FINAL PROJECT REPORT

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1 FINAL PROJECT REPORT ON STRATEGIC PLAN FOR ESTABLISHING / STRENGHTHENING BOTANICAL GARDEN AT BHOPAL Submitted by Department of Botany, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls P.G. College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal 2007 Sponsored by M.P. State Biodiversity Board, Bhopal

2 INVESTIGATING TEAM Principal Investigator : Dr. Shashi Rai, Retired Principal, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG College & Member - University Grants Commission, New Delhi Co- Investigator : Dr. Pratibha Singh, Professor of Botany Dr. Ranjana Varma, Professor of Botany Advisory Committee : Dr. Kirti Jain, Professor of Botany Dr. Pramod K. Rai, Retired Principal/ Professor of Botany Mrs. Maneesha Nashikkar, Retired Professor of Botany Dr. Moni Mathur, Professor of Botany/Advisor State Biotechnology Council Dr. S.S. Khan, Professor of Botany Shri M.K. Khan DFO (CPA) Investigating Committee : Dr. Chetna Shrivastava, Professor of Botany Dr. Ritu Thakur Bais, Asstt. Professor of Botany Dr. Aruna Jain, Asstt. Professor of Botany Dr. Aparnaa Laskar, Asstt. Professor of Botany Project Associates : Dr. M.N. Khan Ms. Shiko Kichouliya

3 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the enclosed document is the outcome of the project work carried out by Department of Botany, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG (Autonomous) College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal during May 2005 to February The project was funded by M.P. State Biodiversity Board and is a collaborative effort with Capital Project Authority (Forest Wing) Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The academic inputs are contributed by the college through sincere and dedicated work during the prescribed period of the project. Dr. Shashi Rai Principal investigator

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my sincere thanks to M.P. State Biodiversity Board, Bhopal for providing us opportunity and financial assistance to carry out major research project, Strategic plan for establishing/strengthening Botanical Garden at Bhopal. It would have been very difficult to complete this work without their support and patronage. I am thankful to Dr. Shobhna Bajpai Maru, Principal, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG (Autonomous) College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal for necessary facilities during the period of the project. With deep sense of reverence I would like to thank all the member of Advisory Committee, Dr. Pramod K. Rai, Retd. Principal, Mrs. Maneesha Nashikkar, Retd. Professor of Botany, Dr. Moni Mathur, Advisor, State Biotechnology Council, Govt. of MP, Shri M.K.Khan, DFO, CPA (Forest Wing) Dr. S.S. Khan, Professor of Botany, Saifia Science College for their suggestions, encouragement and valuable help during the course of project. Without their expertise and help it would not have been possible for us to complete the project. I wish to express my sincere thanks to Mr. M. Hashim, Retired PCCF, Govt. of M.P., for valuable support rendered by him. I am grateful to Mr. Hariom Shankwar, CF, CPA (Forest Wing) Bhopal and his team specially Mr. Bhargava for facilitating the establishment of proposed Botanical Garden. I acknowledge the financial support and the expert guidance given by Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Tradition (FRLHT), Bangalore in organizing Conservation Assessment And Management Prioritization (CAMP) workshop on medicinal plants. Staunch support & valuable help extended by Shri M.K.Khan, DFO, CPA and Dr. Sudesh Waghmare, Range Officer, Forest Department is being specially recognized. I appreciate their zeal and wish to thank both of them profusely. I wish to put on record my sincere thank to Dr. K.K. Khanna, Director, BSI, Allahbad, Dr. Ravi Kumar, Angiospermic Taxonomist, FRLHT, Bangalore, Dr. C.M. Solanki, Principal, Gujrati Science College, Indore, Dr. A. K. Jain, Director, Institute of Ethanobotany, Gwalior, Dr. S.S. Khan, Professor of Botany, Saifia Science College, Dr. S.K. Jain, Prof. of Botany, SSL Jain college, Vidisha, Dr.T.R.Sahu, Head, Dept. Of Botany, Dr. Hari singh Gour Universiy, Sagar for helping us in identification of most of the flora of botanical garden and for assessment of RET

5 species of the central eco region. We are indebted for their valuable suggestion and unconservative experience sharing. I very proudly acknowledge the willingness and contribution made by my team members Dr. Pratibha Singh, Dr. Ranjana Varma, Dr. Kirti Jain, Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Bais, Dr. Aruna Jain, and Dr. Aparnaa Laskar. But for their help and untiring efforts it would have not been possible for me to undertake the project work. In fact it was their initiative, which provoked me to approach M.P. State Biodiversity Board. The document, which is in your hands, is the outcome of the sincere efforts of my colleagues and teammates. I will be failing in my duty if I do not mention about the significant role played by the two Project Associates Dr. M.N. Khan and Ms. Shiko Kichouliya. They worked hard, and exhibited multiple utility at all fronts of the Project. I am very happy to recognize their work in the Project. The laboratory staff of Botany department Mrs. Manju Mahobia, Mr. Kishan Patel extended required support and help at all steps of the project work. Also all the members of the office staff of the college helped me in various capacities during the project work. I appreciate help and support given by each one of them. I may be excused if I have forgotten to Thank persons who have helped directly or indirectly in the completion of project work. It gives me a immense pleasure to submit this Project Report which is the outcome of efforts of those who care for conservation of Nature and preservation of Biodiversity on this planet. Dr. Shashi Rai Principal Investigator, Retired Principal, Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG College & Member - University Grants Commission, New Delhi

6 PREFACE Depleting biodiversity has been a matter of concern for one and all as it touches the existence of life on this Planet. Nature has created such large number of species, both plants and animals, with great vision and care. Each species plays significant role in natural cycles, which run almost in an autonomous manner under the single control of Mother Nature. Loss of species therefore, will have serious consequences. Enhanced materialism and unabated desire of development has lost sight of this important aspect, with the result that sustenance of life is at stake. Unpredicted seasonal variation, unprecedented global warming and risky geographical changes may lead to disaster beyond human imagination. Conservation of nature and natural resources appears to be the only strategy to save the world from such detrimental happenings. Scientific community all over the world has to propose plans and strategies to save Nature. The political will and beaurocratic effectivity needs to be developed to implement the scientific strategies in to action. Stringent laws and their honest execution is mandatory if we really mean to conserve our rich heritage of natural resources. Policy planners of both developing and developed countries have to come to common platform to give a global mandate equally applicable to all. Erratic human behavior is to be tamed in such a way that everyone is aware and enlightened about duties towards Mother Nature. Conservation of nature needs to be a mass movement rather than a close door policy, which is never known to common man. It is with this vision that the botany department of Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG (Autonomous) College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal decided to undertake a project on phytodiversity of Central Eco-region of Madhya Pradesh. Main objective was to identify Rare, Endangered and Threatened species of this area and to restore these species for future perception. We take great pleasure is submitting this valuable informative document for the welfare of mankind

7 Contents Certificate Acknowledgement Preface Introduction Material & Methodology Outcomes : Chapter 1: Phytodiversity of the Central eco- region Bhopal Sehore Raisen Vidisha Plants reported from central eco-region Chapter 2: RET plant species of Central eco- region List of RET species IUCN criterion Threat assessment (Taxon data sheets) Chapter 3: Inventory book of most RET plant species Description of RET plant species Chapter 4: Important Focal species List of focal plant species Chapter 5: Layout of Botanical Garden List of proposed plant species List of remaining plant species to be planted in Botanical Garden (According to classification) Map of the Botanical Garden (Kolar park) References

8 INTRODUCTION: Sustainable Development is the key area of concern not only for developed countries but more so for developing countries. Unfortunately development is generally linked to all materialistic activities such as Industrialization & Urbanization and very little attention is paid towards Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources. Unabated deforestation has led to loss of number of plant & animal species, which are at the verge of extinction. It is therefore, duty of each individual and more so of the scientific community to make efforts to conserve the nature, specially those plant and animal species which are facing the risk of extinction. Madhya Pradesh was once upon considered as a big pool of plant and animal species because of its huge forest reserve and large dimensions of forest cover. Over the years the scenario has changed and threat to natural bio resource appear to be at the doorstep. The matter has serious angles that need immediate attention to plan strategically for conservation of Nature. Though the state has number of National Parks, still a well developed and academically enriching Botanical Garden is missing on the state map. Botanical Survey of India can be approached to set up a Botanical Garden in Central eco region of Madhya Pradesh. The state has the privilege of having a vegetationlly rich hill station like Pachmarhi with wide range of plant species but still an organised Botanical Garden has not been developed in any part of the state with representative plant species of this area. It is with this background in mind that the Botany Department of Sarojini Naidu Govt. Girls PG College, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal executed a project under the sponsorship of MP State Biodiversity Board with a view to survey the Central eco region of Madhya Pradesh and to identify RET species. It was also envisaged that as an outcome of the project, a good Botanical Garden be established at Bhopal with representative species of this area. It was decided to undertake the project in collaboration with Capital Project Authority (Forest wing) Bhopal. It was made clear right from the beginning of the project that the college will only do the academic work of documenting and identifying plant species whereas the development of the Botanical Garden will be the responsibility of CPA (Forest Wing). The Project was planned to fulfill following objectives : 1.) To create an awareness about Phytodiversity amongst teachers & students. 2.) To make an extensive survey of forest localities of Central Eco Region of Madhya Pradesh covering Raisen, Sehore, Bhopal & Vidisha districts. 3.) Identification of RET species of this area.

