Canker Diseases in California Lodi Grape Day 2017 W. D. GUBLER DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS, CA 95616

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1 Canker Diseases in California Lodi Grape Day 2017 W. D. GUBLER DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS, CA 95616

2 Trunk diseases

3 Natural dieback of pruning wound Uniform color of dead tissue No dark or advancing margins

4 Diseased pruning wounds Note only partial death of wood Color is generally darker Irregular shape of discolored tissu

5 Diseased spur showing longitudinal streaking = disease progression

6 Canker disease pathogens Eutypa lata Botryosphaeria spp Togninia minima Phaeomoniella Phomopsis Others

7 Introduction Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Grapevine Trunk Diseases Worldwide - Esca & Petri disease - Eutypa dieback - Botryosphaeria canker

8 Predisposition Stress Trunk diseases are more severe when vine is stressed Drought conditions seem to increase incidence Why? We know that under water stress, metabolic products and especially proteins in the sap change in prevalence For example Esca pathogens both grow faster on water-stressed sap vs healthy (normal) sap

9 Esca Pathogens Togninia spp. (minima) Phaeomoniella chlamdospora Occurs in vineyards from 1-80 yrs old. Incidence has increased in the past years.

10

11

12 Pathogens P chlamydospora resides on 3-5 year old or older pruning wounds as pycnidia. P aleophilum resides as perithecia in exposed, rotted vascular tissue including pruning wounds, breaks in the cordon and wood. Both pathogens are endophytes and are capable of causing severe disease when the vine is under stress. Both pathogens have been found to also reside as epiphytes on leaves and bark. Both can reside in the soil.

13 Phaaeoacremonium spore trapping MADERA P.viticola Precipitation (mm) Temperature ( C) 100 Number of colonies Temperature Cand precipitation (mm) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. SONOMA P.viticola Precipitation (mm) Temperature ( C) 100 Number of colonies Temperature Cand precipitation (mm) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

14 *Microscopic examinations showed pycnidia to be identical with pycnidia of Pa.chlamydospora previously observed in vitro (Rooney and Gubler, 2001).

15 Locations of perithecia of Togninia spp on grapevines.

16

17 Spore release Rainfall Sprinkler irrigation Fog

18 Esca / black measles symptoms on Grapevine Fruit symptoms Crude toxin injection/reproduction of symptoms

19 Control Dormant or Delayed dormant applications of lime sulfur=calcium polysulfide at 950 liters/ha Direct spray using 2 nozzles /side Pruning wound protection

20 Eutypa Dieback Eutypa lata Eutypa leptoplaca

21 Eutypa dieback Canker

22 Eutypa shoot and leaf symptoms

23 Eutypa symptoms

24 Percent of Infected Stub Cuts Natural Inoculum Trial (Linden-2014) Eutypa Control Rally+Topsin Rally+Topsin (2x) Treatment

25 Percent of Infected Stub Cuts Natural Inoculum Fungicide Trial (Davis 2014) Eutypa Treatment

26 Bot Canker

27 BOTRYOSPHAERIA CANKERS. 9 species have been isolated from grapevine cankers in California. - Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Arx. - Botryosphaeria obtusa (Scheiwn.) Shoemaker. Typical wedge shaped canker caused by Botryosphaeria spp..

28 Botryosphaeria Canker Bot canker Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis a

29 Botryosphaeria Canker Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Botryosphaeria canker Bot Canker in California Lasiodiplodia theobromae + 8 other species

30 BOTRYOSPHAERIA PYCNIDIA FOUND IN CALIFORNIA GRAPEVINES. Pycnidia of Lasiodiplodia theobromae found in Coachella Valley grapevines.

