental background Commercial vineyard planted in the year 2000 Cabernet Sauvignon X 6 different rootstocks Was part of an extended rootstock trial ( ) Vegetative vigor Fruit maturity, wine quality &

6 Hormone and transcriptome analysis Full bloom Veraison Harvest Hormone analysis Ck s, auxins, ethylene and ABA RNAseq transcriptome Buds Berries 6

7 Metabolic profiling and fruit development Coombe & Mccarthy, Aus. J. Grape. Wine Res Berry size & weight Brix, ph, TA GC + UPLC 7

8 Results clusters had more berries per cluster and increased vegetative growth Berries per cluster pruning weight (kg/vine) Lateral shoots per cane p.value = p.value <

9 Results berries were bigger and accumulated sugar faster Berry volume A A A B B B A B A B 27 DAA 48 DAA 77 Daa 84 DAA 93 DAA 98 DAA 113 DAA / Total soluble solids (Brix) A A A B B B 27 DAA 48 DAA 66 DAA 77 DAA 84 DAA 93 DAA 98 DAA 113 DAA % / A B Differences in berry development dynamics originate from the 1 st growth phase 9

10 Results Rootstock genotype affected berry anatomy %Skin/berry FW at harvest %Skin/berry FW (at max fruit weight) p.value<0.005 p.value<

11 Results Rootstock-dependent ck s/auxins balance in buds Young buds at veraison (Log /101-14) iprmp czog czr cz ipr ip7g OxIAA IAA Auxins Cytokinins p.value<0.05 iprmp = isopentenyl adenosine monophosphate czog = cis-zeatin-o-glucoside cz = cis-zeatin czr = cis-zeatin riboside ipr = isopentenyl adenosine ip7g = isopentenyl adenine-7-glucoside IAA = indole-3-acetic acid OxIAA = oxo-iaa 11

12 Results Rootstock-dependent ck s/auxins in berries Whole berries (Log /101-14) tzr Cytokinins tz At berry-set PAA Auxin tz7g ip Cytokinins At veraison PAA IAA-Asp Auxins p.value<0.05 p.value< tzr = trans-zeatin riboside tz = trans-zeatin tz7g = trans-zeatin-7-glucoside ip = isopentenyl adenine PAA = Phenylacetic acid IAA-Asp = indole-3-acetic acid-aspartate

13 Results Rootstock genotype affected the expression level of hormone and secondary metabolism-related genes Veraison RNAseq analysis Harvest Ethylene responsive TF Cytokinin dehydrogenase Ethylene responsive TF Gibberellin receptor Auxin induced protein UFGTs MYBA

14 Results Rootstock genotype affected the polyphenol metabolism in berry skin Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside Flamini et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci Catechin Cyanidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-p-coumaroyl Peonidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside 15 Delphinidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside-p-coumaroyl Malvidin-3-O-glucoside Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-cafeoyl Vitisin A

15 Results overview Differences are evident in berries at the first growth phase and possibly during bud development Data suggest these differences are related to altered hormonal balance in the tissues Differences were found in both transcriptome and polyphenol metabolism of berry skin tissues Anatomical and physiological differences potentially play an important role in the fruit quality for winemaking 15

16 Our focus Study the effect of the altered hormonal balance on fruit transcripts, primary metabolism and anatomical properties at the early stage 1 Coombe & Mccarthy, Aus. J. Grape. Wine Res. 2000

17 I d like to thank: Mentors/supervisors Dr. Aaron Fait and Dr. Etti Or RNAseq transcriptome Prof. Massimo Delledonne Hormone analysis Dr. Etti Or Padma Vardaka COST FA1106 (STSM) Technical assistance Noga Sikron

18 References Archer, E. and Fouche, G.W., (1987) Effect of Bud Load and Rootstock Cultivar on the Performance of V. vinifera L. cv. Red Muscadel ( Muscat noir ) 8, Atkinson, C. and Else, M., (2001) Understanding How Rootstocks Dwarf Fruit Trees. Compact Fruit Tree. 34, Clingeleffer P. R. and Emmanuelli D.R., (2006) An assessment of rootstocks for Sunmuscat (Vitis vinifera L.): a new drying variety. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res Coombe B. G., Mccarthy M. G. (2000) Dynamics of grape berry growth and physiology of ripening. Aus. J. Grape. Wine. Res. 6, Flamini R., Fulvio M., De Roso M., Panagiotis A. and Bavaresco L. (2013) Advanced knowledge of three important classes of grape phenolics: anthocyanins, stilbenes and flavonols. Int. j. mol. Sci. 14, Gonçalves, B., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Santos, A., Silva, A.P., Bacelar, E., Correia, C. and Rosa, E., (2006) Scion-rootstock interaction affects the physiology and fruit quality of sweet cherry. Tree Physiol. 26, Hannah, R. and Krstic, M., (2003Matching rootstoclk and scion combination in Sunraysia. Final Rep. to Grape. Wine. Res. Dev. Corp. Keller, M., Kummer, M. and Vasconcelos, M.C., (2001) Reproductive growth of grapevines in response to nitrogen supply and rootstock. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 7, Paranychianakis, N. V., Aggelides, S. and Angelakis, A.N., (2004) Influence of rootstock, irrigation level and recycled water on growth and yield of Soultanina grapevines. Agric. Water Manag. 69, Renouf, V., Tregoat, O., Roby, J. P., Van Leeuwen, C. (2010). Soils, rootstocks and grapevine varieties in prestigious Bordeaux vineyards and their impact on yield and quality. J Int Sci Vigne Vin, Reynolds, A.G. and Wardle, D.A., (2001) Rootstocks Impact Vine Performance and Fruit Composition of Grapes in British Columbia. Horttechnology 11, Sanjun Gu, P.E.R. and S.G., (2005) Performance of Gewurztraminer on Six Rootstocks Under Marginal Climatic Conditions. Grapevine Rootstocks Curr. Use, Res., Appl Rootstock Symp. Ed. by Grapevine Rootstocks Curr. Use, Res., Appl Rootstock Symp. Ed Tandonnet, J.-P., Cookson, S.J., Vivin, P. and Ollat, N., (2009) Scion genotype controls biomass allocation and root development in grafted grapevine. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 16,

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