9 4.) Collection of plant species and to develop herbarium. 5.) Identification of major plant species of the area. 6.) Documentation of Plant Species in the form of script, photographs & herbarium. 7.) To prepare Taxon sheets of identified RET species. 8.) Recommend plantation of species in the Botanical Garden to be developed by CPA at "Arboratum", a green lung area at Kolar Road, Bhopal. 9.) To enumerate various uses of few prominent plant species of the area. In order to fulfill these objectives the project was planned and methodologies were identified. METHODOLOGY: The available literature enumerating the flora of the region was studied and properly reviewed. Such literature was used for reference as and when needed. Mainly following flora were consulted: 1. Oommachan, M. Flora of Bhopal (Angiosperms). J.K. Jain Brothers, Bhopal (1976) 2. Singh, N.P., Khanna, K.K., Mudgal, V. and Dixit, R.D. Flora of Madhya Pradesh, Volume III, Botanical Survey of India. (2001) Following methodologies were adopted : 1.) Selection of suitable area for development of Botanical Garden : - Few areas of Bhopal were surveyed for this purpose. While selecting suitable space for Botanical Garden following criteria were used: (i) The area should be large enough to house a Botanical Garden with natural habitat. (ii) There should be existing natural vegetation in the area. (iii) The area should be free from anthropogenic disturbance. (iv) There should be availability of water. (v) The area should be centrally located and approachable so as to attract attention of common man, specially the students. (vi) The area should have scope for future development.

10 The project team found that Arboratum, a lung area on Kolar Road, Bhopal fulfills all these criteria and was selected as the appropriate location for Botanical Garden. 2.) Creation of Awareness towards Conservation of Nature amongst students : (i) Large number of workshops and seminars were organised by the college for teachers and students in order to generate positive thinking towards conservation of nature and the Risk the world is facing due to speedy loss of number of plant and animal species. (ii) Students and teachers were involved in generating People's Biodiversity Register in the municipal wards of New Bhopal area. (iii) The plant species in the college campus were identified and students were involved in the preparation of herbarium of important plant species. (iv) Three CAMP (Conservation Assessment and Management Prioritization) workshops were organised involving plant taxonomists of Bhopal and nearby places. These workshops were with special reference to medicinal plants. 3.) Survey of Central Eco Region of Madhya Pradesh : (i) The project team surveyed the four districts of Central Eco Region to have an idea of the plant species growing in these areas. During these surveys lot of interaction with local community specially the knowledgeable persons was organised to know about the vegetational changes that have taken place over the years. (ii) RET species were identified using IUCN categories. (iii) Series of field trips were organised involving taxonomists other than the experts in the project team. (iv) The plant species were collected, preserved as herbarium and photographs were also taken for ready reference. (v) All the plant species were described in detail through a special tool developed for this purpose.

11 4.) Documentation and compilation of project report. : The entire data and information collected through various methods was compiled to generate the final project report which is divided into following five parts : (i) Phytodiversity of Eco-region : - Listing of plant species. - Description of plant species. - Development of herbarium. - Development of Photo album. (ii) RET Species : - Compilation on Taxon sheet. - Listing of RET species as per IUCN criteria. - Photographs of RET species. (iii) Status Report on Focal Plant species : species identified as focal plant species and listed. (iv) Plant species for Botanical Garden : - Map & lay out of Botanical Garden. - Listing of plant species for plantation in the Garden. (about 100 plant species have already been planted and the remaining shall be planted in near future by CPA) The college is maintaining the herbarium of important plant species also the photo album of collected plant species are available in the Botany Department of the college. All the photographs are properly identified and all these plant species are technically described with their uses. This information is documented in the Project Report.

12 Bhopal District Latitude : North Longitude : East Climate : Moderate and has comparatively less fluctuation of temperature than that of other parts of the state. Total area : 2,772 sq. km. Total population : 18,36,784. Forest Cover : 439 sq. km. Forest types : i) Dry deciduous teak forest ii) Foot-hill teak forest iii) Mixed forest iv) Bamboo forest

13 Sehore District Latitude : North Longitude : to East Total area : 6,578 sq. km. Total population : 10,78,769. Forest Cover : 219, hectares Forest types : i) Dry deciduous teak forest ii) Foot-hill mixed forest iii) Mixed forest iv) Bamboo forest

14 Raisen District Latitude : and North Longitude : 21 and East Climate : Dry except in monsoon season Total area : 8,466 sq. km. Total population : 11,20,159. Forest Cover : 3,44,000 hectares

15 Vidisha District Latitude : 23-2 to North Longitude : to East Climate : Dry except in monsoon season Total area : 7371 sq. km. Total population : 12,14,759. Forest Cover : 81,000 hectares

16 List of plant species of Central Eco-region (Raisen, Bhopal, Sehore, Vidisha) Plants reported from Raisen district S. No. BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY COMMON NAME 1 Abroma agastha Sterculiaceae 2 Abrus precatorius Papilionaceae Ratti 3 Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae Babul 4 Acacia catechu Mimosaceae Khair 5 Acalypha indica Euphorbiaceae 6 Adiantum sp. Polypodiaceae 7 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bel 8 Ailanthes excelsa Simaroubiaceae Mahaneem 9 Alangium salvifolium Alangiaceae Akol 10 Albizia procera Mimosaceae Safed siris 11 Alysicarpus sp. Papilionaceae 12 Alternenthera echinatus Amaranthaceae 13 Annona squamosa Annonaceae Sharifa 14 Anogeissus pendula Combretaceae Kardhai 15 Aristolochia indica Aristolochiaceae Isarimul 16 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem 17 Baliospermum montanum Euphorbiaceae Bunthi 18 Basella alba Chenopodiaceae Poi 19 Boerhavia diffusa Nyctaginaceae Patharchatta 20 Boerhavia repens Nyctaginaceae 21 Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaceae Chironji 22 Butea monosperma Papilionaceae Palash 23 Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Aak 24 Careya saja Barringtoniaceae 25 Carissa carandas Apocynaceae Karonda 26 Cayratia carnosa Vitaceae 27 Cassia fistula Caesalpiniaceae Amaltas 28 Cayratia carnosa Vitidaceae 29 Chlorophytum borivillianum Lilliaceae 30 Chloroxylum sweitenoides Burseraceae 31 Cleome viscosa Cleomaceae 32 Cocculus hirsutus Menispermaceae Tildhara 33 Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae 34 Cordia rothi Boraginaceae Gondi 35 Crinum defixum Amaryllidaceae 36 Curculigo orchioides Hypoxidaceae Mushali 37 Dalbergia paniculata Papilionaceae Dhobin 38 Desmodium gangeticum Papilionaceae

17 39 Dioscorea bulbifera Dioscoreaceae 40 Dioscorea bulbifera Dioscoreaceae 41 Dioscorea deltoidea Dioscoreaceae 42 Diospyrus melanoxylon Ebenacee Tendu 43 Disocorea pentafolia Dioscoreaceae 44 Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae Amla 45 Eucalyptus citriodora Myrtaceae 46 Euphorbia hypersifolia Euphorbiaceae 47 Evolvulus alsinoides Convolvulaceae 48 Evolvulus nummularia Convolvulaceae 49 Feronia limonia Rutaceae Kabeet 50 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Bargad 51 Ficus glomerata Moraceae Gular 52 Ficus hispida Moraceae Katgular 53 Ficus religiosa Moraceae Peepal 54 Garuga pinnata Burseraceae Kehad 55 Gloriosa superba Lilliaceae Agnishikha,Ka;ihari 56 Gomphrena Amaranthaceae 57 Gymnosporium Celastraceae 58 Hardwickia binata Caesalpiniaceae Anjan 59 Helicteres isora Sterculiaceae Maror phalli 60 Hemidesmus indicus Periplocaceae Anantmool 61 Holoptelia integrifolia Ulmaceae Papri 62 Holorrhena antidysenterica Apocynaceae Kuruchi 63 Indigofera oblongifolia Papilionaceae 64 Ipomoea fruticosa Convolvulaceae 65 Kyllinga triceps Cyperaceae 66 Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Lythraceae Landia 67 Lagerstroemia parviflora Lythraceae 68 Lagerstroemia spicigera Lythraceae 69 Lantana camara Verbenaceae 70 Lantana indica Verbenaceae 71 Madhuca indica Sapotaceae Mahua 72 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Aam 73 Melia azederach Meliaceae Bakan 74 Murdania sp. Commelinaceae 75 Murraya paniculata Rutaceae Madhukamini 76 Mitragyna parviflora Rubiaceae 77 Nyctanthes arbortristis Oleaceae Harsingar 78 Pavonica zeylanica Malvaceae 79 Pergularia daemia Asclepiadaceae 80 Phoenix acaulis Palmae 81 Phoenix sylvestris Palmae 82 Phyllanthus niruri Euphorbiaceae Ghuiamla 83 Phyllanthus simplex Euphorbiaceae 84 Phyllanthus simplex Euphorbiaceae 85 Physalis minima Solanaceae Rasbhari 86 Pithecelobium dulce Mimosaceae Jungle jalebi

18 87 Pongamia pinnata Papilionaceae Karanj 88 Prosopis juliflora Mimosaceae 89 Prosopis spicigera Mimosaceae 90 Pterocarpus marsupium Papilionaceae Bijasal 91 Randia sp. Rubiaceae 92 Rhynchosia minima Papilionaceae 93 Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Arand 94 Schleichera oleosa Sapindaceae Kosum 95 Sesamum indicum Pedaliaceae Til 96 Sida rhomboidifolia Malvaceae 97 Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae 98 Sterculia urens Sterculiaceae 99 Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae Jamun 100 Tamarindus indica Caesalpiniaceae Imli 101 Tectona grandis Verbenaceae Sagon 102 Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Arjun 103 Terminalia cranulata Combretaceae 104 Terminalia tomentosa Combretaceae Saj 105 Thespesia populnea Malvaceae Paraspipal 106 Trianthema monogyna Aizoaceae 107 Tridax procumbens Compositeae 108 Triumfetta rotundifolia Tiliaceae 109 Ventilago calyculata Rhamnaceae 110 Woodfordia fruticosa Lythraceae Dharu-Dhao 111 Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae Dudhi 112 Zizyphus nummularia Rhamnaceae Kanta ber 113 Zornia gibbosa Papilionaceae

