Colonial Vocabulary. Huguenots- French people who settled in New Paltz. Palantines- German settlers that came to America and settled in Newburgh

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1 Colonial Vocabulary colony- place that is settled at a distance from the country that governs (rules) it colonist- a person who lives in a colony Patroon System- the way the Dutch tried to get more people to come to the colony New Netherlands and settle: free land was given to a colonist if they brought 50+ people over from Holland/Netherlands) merchant- a person who sells goods for a profit apprentice- student of a master craft worker assembly- a group of colonists who were allowed to make some of their own laws Huguenots- French people who settled in New Paltz Palantines- German settlers that came to America and settled in Newburgh slavery- owning another human being as property indentured servant- a person whose passage was paid for into the colonies but had to repay the debt tax- money paid to the government

2 Developing a Colony 1. New Netherland - Holland or Netherlands claimed land along the Hudson River because of Henry Hudson's voyages and named it New Netherlands. -The Dutch started setting up trading posts along the river. -The Dutch organized The Dutch West India Company to be in control of the trading and the colony. 2. Two Major Settlements were developed in New Netherland. - Fort Orange was along the Hudson River near the Mohawk River. It is known as Albany today. - New Amsterdam was at the southern tip of New York. It started as a fort, but ended up being a center for trade making it a very busy port. It is located in what is now called Manhattan. This is where the Dutch traded various items, such as beads and knives to the Native Americans for Manhattan. 3. The Patroon System -The Dutch were trying to get more people to settle in the new colony of New Netherland. - The Dutch West India Company organized a system that would bring in 50 settlers at a time. This system was called The Patroon System. - The company would give a person free land in New Netherland, if that person brought or sent over 50 more people to settle in New Netherland. 4. Dutch Contributions - steep roofs -two-part doors - stone churches - cookies - hanging stockings - coleslaw - names of places: Bronx, Harlem, Brooklyn, Staten Island, Dutchess County

3 Reasons for Coming to New Netherland religious freedom a lot of unsettled land to meet many different people farming and trading new food and new friends feel safe with new rules/laws/stockades new jobs and more wealth to escape home country's laws Reasons for NOT going to New Netherland couldn't leave family/friends didn't know what to expect have to learn new traditions their country was safe and powerful slavery wars with Native Americans Dutch West India Company was getting greedy could not afford to come over 5. French Huguenots - In 1640 many French Huguenots arrived in New Amsterdam in search of furs. The Huguenots were a religious group who followed John Calvin. They traveled to North America because they were treated poorly in France. -They wanted to preserve their ways of doing things but eventually became part of the Dutch & English cultures. Their community became known as New Paltz. Paul Revere was a famous Huguenot. Contributions: a) brought a tradition of hard work & determination b) among the 1st to believe in equal education for women and men c) new farming ideas d) great craftsmen: lace makers/clock makers/silversmiths/furniture makers 6. Slavery Comes to New York! -At least one black slave sailed with C. Columbus. slavery- owning another human being as property. They were to help w/ farming, building and with the fur trade. -Slavery was different in NY than the south: they had half or all freedom & worked beside indentured servants- a person whose passage was paid for into the colonies but had to repay the debt. -Slavery continued until after the Revolutionary War and took effect on July 4, 1827.

4 7. England Takes Over! - The English had more colonies in North America than the Dutch. - The Dutch were too weak to defeat the English so they surrendered to the English. -New Amsterdam was now owned by King Charles II of England and renamed New York. Fort Orange became Albany. -Even though the Dutch surrendered their colony the Dutch customs were shared. (The English language was adopted!) 8. The Thirteen Colonies -Settlers came over from Great Britain to have more freedom. GB ruled from a far. -colony- people who reside in a new land where the 'parent' country rules from a far - They declared their independence from GB during the American Revolution. Northern Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies New Hampshire New York Maryland Connecticut New Jersey Virginia Massachusetts Pennsylvania North Carolina Rhode Island Delaware South Carolina Georgia 9. French & Indian War -In the 1750s France and Great Britain were fighting in Europe. British colonists wanted to take over French land and its fur trade in America. -Native Americans wanted to join in the battle against the British because they didn't want the British to take away their land. -The war ended in 1759 with the British taking over French land in Quebec. - As a result of the Peace Treaty in 1763 the British got most of the French land. The British also began taxing the colonists. (tax- money paid to the government) Colonists were very unhappy about paying these taxes.

5 10. Colonial Food Early settlers brought seeds with them to New Netherland so they could grow vegetables such as peas, onions and carrots. They brought along a few sheep, chickens and hogs as well. Native Americans taught the new arrivals how to plant, harvest and grind corn. With the corn they made johnnycakes. Native Americans also taught the colonists how to grow pumpkins, beans, squash, sweet potatoes, apples, pears, cherries and more! Good behavior was expected of children during meals. Children had to remain quiet and excuse themselves when finished. After the table was cleared the mother, father and children chatted around the fireplace. The kitchen was an important room in the colonial home. Meals and activities occurred here because of the location of the fireplace: - meals were cooked here - gave off heat - provided light at night

6 11. Colonial Clothing Many of the first settlers gave little thought to clothing, wearing tattered clothes that they came with on their backs. Some from England dressed in fine clothes with ruffled shirts. Colonial clothing varied by region, religion, social class and occupation. The Dutch in NY wore the best that they could afford. DutchWomen Dutch Men Dutch Children -wide, full skirts - belts around the skirts to attach keys or scissors - white, linen bonnets - leather shoes with bright silver buckles - white starched collars - brightly colored breeches (pants that stop above the knee) - short coats with high, starched, white collars - leather shoes with silver buckles - dressed exactly like adults - instead of leather shoes they wore wooden ones like the children of Holland

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