31 7/9/07 12/9/07 19/9/07 25/9/07 1/10/07 8/10/07 15/10/07 23/10/07 30/10/07 7/11/07 20/11/07 27/11/07 5/12/07 13/12/07 20/12/07 28/12/07 7/1/08 14/1/08 22/1/08 29/1/08 4/2/08 11/2/08 18/2/08 25/2/08 3/3/08 11/3/08 Epidemiology of Botryosphaeriaceae spp. in California 17/3/08 24/3/08 31/3/08 7/4/08 15/4/08 21/4/08 28/4/08 5/5/08 13/5/08 20/5/08 27/5/08 2/6/08 9/6/08 16/6/08 23/6/08 30/6/08 7/7/08 15/7/08 22/7/08 29/7/08 4/8/08 11/8/08 18/8/08 26/8/08 1/9/08 9/9/08 15/9/08 23/9/08 30/9/08 7/10/08 14/10/08 21/10/08 28/10/08 3/11/07 10/11/08 17/11/08 25/11/08 1/12/08 9/12/08 16/12/08 23/12/08 30/12/08 6/1/09 13/1/09 20/1/09 27/1/09 3/2/09 10/2/09 18/2/09 24/2/09 28/2/09 4/3/09 10/3/09 17/3/09 25/3/09 1/4/09 7/4/09 15/4/09 22/4/09 1/5/09 7/5/09 15/5/09 22/5/09 Spore trapping results in Monterey County Bot spores Precipitation (mm) Temperature (C) Bot spore values = Total spores / 2 ml of H 2 O

32 Grapevine Trunk Diseases Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Control of canker disease Eutypa and Botryosphaeria can not be chemically eradicated Recomendations Eliminate and burn pruning wood debris Double pruning (Weber, Trouillas & Gubler, AJEV) Late pruning (February - March) Chemical treatment of pruning wounds (Rolshausen & Gubler, 2005) 1% Topsin M (Benzimidazole) Vitiseal

33 Canker Disease Control Late Pruning 90-95% control Spurshield Boric Acid ppm B B-LOCK --Nutrient Technologies grapes only Topsin M 1.5#/A, (will last longer in paint) Myclobutanil (Rally), 6 oz/a,(lasts longer in paint) Vitiseal 9:1 dilution for spraying Use neat for daubing

34 Overwintering Structures give rise to primary inoculum Overwintering structures controlled by dormant sprays rainfall Spore release=primary inoculum Dormant LLS Dormant Vitiseal Dormant fungicide Pruning wound Fresh wounds more susceptible Infection

35 Why does late pruning help control canker disease?

36 % of infected wounds % of infected wounds % of infected wounds % of infected wounds ovember Chardonnay Time Course Inoculation December 100 Lasiodiplodia theobromae d 24 d 36 d 48 d 60 d 72 d 84 d T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T nuary Lasiodiplodia theobromae Neofusicoccum parvum d 24 d 36 d 48 d 60 d 72 d T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T February 100 Lasiodiplodia theobromae Neofusicoccum parvum 12 d 24 d 36 d 48 d 60 d 72 d 84 d T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T Lasiodiplodia theobromae Lasiodiplodia theobromae March Neofusicoccum parvum Neofusicoccum parvum d 12 d 24 d 36 d 0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T1 T T3

37 Does spore trapping help control canker disease? It might if you could get into the vineyard within hours.

38 Fungicide Application Band spraying-pruning wound protection and powdery mildew control

39

40 Vitiseal 1:9 Spray

41

42

43 Thank You

44 Botryosphaeria Canker Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Disease cycle? Picnidia, Teleomorph? Native plants fruit, nut trees Foliar symptoms??

45 Rain Stroma on Dead trunk Eutypa lata E. leptoplaca Ascospores Release Fresh pruning wounds Canker Several Years After Infection

46 Introduction Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Grapevine Trunk Diseases - Infect grapevines through pruning wounds - Symptoms include: Grapevine decline (dieback) Blockage of vascular system (Xylem - Phloem) Toxin production Yield loss Death of the plant

47 Grapevine Canker Diseases - Caused by fungal pathogens (Ascomycetes) Eutypa lata Eutypa leptoplaca Botryosphaeria spp - Infect grapevines through wounds Most commonly through pruning wounds Wounds caused by mechanical damage Endophytic? - Symptoms include Slow decline Rapid death of spur positions Dieback Eventual death

48 Petri disease (Young vine decline) Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

49

50 Esca & Petri disease Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis Young Plants Young Esca Black Goo Grapevine decline Petri Disease Adult Plants Esca (Black measles)

51 Petri Disease =Young Esca Disease occurs on 1-10yr-old vines. vines Disease results from infection of rootstock by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Similar symptoms caused by different species of Phaeoacremonium. Pathogen introduced into plants in nursery, and in production fields.

52

53 Spores of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora were trapped in infected vineyards of California Phaeoacremonium spp.

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