19 Plants reported from Vidisha district S. No. BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY COMMON NAME 1 Abrus precatorius Papilionaceae Ratti 2 Acacia catechu Mimosaceae Khair 3 Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae Babul 4 Adiantum Polypodiaceae 5 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bel 6 Albizia procera Mimosaceae Safed siris 7 Alysicarpus Papilionaceae 8 Annona squamosa Annonaceae Sharifa 9 Anogeissus pendula Combretaceae Kardhai 10 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem 11 Bauhinia variegata Caesalpiniaceae Kachnar 12 Boerhavia diffusa Nyctaginaceae Patharchatta 13 Boiphytum sensitivum Oxalidaceae 14 Bombax ceiba Bombacaceae Semal 15 Boswellia serrata Anacardiaceae Salai 16 Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaceae Chironji 17 Butea monosperma Papilionaceae Palash 18 Caesalpinia crista Caesalpiniaceae Chilatia 19 Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Aak 20 Carissa carandas Apocynaceae Karonda 21 Cassia fistula Caesalpiniaceae Amaltas 22 Cassia pumila Caesalpiniaceae 23 Cassia siamia Caesalpiniaceae 24 Catharanthes roseus Apocynaceae Sadabahar 25 Celosia argentea Amaranthaceae 26 Chlorophytum sp. Lilliaceae 27 Cleome viscosa Cleomaceae 28 Cocculus hirsutus Menispermaceae Tildhara 29 Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae 30 Cordia myxa Boraginaceae Gondi 31 Papilionaceae Dalbergia paniculata Dhobin 32 Dalbergia sissoo Papilionaceae Shisham 33 Delonix regia Caesalpiniaceae Gulmohar 34 Dioscorea bulbifera Dioscoreaceae Angeetha 35 Eclipta alba Asteraceae Ghamra

20 36 Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae Amla 37 Eucalyptus citriodora Myrtaceae Lalnilgiri 38 Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbiaceae Thuar 39 Evolvulus alsinoides Convolvulaceae Shankpushpi 40 Feronia limonia Rutaceae Kabeet 41 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Bargad 42 Ficus glomerata Moraceae Gular 43 Ficus hispida Moraceae Kat gular 44 Ficus religiosa Moraceae Peepal 45 Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae Kankre 46 Globba sp. Liliaceae 47 Hemidesmus indicus Periplocaceae Anantmool 48 Ipomoea fruticosa Convolvulaceae Besharum 49 Ipomoea indica Convolvulaceae 50 Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae 51 Justicia betonica Acanthaceae 52 Justicia diffusa Acanthaceae 53 Lagerstroemia parviflora Lythraceae 54 Lantana camara Verbenaceae 55 Lantana indica Verbenaceae 56 Leea macrophylla Leeaceae Hathikana 57 Leucaena leucocephala Mimosaceae Su-Babool 58 Madhuca indica Sapotaceae Mahua 59 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Aam 60 Melia azederach Meliaceae Bakan 61 Mitragyna parviflora Rubiaceae 62 Mucuna pruriens Papilionaceae Kewach 63 Neriun indicum Apocynaceae Kaner 64 Nyctanthes arbortristis Oleaceae Harsingar 65 Ocimum gratissium Lamiaceae 66 Ocimunm sanctum Lamiaceae Tulsi 67 Oldenlandia Rubiaceae 68 Parthinium hysterophorus Asteraceae Gajar ghass 69 Pedalium murex Pedaliaceae 70 Phoenix acaulis Palmae Chhind 71 Phoenix sylvestris Palmae Khajur 72 Pithecelobium dulce Mimosaceae Jungle jalebi 73 Plumbago capensis Plumbaginaceae Kala Chitrak 74 Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae Chitrak 75 Pongamia pinnata Papilionaceae Karanj

21 76 Potentilla supina Rosaceae 77 Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Amrood 78 Psoralia corylifolia Papilionaceae Babchi 79 Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Arand 80 Sida rhomboidifolia Malvaceae 81 Stellaria media Caryophyllaceae Chick weed 82 Sterculia urens Sterculiaceae 83 Striga angustifolia Scrophulariaceae 84 Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae Jamun 85 Tabernaemontana divaricata Apocynaceae Chandni 86 Tamarindus indica Caesalpiniaceae 87 Tectona grandis Verbenaceae Sagon 88 Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae 89 Terminalia bellirica Combretaceae Bahera 90 Terminalia tomentosa Combretaceae Saj 91 Thevatia peruviana Apocynaceae Pili Kaner 92 Triumfetta rotundifolia Tiliaceae 93 Woodfordia fruticosa Lythraceae Dharu-Dhao 94 Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae Dudhi 95 Zizyphus jujuba Rhamnaceae Ber 96 Zizyphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae Makora 97 Zornia diphylla Papilionaceae

22 S. No. Plants reported from Bhopal district BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY COMMON NAME Trees 1 Acacia arabica Leguminosae Babul 2 Acacia auriculiformis Mimosaceae Australian acacia 3 Acacia catechu Mimosaceae Kher 4 Acacia ferruginea Leguminosae Safed khar 5 Acacia leucophloea Mimosaceae Safed siris 6 Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae Babool 7 Acacia pennata Leguminosae Raoni 8 Acacia tortilis Mimosaceae Israili 9 Adansonia digitata Bombacaceae Gorakh imli 10 Adena cordifolia Rubiaceae Hardal 11 Adenanthera pavonia Mimosaceae Badi gumchi 12 Aegle mermelos Rutaceae Bel 13 Ailanthus excelsa Simaroubaceae Mahrukh 14 Alangium salvifolium Cornaceae Akol 15 Albizia lebbek Mimosaceae Kala siris 16 Albizia moluccana Mimosaceae 17 Albizia ooloratissima Mimosaceae Chichwa 18 Albizia procera Leguminosae Safed siris 19 Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae Kaju 20 Annona reticulata Annonaceae Ramphal 21 Annona squamosa Annonaceae Seetafal 22 Anogeissus acuminata Combretaceae 23 Anogeissus latifolia Wall. Combretaceae Dhaora 24 Anogeissus pendula Combretaceae Kardhai 25 Anogeissus sericea Combretaceae Kardhai 26 Anthocephalus chinensis Rubiaceae Kadam 27 Antidesma diandrum Euphorbiaceae Khatua 28 Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Kathal 29 Artocarpus lakoocha Moraceae Barhal 30 Averrhoa carambola Averrhoaceae Kamarakh 31 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem 32 Balanites argyptiaca Balanitaceae Hingota 33 Balanites roxburghii Zygophyllaceae Hingot 34 Bauhinia malabarica Leguminosae Amta 35 Bauhinia purpurea Leguminosae Keolar 36 Bauhinia racemosa Caesalpiniaceae Aasta 37 Bauhinia retusa Leguminosae Sehra 38 Bauhinia variegata Caesalpiniaceae Kachnar 39 Bischofia javanica Blume Euphorbiaceae 40 Bombax ceiba Bombacaceae Semal 41 Bombax insigne Bombacaceae 42 Bombax malabaricum Bombacaceae Semal 43 Boswellia serrate Burseraceae Salar 44 Breynia retusa (Dennst.) Alston Euphorbiaceae

23 45 Bridelia retusa Euphorbiaceae Kasai 46 Buchanania lanzan Anacardiaceae Achar 47 Buchnania latifolia Anacardiaceae Achar 48 Butea monosperma Fabaceae Palash 49 Careya arborea Lecythidaceae Kumbhi 50 Carica papaya Caricaceae Papitha 51 Casearia elliptica Samydaceae Tundri 52 Casearia graveolens Samydaceae Gilohi 53 Casearia tomentosa Gilchi 54 Cassia fistula Caesalpiniaceae Amaltas 55 Cassia grandis Caesalpiniaceae Horse cassia 56 Cassia javanica Caesalpiniaceae Java ki rani 57 Cassia occidentalis Caesalpiniaceae Chinotha 58 Cassia renigera Caesalpiniaceae Pink cassia 59 Cassia siamia Caesalpiniaceae 60 Cassine glauca Celastraceae Jamrasi 61 Casuarina equisetifolia Casurinaceae Vilayti jhau 62 Catunaregam spinosa Rubiaceae Mainfal 63 Chloroxylon sweitenia Rutaceae Bhirra 64 Citrus aurantium Rutaceae Santra 65 Citrus lemon Rutaceae Bara nimbu 66 Citrus maxima Rutaceae Chini-Narangi 67 Clerodendrum phlomoides Verbenaceae Arni 68 Cochlospermum religosum Bixaceae Galgal 69 Cordia dichotoma Boraginaceae Lasoda 70 Cordia macleodii Boraginaceae Dahiwar 71 Cordia macleodii Boraginaceae Dahibaas 72 Cordia myxa Boraginaceae Lasora 73 Cordia rothii Ehretiaceae Gondi 74 Cordyline terminalis Agavaceae Palm tree 75 Crataeva nurvala Barna 76 Cyathca spinuloa Cyatheaceae 77 Dalbergia lanceolaria Dhamasi Fabaceae 78 Dalbergia latifolia Leguminosae Sheesham 79 Dalbergia paniculata Fabaceae Dhobin 80 Dalbergia sissoo Fabaceae Sheesham 81 Delonix regia Caesalpiniaceae Gulmohar 82 Dillenia pentagyna Dilleniaceae Karmal 83 Diospyros chloroxylon Ebenaceae Kala tendu 84 Diospyros cordifolia Ebenaceae Bistendu 85 Diospyros melanoxylon Ebenaceae Tendu 86 Dodonaea viscosa Sapindaceae Vilayti mehndi 87 Dolichandrone falcate Bignoniaceae Mersingh 88 Dombeya cayeuxii Sterculiaceae 89 Ehretia acuminata Ehretiaceae 90 Ehretia aspera Boraginaceae 91 Ehretia laevis Boraginaceae Datranga 92 Elaedendron glaucum Celastraceae Jamrasi

24 93 Emblica officinalis Euphorbiaceae Aonla 94 Eriobotrya japonica Rosaceae Lokat 95 Eriodendron pentandrum Bombacaceae Safed semal 96 Eriolaena hookeriana Sterculiaceae Bondhidha man 97 Erythrina suberosa Fabaceae Gadhela 98 Eucalyptus citrodora Myrtaceae Lal nilgiri 99 Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae Blue gum 100 Eucalyptus sp. Myrtaceae Nilgiri 101 Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbiaceae Sehund 102 Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbiaceae Thuar 103 Euphorbia uruculli Euphorbiaceae Niwarang 104 Feronia elephantum Leguminosae Kabit 105 Feronia limonia Leguminosae Kaith 106 Ficus arnottiane Moraceae Gadani pipal 107 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Bargad 108 Ficus glomerata Moraceae Gular 109 Ficus infectoria Moraceae Pakar 110 Ficus krishna Moraceae 111 Ficus microcarpa Moraceae 112 Ficus retusa Moraceae Paras pipal 113 Ficus tomentosa Moraceae Son pakar 114 Fillicium decipiens Sapindaceae Fern tree 115 Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae Kakai 116 Flacourtia ramontchi Bixaceae Kakai 117 Focus religiosa Moraceae Peepal 118 Gardenia latifolia Rubiaceae Papda 119 Gardenia lucida Rubiaceae Dikamli 120 Gardenia turgida Rubiaceae Chamarkarar 121 Garuga pinnata Burseraceae Kekad 122 Gliricida maculata Papilionaceae Vilayti shiris 123 Glochidion johnstonei (Hook). Euphorbiaceae 124 Glochidion zeylanicum Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae 125 Gmelina arborea Verbenaceae Gumhari 126 Grewia asiatica Tiliaceae Phalsa 127 Grewia excelsa Tiliaceae 128 Grewia hirsuta Tiliaceae Gudsakari 129 Grewia orbiculata Tiliaceae Dhaman 130 Grewia tillifolia Tiliaceae Dhaman 131 Haldinia cordifolia Rubiaceae Haldu 132 Hardwickia binata Leguminosae Anjan 133 Holarrhena antidysenterica Apocynaceae Dudhi 134 Holoptelia integrifolia Ulmaceae Chirol 135 Hymenodictylon excelsum Rubiaceae Bhonrsal 136 Ixora arborea Rubiaceae Kau 137 Ixora parviflora Rubiaceae Lokhandi 138 Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae Safed arand 139 Kigelia pinnata Bignoniaceae Jhar phanoos 140 Kleinhovia hospita Sterculiaceae

25 141 Kydia calycina Malvaceae Baranga 142 Lagerstroemia parviflora Lythraceae Karia seja 143 Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Lythraceae Arjuna 144 Lannea coromandelica Anacardiaceae Moyan 145 Lannea grandis Anacardiaceae Jhingan 146 Leucaena leucocephala Mimosaceae Su-babool 147 Limonia crenulata Anacardiaceae * Bilsena 148 Litchi chinensis Sapindaceae Leechi 149 Litsea glutinosa Lauraceae Maidalakri 150 Madhuca indica Sapotaceae Mahua 151 Madhuca latifolia Sapotaceae Mahua 152 Mallutus philippensis Rauni 153 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Aam 154 Melaleuca leucodendron Myrtaceae Cajeput tree 155 Melia azadirachta Meliaceae Bakain 156 Michelia champaca Magnoliaceae Champa 157 Milingtonia hortensis Bignoniaceae Aakash neem 158 Miliusa tomentosa Annonaceae Kari 159 Mimusops hexandra Sapotaceae Khirni 160 Mitragyna parviflora Rubiaceae Kari 161 Morinda pubesens Rubiaceae Aal 162 Morinda tinctoria Rubiaceae Aal 163 Moringa oleifora Moringaceae Munga 164 Morus alba Moraceae Toot 165 Morus indica Moraceae Shehtoot 166 Murraya exotica Rutaceae Madhukamini 167 Murraya koenigii Rutaceae Meetha neem 168 Murraya paniculata Rutaceae Madhukamini 169 Opuntia dillenii Nagphani 170 Orozylum indicum Sona 171 Ougeinia oogeinsis Fabaceae Tinsa 172 Parkia biglandulosa Mimosaceae Chenduphul 173 Parkia roxburghii Mimosaceae Supota 174 Peltophorum pterocarpum Caesalpiniaceae 175 Perkinsonia aculeata Vilayti babut 176 Phoenix acaulis Palmaceae Chind 177 Phoenix sylvestris Palmaceae Khajur 178 Pithecellobium dulce Mimosaceae Jangal jalebi 179 Polyalthia longifolia False Ashok 180 Pongamia glabra Leguminosae Karanj 181 Pongamia pinnata Fabaceae Karanj 182 Populus alba Linn. Salicaceae Safeda 183 Prosopis juliflora Mimosaceae Vilayti Babool 184 Psidium guajava Myrtaceae Amrood 185 Pterocarpus marsupium Fabaceae Beejasal 186 Pterospermum acerifolium Sterculiaceae Kanakchampa 187 Punica granatum Punicaceae Anar 188 Putranjiva roxburghii Euphorbiaceae Putranjia

26 189 Pyrus amygdalus Rosaceae Badam 190 Pyrus communis Rosaceae Nakh, Babboogosha 191 Pyrus malus Rosaceae Seb 192 Saccoptetalum tomentosum Annonaceae Kari 193 Salmalia malabaricum Malvaceae Semal 194 Salvadora oleoides Salvadoraceae Peelu 195 Samanea saman Mimosaceae Bilayti siris 196 Santalum album Sentalaceae Chandan 197 Sapindus laurifolius Sapindaceae Reetha 198 Sapindus mukorossi Sapindaceae Ritha 199 Saraca indica Caesalpiniaceae Ashok 200 Schleichera oleosa Sapindaceae Kusum 201 Schrebera sweitenioides Dhakka 202 Schrebera sweitenoides Oleaceae Mokha 203 Semeacarpus anacardium Anacardiaceae Bhimla 204 Sesbania aegyptiaca Papilionaceae Jait 205 Sesbania grandiflora Papilionaceae Basna 206 Sesbania sesban Papilionaceae 207 Soyamida febtifuga Meliaceae Rohani 208 Spathodea campanulata Bignoniaceae Tulip tree 209 Spondias pinnata Anacardiaceae Ambara 210 Sterculia urens Sterculiaceae Kullu 211 Stereospermum ylocarpum Katori 212 Sterospermum suaveolens Bignoniaceae Padar 213 Strychmos potatorum Loganiaceae 214 Swietenia mahogani Meliaceae Mahogany 215 Swieternia chloroxylon Bhirra 216 Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae Jamun 217 Syzygium heyneanum Myrtaceae Chotti Jamun 218 Tabebuia pentaphylla Bignoniaceae 219 Tamarindus indica Caesalpiniaceae Imli 220 Tecoma stans Bignoniaceae 221 Tectona grandis Verbenaceae Sagon 222 Terminalia alata Combretaceae Saja 223 Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Arjun 224 Terminalia bellerica Combretaceae Bahera 225 Terminalia catappa Combretaceae Jangli badam 226 Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Harra 227 Terminalia crenulata Combretaceae Saj 228 Terminalia tomentosa Combretaceae Saja 229 Thespesia populnea Tulip tree 230 Trawia nudiflora L. Euphorbiaceae 231 Trema orientalis Andia 232 Trema politoria Jilmuli 233 Wendlandia exerta Rubiaceae Tilwan 234 Wendlandia exserta Rubiaceae Tilai 235 Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae Dudhi

27 236 Wrightia tomentosa Apocynaceae Kali dudhi 237 Xeromphis spinosa Mainphal 238 Xeromphis uliginosa Bhirra 239 Zizyphus jujuba Rhamnaceae Ber 240 Zizyphus mauritiana Rhamnaceae Ber 241 Zizyphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae Makor 242 Zizyphus rugosa Rhamnaceae Churna 243 Zizyphus xylocarpa Rhamnaceae Ghont Shrubs 244 Acalypha wilkesiana Muell Euphorbiaceae 245 Acanthospermum hispidum Zygophyllaceae Gokhru 246 Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Dodhra 247 Adhatoda vasica Nees Acanthaceae Adusa 248 Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume Amaranthaceae 249 Aeshynomene indica L. Papilionaceae 250 Allamanda cathartica L. Apocynaceae 251 Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae Kantevali chauli 252 Annona squamosa Linn. Annonaceae Sitaphal 253 Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae Pila dhatura 254 Argyveia nervosa (Burm.f.) Convolvulaceae Boj.Hort. 255 Artabotrys uncinatus (Lam) Mers. Annonaceae Hari champa 256 Asparagus racemosus Liliaeae Satmool 257 Baliospermum montanum (Willd) Euphorbiaceae Muell 258 Barleria cristata L. Acanthaceae 259 Barleria prionitis L. Acanthaceae 260 Beloperone guttata L. Acanthaceae 261 Bignonia acquinoctialis L. Bignoniaceae 262 Bignonia unguscati Bignoniaceae 263 Bougainveillea glabra Choisy Nyctaginaceae Bogan vel 264 Bougainveillea spectabilis Willd. Nyctaginaceae Bogan vel 265 Buddleja madagascariensis Lamk. Buddlejaceae 266 Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Papilionaceae Arhar 267 Callistemon lanceolatus DC Myrtaceae Bottle brush 268 Calotropis gigantea R.Br. Asclepiadaceae Aak 269 Capparis sepiaria L. Capparidaceae Heens, katan 270 Capparis zeylanica L. Capparidaceae Hins, jhiris 271 Carissa carandas Linn. Apocynaceae Karonda 272 Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae Karonda 273 Cassia obtusifolia Caesalpiniaceae 274 Cassia occidentalis L. Caesalpiniaceae Negro coffee 275 Cestrum nocturnum L. Solanaceae Rat ki rani 276 Cestrum parqui L. Solanaceae Rat ki rani 278 Cissampelos parieria L. Menispermaceae Dhakh nirbisi 279 Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merill. Rutaceae Chakautra 280 Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze Verbenaceae 281 Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. Verbenaceae Vilayti imli

28 282 Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon Verbenaceae 283 Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn. Cucurbitaceae Kundru 284 Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Acanthaceae Nees 285 Crotolaria juncea L. Papilionaceae Sanai 286 Cryptostegia grandifora R.Br. Periplocaceae 287 Datura metel Solanaceae Dhatura 288 Datura stramonium Solanaceae Bajar battu 289 Dendrophthoe falcate (L.f.) Etting Loranthaceae Banda 290 Desmodium latifolium DC Prodr. Papilionaceae Lipti 291 Dolichandrone falcate Bignoniaceae Megh singh 292 Dombeya cayeuxii Hort. Sterculiaceae 293 Euphorbia milii Ch-des Moulin Euphorbiaceae 294 Euphorbia neriifolia L. Euphorbiaceae Thuar 295 Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Euphorbiaceae 296 Euphorbia tirucalli L. Euphorbiaceae 297 Ficus hispida L. Moraceae Kutgular 298 Galphimia gracilis Bartl. Malpigiaceae 299 Gardenia risinifera Roth. Rubiaceae Dikamli 300 Gardenia turgida Rubiaceae Fendra 301 Gmelina philippensis Cham. Verbenaceae 302 Grewia asiatica L. Mant. Tiliaceae Phalsa 303 Grewiq excelsa Vahl. DC Prodr. Tiliaceae 304 Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Asclepiadaceae Baikal 305 Helicteres isora Linn. Sterculiaceae Marod phalli 306 Hemidesmus indicus Shultes Periplocaceae Anand mul 307 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Malvaceae Gurhal 308 Holorrhena antidysenterica Wall. Apocynaceae Dudhi 309 Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae Van tulsi 310 Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) Apocynaceae Dhimar bel Ait.&Alf. 311 Ipomea-pes-caparae Sweet Convolvulaceae Besharam 312 Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Ratan Jyot 313 Jatropha gossypifolia L. Euphorbiaceae Lal barenda 314 Lagerstroeia indica L. Lythraceae Gul phanoos 315 Lantana aculeta Linn. Euphorbiaceae Raimunia 316 Lantana camara Linn. Verbenaceae Gul sitara 317 Lantana indica Roxb. Verbenaceae 318 Morus indica L. Moraceae Shehtut 319 Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Rutaceae Meetha neem 320 Murraya paniculata Rutaceae 321 Nerium indicum Mill. Apocynaceae Kaner 322 Nyctanthus arbor-tristis Linn. Oleaceae Harsringar 323 Ocimum sanctum L. Lamiaceae Tulsi 324 Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Asteraceae Gajar ghas 325 Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poir Euphorbiaceae 326 Peristrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nees. Acanthaceae

29 327 Phyllanthus debilis Euphorbiaceae 328 Plectoranthus ternifolius D. Lamiaceae 329 Plumbago capensis Thunb. Plumbaginaceae Kala chirchitta 330 Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Chitrak 331 Punica granatum L. Punicaceae Anar 332 Quisqualis indica L. Haloragidaceae 333 Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae 334 Ruellia indica Jindal Acanthaceae 335 Spermadictylon suaveolens Roxb. Rubiaceae Bain-champa 336 Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Asteraceae Gorakh mundi 337 Strobilanthus auriculatus Nees. Acanthaceae Marua dona 338 Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) Apocynaceae Chandni R.Br. 339 Tecoma stans (L.) H.B.K. Bignoniaceae 340 Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Mers. Apocynaceae Peeli kaner 341 Tribulus terrestris Linn. Zygophyllaceae Gurkhuru 342 Vallaris solanacea (Roth.) Kuntze. Apocynaceae 343 Vernonia divergens Roxb. Asteraceae 344 Vitex negundo Linn. Verbenaceae 345 Withania somnifera Solanaceae 346 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz. Lythraceae 347 Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae 348 Xanthium indicum Koen. Asteraceae 349 Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae 350 Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. (j) Rhamnaceae Ber 351 Zizyphus nummularia (Burm) Rhamnaceae Jharberry Weigh & Arn 352 Zizyphus oenoplia Mill. Rhamnaceae Makoy 353 Zizyphus rogusa Lamk. Rhamnaceae Churna 354 Zizyphus rotundifolia Lamk. Rhamnaceae Jharberry Herbs 355 Aamaranthus tricolor L. Amaranthaceae 356 Abelomoschus manihot L. Malvaceae 357 Abelomoschus fisculneus Malvaceae Jangli bhendi 358 Acalypha indica L. Euphorbiaceae 359 Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae 360 Acorus calamus Araceae 361 Aerva lanata L. Amaranthaceae 362 Aerva monsoniae Amaranthaceae 363 Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae 364 Alectra chitrakutensis Schrophulariaceae 365 Aloe barbadensis Liliaceae 366 Alternanthera pungens L. Amaranthaceae 367 Alternanthera sessilis L. Amaranthaceae 368 Althea ludwigii Malvaceae 369 Althea rosea Malvaceae Holy hock 370 Alysicarpus hamosus Papilionaceae 371 Alysicarpus longifolium Papilionaceae

30 372 Alysicarpus monilifer Papilionaceae 373 Alysicarpus rogusus Papilionaceae 374 Alysicarpus tetragonolobus Papilionaceae 375 Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae Chulai 376 Amorphallus companulatus Araceae Zamin kand 377 Andrographis ovata Clark Acanthaceae 378 Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. Acanthaceae Kalmegh 379 Anethum graveolens L. Umbelliferae Sowa 380 Anisochilus carnosus Wall. Lamiaceae Panjiri 381 Anisomeles indica L. Lamiaceae 382 Antirrhinum orontium L. Scrophulariaceae Snap dragon 383 Antis lancifolia Rubiaceae 384 Arachis hypogea L. Papilionaceae Mung phalli 385 Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae Pili kateri 386 Aristolochia bracteata Retz. Aristolochiaceae Kidamar 387 Aster amellus L. Asteraceae 388 Bacopa monnieri L. Scrophulariaceae Brami 389 Barleria gidsoni Dalz. Acanthaceae 390 Barleria lawii T. Andres Acanthaceae 391 Barleria montana Nees Acanthaceae 392 Basella rabra L. Basellaceae Poi 393 Begonia picta L. Begoniaceae 394 Bengia capensis Linn. Elatinaceae 395 Beta vulgaris L. Chenopodiaceae Chukandar 396 Bidens biternata L. Asteraceae Chirchitta 397 Blainvillea acmella Asteraceae 398 Blepharis asperrima Juss. Acanthaceae 399 Blepharis asperrima Nees Acanthaceae 400 Blume obliqua L. Asteraceae 401 Blume oxyodonta DC Asteraceae 402 Blumea lacera DC Asteraceae 403 Blumea laciniata Roxb. Asteraceae 404 Blumea membranacea DC Asteraceae 405 Blumea mollis Don. Asteraceae 406 Boerhavia diffusa L. Nyctaginaceae 407 Borreria articularis Rubiaceae Satgathiya 408 Borreria stricta Rubiaceae 409 Campanula modesta L. Companulaceae 410 Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae Mirch 411 Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Sapindaceae 412 Cassia occidentalis Chirotha 413 Cassia sophera L. Caesalpiniaceae Kasondi 414 Cassia tora Caesalpiniaceae 415 Celosia argentea L. Amaranthaceae 416 Celosia cristata L. Amaranthaceae Murga ka phul 417 Centaurium roxburghii Don. Gentianaceae 418 Centellaa asiatica L. Umbelliferae Brahmi 419 Centipeda minima Linn. Asteraceae

31 420 Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae 421 Chenopodium murale L. Chenopodiaceae Khartua 422 Chrozophora parviflora Klotz. Euphorbiaceae 423 Chrozophora prostrata Dalz. Euphorbiaceae 424 Chrysanthemum indicum L. Asteraceae 425 Cicer arietinum L. Papilionaceae Chana 426 Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae 427 Cleome chelidonil L. Cleomaceae 428 Cleome gynandra Cleomaceae Hulchul 429 Coldenia procumbens L. Ehretiaceae 430 Commelina attenuata Commelinaceae 431 Commelina benghalensis L. Commelinaceae 432 Commelina undulata R.Br. Commelinaceae 433 Convolvulus arvensis Convolvulaceae Chandbel 434 Corchorus capsularis Tiliaceae Kharenti 435 Coriandrum sativum Umbelliferae Dhania 436 Coronopus didymus Cruciferae Jangi hala 437 Cosmos bipinnatus (Cav.) Asteraceae 438 Crotolaria hirsuta L. Papilionaceae 439 Crotolaria juncea L. Papilionaceae Sanai 440 Crotolaria linifolia L. Papilionaceae 441 Crotolaria serica Papilionaceae Sanni 442 Croton bonplandianum Baill. Euphorbiaceae Kala bhangra 443 Cyanotis axillaris Schult. Commelinaceae 444 Cyanotis fasciculate Hyne Commelinaceae 445 Cyathocline purpurea Asteraceae 446 Cynoctonum mitreola L. Spigeliaceae 447 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Kala datura 448 Delphinium ajacis Ranunculaceae Larkspur 449 Desmodium spirale Papilionaceae 500 Desmodium triflorum L. Papilionaceae 501 Dianthus caryophyllus Caryophyllaceae The carnation 502 Digera alternifolia L. Amaranthaceae 503 Dipteracanthus beddomei Clark Acanthaceae 504 Dipteracanthus cernua Roxb. Acanthaceae 505 Dolichos lablab Papilionaceae Sem 506 Echinops echinatus Roxb. Asteraceae Oont katela 507 Eclipta prostrata L. Asteraceae 508 Elephantopus scaber L. Asteraceae Samdulan 509 Emilia sonchifolia L. Asteraceae 510 Enicostema verticillatum L. Gentianaceae 511 Eranthemum roseum (Vahl.) R.Br. Acanthaceae 512 Ericocaulon cinerum R.Br. Eriocaulaceae 513 Euphorbia cristata Heyne ex Roth. Euphorbiaceae 514 Euphorbia dracunculoides Lamk. Euphorbiaceae 515 Euphorbia elegans Spreng. Euphorbiaceae 516 Euphorbia geniculata Euphorbiaceae 517 Euphorbia granulata Forsk. Euphorbiaceae

32 518 Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Dudhi 519 Euphorbia laeta Hyne Euphorbiaceae 520 Euphorbia pycnostegia Boiss Euphorbiaceae 521 Euphorbia rosea Retz. Euphorbiaceae 522 Euphorbia thymifolia Euphorbiaceae 523 Evolvulus alsinoides L. Convolvulaceae 524 Exacum petiolare L. Gentianaceae 525 Fleurya interrupta L. Urticaceae 526 Foeniculum vulgare Umbelliferae Saunf 527 Geranium ocellatum L. Geraniaceae 528 Glinus lotoides Molluginaceae 529 Gloriosa superba L. Liliaceae Karhari 530 Gnaphalium indicum L. Asteraceae 531 Gompherena globosa L. Amaranthaceae 532 Gomphrena celosioides L. Amaranthaceae 533 Grangea maderaspatana Linn. Asteraceae 534 Hedyotis aspera L. Rubiaceae 535 Heliotropium ovalifolium Heliotropiaceae 536 Hemiadelphis polyspermus Acanthaceae 537 Heylandia latebrosa L. Papilionaceae 538 Hoppea dichotoma Gentianaceae 539 Hybanthus enneaspermus Jacq. Violaceae Ratanpurus 540 Hygrophila auriculata Schumach. Acanthaceae 541 Hygrophila erecta Burm.f. Acanthaceae 542 Hygrophila heinei Sreem. Acanthaceae 543 Hygrophila serphyllum Nees. Acanthaceae 544 Indigofera echinata L. Papilionaceae 545 Indigofera enneaphylla L. Papilionaceae 546 Indigofera glandulosa L. Papilionaceae 547 Indigofera linifolia L. Papilionaceae 548 Iphigenia indica L. Liliaceae 549 Ipomea sindica Convolvulaceae 550 Justicia diffusa Willd. Acanthaceae 551 Justicia micrantha Wall. Acanthaceae 552 Justicia quinquiangularis Koen. Acanthaceae 553 Justicia simplex D.Don. Acanthaceae 554 Kickxia incana Wall. Scrophulariaceae 555 Kickxia ramosissima Wall. Scrophulariaceae 556 Lagascea mollis Asteraceae 557 Lathyrus aphaca L. Papilionaceae Jangli matar 558 Lathyrus sativus L. Papilionaceae Matar 559 Launea aspleniifolia Asteraceae 560 Leonotis nepetaefolia Roxb. Lamiaceae 561 Lepidagathis cristata Willd. Acanthaceae 562 Lepidagathis cuspidata Nees. Acanthaceae 563 Lepidagathis trinervis Wall. Acanthaceae 564 Leucas cephalotes Lamiaceae Gubbha 565 Leucas martinicensis R.Br. Lamiaceae

33 566 Leucas urticaefolia R.Br. Lamiaceae 567 Limnophila indica L. Scrophulariaceae 568 Lindenbergia indica L. Scrophulariaceae 569 Lindernia ciliata L. Scrophulariaceae 570 Ludwigia perennis Onagraceae 571 Lycopersicon esculentum Solanaceae Tamator 572 Majus japonicus Thunb. Scrophulariaceae 573 Medicago denticulata Papilionaceae Toothed medick 574 Medicago sativa L. Papilionaceae Lusan 575 Melilotus alba Papilionaceae 576 Mentha spicata L. Lamiaceae Pudina 577 Merremia tridentata L. Convolvulaceae 578 Micromeria biflora Benth. Lamiaceae 579 Mirabilis jalapa L. Nyctaginaceae Gulabas 580 Molucella laevis Linn. Lamiaceae 581 Muradannia malabarica L. Commelinaceae 582 Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Solanaceae Jangli tambaku 583 Nigella sativa Ranunculaceae Kala jira 584 Nilgiranthus companulatus Acanthaceae Bremek. 585 Nilgiranthus hyneanus Nees Acanthaceae 586 Nothosaerva brachiata L. Amaranthaceae 587 Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Kali tulsi 588 Ocimum sanctum L. Lamiaceae Tulsi 589 Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Rubiaceae Pitpapda 590 Orobanche aegyptiaca L. Orobanchaceae 591 Orthosiphon pallidus Benth. Lamiaceae 592 Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Khat-mithi 593 Oxalis martiana Oxalidaceae 594 Papaver rhoceas Papaveraceae Lal posta 595 Papaver somniferum Papaveraceae Afeem 596 Paspalidium flavidum Retz. Graminae 597 Peristrophe montana Nees. Acanthaceae 598 Phaseolus mungo Papilionaceae Urd 599 Phaseolus radiatus L. Papilionaceae Mung 600 Phaseolus tribolus L. Papilionaceae 601 Phaulopsis imbricata Forsk. Acanthaceae 602 Phyla nodiflora L. Verbenaceae Jal buti 603 Phyllanthus debilis Euphorbiaceae 604 Phyllanthus mederaspatensis Euphorbiaceae Hazarmani 605 Phyllanthus simplex Euphorbiaceae 606 Phyllanthus urinaria Euphorbiaceae 607 Physalis minima L. Solanaceae 608 Pilea microphylla L. Urticaceae 609 Pistia stratiotes L. Araceae Jal kumbhi 610 Pisum arvense L. Papilionaceae Chota matar 611 Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae 612 Polycarpon prostratum L. Caryophyllaceae

34 613 Polygela chinensis L. Polygalaceae 614 Polygonum glabrum Willd. Polygonaceae Mali 615 Polygonum plebeium R.Br. Polygonaceae Macheti 616 Portulaca grandiflora L. Portulaceae Lunia 617 Portulacea oleracea L. Portulaceae Kulfa 618 Portulacea tuberosa Roxb. Portulaceae 619 Potamogeton crispus L. Potamogetonaceae 620 Potamogeton indicus Roxb. Potamogetonaceae 621 Potentilla supina L. Rosaceae 622 Psoralea corylifolia L. Papilionaceae 623 Ruellia tuberosa L. Acanthaceae 624 Rungia elegans Dalz. Acanthaceae 625 Rungia repens L. Acanthaceae 626 Rutaa graveolens L. Rutaceae 627 Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Alismataceae 628 Salvia santolinaefolia Lamiaceae Gulab kosh 629 Sclerocarpus africanus Jacq. Asteraceae 630 Sesamum indicum L. Pedaliaceae Til 631 Sida cordifolia Malvaceae 632 Sida glutinosa Malvaceae 633 Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae 634 Sida veronicifolia Malvaceae Kharenti 635 Sisymbrium irio L. Cruciferae Khoob kalan 636 Smithia conferta Papilionaceae 637 Solanuma tuberosum Solanaceae 638 Sonchus arvensis L. Asteraceae 639 Sonchus asper L. Asteraceae 640 Sopubia delphinifolia Scrophulariaceae 641 Spergula arvensis L. Caryophyllaceae Corn spurrey 642 Sphaeranthus indicus L. Asteraceae Mundi 643 Spirodula polyrhiza L. Lemnaceae Chowpatti 644 Staurogyne glutinosa Wall. Acanthaceae 645 Staurogyne perpusilla Henry Acanthaceae 646 Staurogyne polybotrya Nees. Acanthaceae 647 Stellaria media L. Caryophyllaceae Chick weed 648 Stemodia viscosa Roxb. Scrophulariaceae 649 Sutera dissecta Del. Scrophulariaceae 650 Tagetus erecta L. Asteraceae Genda 651 Tephrosia purpurea L. Papilionaceae 652 Tephrosia strigosa Papilionaceae 653 Torenia asiatica L. Scrophulariaceae 654 Trianthema portulacastrum Aizoaceae 655 Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae 656 Trichodesma indicum Helicotropiaceae 657 Tridax procumbens L. Asteraceae 658 Trifolium alexandrium Linn Papilionaceae Berseem 659 Trigonella foenum-graecum Papilionaceae Methi 660 Triumfetta rhomboidea Tiliaceae

35 661 Triumfetta rotundifolia Tiliaceae 662 Tropacolum majus L. Tropacolaceae 663 Urginea indica Roxb. Liliaceae Jangli piyaz 664 Utricularia flexuosa L. Lentibulariaceae 665 Utricularia stellaris L. Lentibulariaceae 666 Vaccaria pyramidata L. Caryophyllaceae 667 Verbascum chinense L. Scrophulariaceae Dangra ka tamaku 668 Verbena bipinnatifida L. Verbenaceae 669 Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae 670 Vernonia divergens Roxb. Asteraceae 671 Veronica anagallis-aquatica Scrophulariaceae 672 Vicia hirsuta L. Papilionaceae 673 Vicia sativa L. Papilionaceae Tare 674 Viola tricolor L. Violaceae 675 Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Gokhru 676 Xeromphis uliginosa Rubiaceae 677 Zebrina pendula L. Commelinaceae 678 Zinnia elegans L. Asteraceae 679 Zornia gibbosa Papilionaceae Climbers 680 Abrus precatorius Fabaceae Gunj 681 Acacia pennata Leguminosae Reoni 682 Acacia rugata Leguminosae Shikakai 683 Acacia sp. Mimosaceae Arel 684 Ampelocissus latifolia Vitaceae Dokelbel 685 Aristolochia indica Aristolochiaceae Gaulari 686 Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Satabar 687 Atylosia scarabaeoides Fabaceae Janglitur 688 Bauhinia vahlii Leguminosae Mahul 689 Butea parviflora Leguminosae Nashbel 690 Butea superba Leguminosae Palasbel 691 Capparis zeylanica Capparidaceae Hartar 692 Cayratia auriculata Vitaceae Kumbela 693 Cayratia carnosa Vitaceae 694 Celastrus paniculata Celastraceae Markangni 694 Cissampelos pariera Menispermaceae Suleta 695 Cissus quadrangularis Ampelidaceae Harjyot 696 Cissus repanda Vitaceae Panibel 697 Clematis triloba Ranunculaceae Arbel 698 Clitoria ternatea Papilionaceae Aparajita 699 Cocculus hirsutus Menispermaceae Jamati ki bel 700 Combretum decandrum Combretaceae Piperbel 701 Cryptolepis buchanni Asclepiadaceae Nagbel 702 Cuscuta reflexa Convolvulaceae Amerbel 703 Dioscorea bulbifera Dioscoreaceae Churni 704 Dioscorea daemona Dioscoreaceae Baichand 705 Dioscorea hispida Dioscoreaceae Dukerkand

36 706 Gymnema sylvestre Periplocaceae Gudmaar 707 Hemidermus indicus Asclepiadaceae Anantmool 708 Ichnocarpus frutescens Apocynaceae Kalibel 709 Impelocissus latifolia Apocynaceae Dokerbel 710 Jasminum arborescens Oleaceae Chameli 711 Ligusticum albo-alatum Oleaceae 712 Macsdenia tenacessima Asclepiadaceae Chikti 713 Milleta auriculata Fabaceae Golari 714 Milletia extensa Fabaceae Gaaj 715 Momardica dioica Cucurbitaceae Kekasi 716 Mucuna pruriens Fabaceae Kewanch 717 Rivea hypocrateriformis Convolvulaceae Phangi 718 Rivea ornate Convolvulaceae Phong 719 Smilax macrophylla Liliaceae Ramdatoon 720 Smilax zeylanica Liliaceae Ramdatoon 721 Solena amplexicaulis Cucurbitaceae 722 Spatholobus roxburghii Leguminosae Nasbel 723 Tinospora cordifolia Menispermaceae Gudmar 724 Vallaris heynei Apocynaceae Dudhibel 725 Vallaris solanacea Apocynaceae Dudhbel 726 Ventilago calyculata Rhamnaceae Kewati 727 Ventilago denticulata Rhamnaceae Kewati 728 Ventilago madraspatana Rhamnaceae Kherbel 729 Vitis repanda Vitaceae Dokerbel 730 Vitis vinifera Vitaceae Angur 731 Zizyphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae Makor 732 Zizyphus rogusa Rhamnaceae Safed ironi Grasses 733 Andropogon echoenanthus Poaceae 734 Anthesteria ciliata Syn. Poaceae Chiral 735 Apluda aristata Linn. Poaceae Phuli 736 Apluda mutica Pilgar Poaceae Phulera 737 Aristida spp. Poaceae 738 Arthraxon spp. Poaceae 739 Bothriochloa pertusa Poaceae Phulera 740 Cenchrus ciliaris Linn Poaceae Anjan 741 Chioris barbata Poaceae 742 Chloris virgata Poaceae 743 Chrysopogon montanus Prim. Poaceae Chikau 744 Coix gigantea Poaceae Gurru 745 Coix lachrymajobi Poaceae Garu 746 Crysopogan fulvus Poaceae Chikua 747 Cynodon dactylon Pers. Poaceae Doob 748 Dactyloctenium aegytium L. Poaceae Makra 749 Dendrocalamus strictus Nees Poaceae Bans 750 Desmostachya bipinnata Poaceae Kush 751 Dicanthium annulatum Forsk. Poaceae Barlu 752 Dicanthium caricosusm A. Canus Poaceae Mothi

37 753 Digitaria setigera Rich. Poaceae 754 Dinebra arabica Jacq. Poaceae 755 Echinochloa colonum Poaceae Sana 756 Eleusine indica Lin. Poaceae Jhingri 757 Elionarus hirsutus Poaceae Seran 758 Eragrostis japonica Trin. Poaceae 759 Eragrostis pilosa L. Poaceae Chiriya 760 Eragrostis poaeoides Beav. Poaceae 761 Eragrostis tenella Linn. Poaceae 762 Eriochlea procera Retz. Poaceae 763 Eulalia trispicata Poaceae Gonchi 764 Eulaliopsis binata C.E.Habb. Poaceae Sabai 765 Heteropogon contortus Beauv. Poaceae Lumpi 766 Imperata cylindrical P. Beauv. Poaceae Chirr 767 Ischaemum indicum Merr. Poaceae Sen 768 Ischaemum rugosum Salisb Poaceae Tor 769 Ischamum pilosam Hack. Poaceae Kunda Poaceae Mushal 760 Iseilema anthephoroides 761 Iseilema laxum Hack. Poaceae Mushan 762 Leersia haxandra Poaceae Jangli dhan 763 Millettia auriculata Poaceae Gauj 764 Mnesithea larvis Poaceae Mulchera 765 Ophiurus corymbosus Poaceae Sonthe 766 Oplimenus compositus L. Poaceae 767 Paspalidium flavidum Retz. Poaceae 768 Paspalum sanguinale Lamk. Poaceae 769 Pennicitum pedicallatum Poaceae Dinanath 770 Pennicum javanicum Poir. Poaceae 771 Pennicum maximum Poaceae 772 Pennisetum nohenackesi A. Camus Poaceae Mova 773 Perotis indica L. Poaceae 774 Pseudoraphis spinescens Poaceae 775 Pseundenthisteria spp. Poaceae Chhoti ganhar 776 Saccharaum spontaneum Linn. Poaceae Kans 778 Saccharum arundinaceae Poaceae Munj 779 Saccharum manja Roxb. Poaceae Munj 780 Saccharum officinarum Poaceae Ganna 781 Sehima nervosum Satpf. Poaceae Muchel 782 Sehima sulcatum A. Camus Poaceae Ponia 783 Setaria glauca Poaceae 784 Setaria intermeda Poaceae Chirchida 785 Setaria tomentosa Roxb. Poaceae 786 Sorghum vulgare Pers. Poaceae Juar 787 Themeda quadrivalvis O. Poaceae Gunher 788 Poaceae Vetiveria zizanioides Khass

38 Plants reported from Sehore district S. No BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY COMMON NAME Abrus precatrius Leguminoceae Gunj, Ratti Acacia arabica Mimosaceae Babool Acacia catechu Mimosaceae Khair Acacia ferruginea Leguminaceae Safed khair Adina cordifolia Rubiaceae Haldu, Hardal Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bel Ailanthus excelsa Simaroubaceae Maharukh Alangium salvifolium Coranaceae Akol Albizzia odoratissima Leguminoceae Chichwa, chichola Albizzia procera Leguminoceae Safed siris Annona squamosa Annonaceae Sitaphal Anogeissus latifolia Combretaceae Dhaora Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem Bauhinia malabarica Leguminoceae Amta, Khatua Bauhinia racemosa Leguminoceae Asta Boswellia sarrata Burseraceae Salai, salar Bridelia retusa Euphorbiaceae Kasai Buchanania latifolia Anacardiaceae Achar Butea monosperma Leguminoceae Palas, Khankar Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae Aak Careya arborea Myrtaceae Kumbhi Cassia fistula Leguminosea Amaltas

39 Cassia tora Leguminoceae Panwar Cochlospermum religiosa Bixaceae Galgal Cordia dichotoma Boraginaceae Lasoda, gondi Cordia macleodii Boraginaceae Dahiwas, Dainyar Cynadon dactylon Gramineae Doob Dalbergia paniculata Leguminoceae Dhobin, Dhansi Dalbergia sissoo Leguminoceae Sissoo Dioscorea daemona Dioscoriaceae Baichandi Diospyros melanoxylon Ebenaceae Tendu Dolichandrone falcata Bignoniaceae Mersingh Ehretia laevis Boraginaceae Dataranga Elaedendron glaucum Celastraceae Jamrasi Embelia robusta Myrsinceae Baiberang Emblica officinalis Euphoirbiaceae Amla Eragrostis tenella Gramineae Bhurbhusi Erythrina suberosa Leguminoceae Gadhapalas Euphorbia uruculli Euphorbiaceae Niwarang Feronia elephantum Leguminoceae Kabit Ficus bengalensis Moraceae Bargad Ficus glomerata Moraceae Gular Ficus infectoria Moraceae Pakar Ficus religiosa Moraceae Pipal Flacourtia ramontchi Bixaceae Kakai Gardenia latifolia Rubiaceae Papra Gardenia lucida Rubiaceae Dikamali

40 Gardenia turgida Rubiaceae Phetra, chamarkarari Garuga pinnata Bursiraceae Kekad Gmelina arborea Verbenaceae Gamari, Khamar Gymnosporea montana Celastraceae Bekal Helicteres isora Sterculiaceae Marorphali Holoptelia integrifolia Ulmaceae Chirol Kydia calycina Malvaceae Bharanga, Pula Lagerstromia parviflora Lythraceae Landia, seja Lannea grandis Anacardiaceae Jhingar, Moyen, Gurjan Madhuca latifolia Sapotaceae Mahua Mallotus philipensis Euphorbiaceae Roli sinduri Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Aam Mimusops hexandra Sapotaceae Khirani Morinda tinctoria Rubiaceae Aal Murraya keonigii Rutaceae Mithi neem Ougeinia delbergioides Leguminoceae Tinsa Pongamia pinnata Leguminoceae Karanj Pterocarpus marsupium Leguminaceae Bijasal Santalum album Santalaceae Chandan Schleichera oleosa Sapindaceae Kosum Semecarpus anacardia Anacardiaceae Bhilva Soyamida febrifuga Meliaceae Rohan, Rohani Sterculia urens Sterculiaceae Kullu Strychnos potatorum Laganiaceae Nirmali Tamarindus indica Leguminoceae Imli

41 Tectona grandis Verbinaceae Sagon Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Arjun, Koha Terminalia bellerica Combritaceae Bahera Terminalia tomentosa Combritaceae Saja Terminlaia chebula Combretaceae Harad, Harra Themeda quadrivelvis Gramineae Gunher Tribulus terristris Zygophyllaceae Gokhru Ventilago calyculata Rhamnaceae Keoti Vitis latifolia Vitaceae Dokarbel Woodfordia fructicosa Lythraceae Dhawai Wrightia tinctoria Apocynaceae Dudhi, Dudhai Zizyphus mauritiana Rhamnaceae Ber Zizyphus oenoplia Rhamnaceae Makor, Makoi Abutilon indicum L. Family Malvaceae Hindi name-kanghi Location Common, Bhopal Distribution- Hotter parts of India and throughout the tropics generally. Description- An under shrub, branches many, herbaceous or some what woody below, densely pubescent. Leaves roundish ovate to orbicularcordate, acuminate, valvety on both the surfaces and irregularly dentate;

42 petiole usually longer than the blade; stipules linear, deflexed. Flowers solitary, axillary, yellow or orange-yelllow, pedicels longer than the petioles, Jointed near the top. Calyx- lobes shallow, ovate, acute or apiculate. Corolla with spreading petals. Staminal tube hairy at the base. Carpels 15-20, longer than the calyx. Seeds dark brown, minutely stellate hairy. Flowers & Fruits: July - January Uses- From the stems a strong fibre is obtained, and various portions of the plants are used medicinally. Acacia arabica L Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name-babul Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Believed to be indigenous to the Deccan and Sind also Arabia and Northern Africa. Description-Evergreen tree with dark brown blackish bark. Stem mush fissured, branchlets grey downy, spines straight white, sharp. Leaves alternate, bipinnate, pinnae 2-6 pairs,

43 leaflets pairs. Flowers pale yellow or whitish, sweet scented in large, leafless densely tomentose panicle. Pods 8-12 in one row. Flowering: August - March Uses- The bark is used for tanning and large quantities are consumed in cownpore. The timber is hard, heavy and durable and is used for making cart wheels. From wounds in the bark a gum exudes which is used in place of gum arabic. Acacia auriculiformis A.Cunn. Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name- English name- Australian acacia Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Native to Australia and Queensland. Throughout the plains of India. Description- A very handsome, tall, straight evergreen xyrophytic tree with smooth white bark and pendulous branches. Phyllodes are laterally compressed, falcate-oblong, coriaceous, parallel nerved, tapering at the ends. Flower small, yellow in cylindrical, lax spikes. Calyx

44 broadly companulate, minutely toothed. Petals spreading as long as the calyx. Pods hard, woody brown and dehiscent. Flowers & Fruits : At various times of the year. Uses- As an ornament in parks and gardens. Acacia catechu Willd. Family - Mimosaceae Hindi name- Kattha, Khair Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout dry, arid zones of India. Description- A medium sized tree. Bark grayish brown, fissured, spines short and curved. Leaves twice pinnate. Leaflets very minute, dark green, glabrous. Flowers yellow, borne in axillary spikes. Pods strap shaped about 8cm long, dark brown, beaked at the apex. Flowers & Fruits: February- March.

45 Uses- The wood is hard and strong. It is used for house building, agricultural implements and tool handles. It makes excellent charcoal. Kattha of commerce is obtained from the tree. The gum of the tree is found useful for various commercial purposes and the substitute for the Arabic gum. Acacia leucopholea (Roxb.) Willd. Family Mimosaceae Hindi name-safed babul English name White babool, Disteller s acacia Location - common Distribution- Through out India in dry deciduous forests. Description- A moderate sized tree upto 3m. in height with spreading branches, crooked stems, White spines and pale yellowish grey to nearly white bark with pale red inside; Leaves bipinnate, cm. long, main rachis pubescent with a cup shaped gland between each pair linear- oblong, obtuse; flowers in large terminal tomentose panicles. Heads numerous globose; fruits sessile, thin flat, slightly curved pods, covered with pale brown tomentum; seeds per pod.

46 Flowers - August- November. Fruits December- April. Uses- The bark is astringent, bitter, thermogenic, styptic, auxeteric, anthelmintic, vulnerary. It is used for distillation of spirits from sugar and palm- juice in south India. Wood is used for posts and fuel. Adansonia digitata L. Family-Bombacaceae Hindi name-khurasani Imli English name- The Baobab Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- In few well established gardens on the plains of India. Description- A tree with trunk of great diameter at the base, rapidly narrowing upwards. Leaves digitate with 3-9 leaflets, downy brownish, wide obovate, oblong top acute or blunt, surface hairy. Flower large, white solitary axillary, pendulous. Calyx cup shaped, leathery 5- lobed persistent, petals large, deciduous. Staminal tube cylindrical, thick divided into numerous filaments anthers linear. Fruit pendulous oblong obovoid, woody indehiscent. Flowers : May-July

47 Uses: As a curio in large gardens. The fibre from the bark of the tree is extremely strong and is used for making ropes. The bark is used for making paper of good quality. The fruit is used for curing dysentery and bilious headache. Adina cordifolia Family Rubiaceae Hindi name-haldu Location - common forests of both peninsula. Distribution- Sub Himalayan tract from the Jamuna east wards, ascending to 3,000 ft. Bihar, Karnataka. Common in deciduous Description- A tall deciduous tree, bark rough, wood yellow when fresh cut, even grained no heartwood. Leaves cordate- orbicular, abruptly acuminate, pubescent beneath; stipules long, concealed the uppermost pair of leaf buds. One leaf axil flower heads yellow, receptacles bracteoles hairy. Calyx and corolla densely pubescent, calyx tube 5 angled, lobes linear deciduous Flowers & Fruits : June September. Uses- Combs made of the wood. The wood of the tree is useful for making toys, cigar boxes and agricultural implements.

48 Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Family-Rutaceae Hindi name-bel English name-the Bel Tree Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the hotter parts of India. Description- A small or medium-sized deciduous tree. Bark grey-white with longitudinal wrinkles. Branches ascending with sharp straight axillary spines, 2-4 cm long, reddish brown. Leaves alternate, 3-foliolate, glabrous, petiole terete. Leaves lanceolate. Ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, crenate, gland dotted. Flower greenish white, bisexual scented, in short lateral panicles. Fruit globose, yellow when ripe, pulp sweet. Flowers: March - May Fruits: May - July Uses- The tree is considered sacred. The leaves are said to sacred to Shiva, the fruits are used medicinally.

49 Ageratum conyzoides Family-Compositeae Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and in all warm countries. Used as cattle fodder. Description- Erect annual herb. Leaves broadly ovate, subacute; margins crenate and ciliate; base cuneate; petiolate; hairy. Heads many, discoid arranged in corymbos; florets all tubular. Achanes black. Pappus of 5 scales, connate below, serrulate and aristate. Flowers: September- March. Fruits: September- March. Uses- used as cattle fodder.

50 Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Family-Simaroubiaceae Hindi name-mahaneem, Mahrukh English name- Heavens Tree Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- The Indian peninsula except in the coastal region and some of the desert parts. Description- A large magnificent tree. Bark rough. Leaves pinnate, almost about one meter long. Pinnae 8 to 14 pairs, dentate, unequal at the base, glabrous. Flowers small, axillary in large panicles, greenish-yellow in colour. Fruit a winged samara-reddish, contorted at the base. Flowers: January- February Fruits: Hot Season Uses- The wood is useful in making packing cases, country boats, toys, handles and matchsticks. The trunk when slightly injured oozes out a gum called Hog-gum.

51 Albizia lebbeck Benth. Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name-kala siris English name-indian Walnut Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Description- A large deciduous tree with a spreading crown and pale bark, young shoots glabrous. Leaves bipinnate, leaflets unequal sided, rachis with a large gland near the base and also between the uppermost one or more pairs of pinnae. Pinnae 2-4 pairs, leaflets 3-9 pairs, shortly petioled, oblong, obtuse, glabrous. Flower creamish yellow, globose, fragrant, built up of numerous long stamens about 4 cm in diameter. Pods 10 to 20 cm long, Papery and straw coloured. Flowers: March - May Fruits: Cold season Uses- The heartwood is used for a variety of purposes. The bark, leaves, flowers and seeds are used medicinally. The leaves afford a good fodder. A gum exudes from cracks in the bark.

52 Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name-safed siris English name-white siris Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Western ghats, lower Himalayas, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Description- A large deciduous tree. Bark yellowish white, very smooth, occasionally with horizontal lines. Young shoots white silky-pubescent. Pinnae 3-5 pairs, leaflet 6-10 pair with scattered appressed hairs, obliquely oblong-ovate, midrib nearer the lower edge. Flowers sessile, whitish, in stalked globose heads and large panicles. Stamens greenish yellow. Pods ligulate, about cm long, dehiscent. Flowers: July - August Fruits: Cold season Uses- The wood takes a fine polish and is used for making furniture, oars, and rice ponders, agricultural implements and carriages. The bark is used for tanning and dyeing. The gum that exudes from the bark in the manufacture of Nepal-paper.

53 Allamanda cathartica L. Family-Apocynaceae Location- Nutan College, Bhopal Distribution- Grown throughout India, probably introduced by Portugese. Description- A scandent milky shrub grown in gardens on old walls or on boundary walls. The leaves obovate-lanceolate, acuminate in whorls of 4, except at the end of the branches where they are opposite or even alternate. Flower funnel shaped, deep yellow in colour, inside the throat is penciled with deep orange veins. Flowers & Fruits: Almost throughout the year. Uses- An ornamental plant.

54 Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Family-Apocynaceae Hindi name-satparni English name- Scholars Tree Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India, especially the West Coast and through the sub- Himalayan tracts. Description- A handsome evergreen tree with an excellent well-balanced formation. The branches grow in symmetrical whorls and the base of the tree is often buttressed. Leaves are whorled glossy green and leathery about 20 cm long, obovate. The leaves and branches all contain a white milky sap which is poisonous in nature. Flowers are small greenish white in umbellate cymes in the evening emit strong pleasant fragrance. The seeds are borne in clusters of slender, cylindrical follicles about ½cm in diameter and almost 95 cm long enclosed in a furry wool like coverings. Flowers: October- November Uses- In older days it was used for making wooden slate for school children and its bark was used for curing malarial fever. These days it is used for making cheap furniture, black boards, coffins and pencils.

55 Althea rosea Cav.Diss. Family Malvaceae Hindi name- English Name- Holly hock Location- Common in Bhopal,Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India. A native of Greece. Description- Often exceeds 2m. in height. Leaves long petioled, cordate- ovate, acutely 5-7 lobed.flowers very shortly pedicelled in a terminal raceme. Corolla large purple rose, yellow or white. Flowers & Fruits: January - March Uses-The flowers are used in rheumatism. The roots are used in dysentery.

56 Andrographis Paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees Family-Acanthaceae Hindi name- Kalmegh, Kirayat English name- Creat, Kariyat Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Ceylon. Description- An erect annual herb. Stems quadrangular, much- branched. Leaves opposite, short petioled, oblong- attenuate at both ends, glabrous, pale beneath. Inflorescence is axillary and terminal raceme or panicle; flowers white with pink spots. Capsule linear-oblong, acute at both ends, pubescent. Seeds numerous, brown or yellow, oblong, glabrous. Flowers & Fruits: September- April Uses- The plant is bitter tonic and used for the treatment of malaria, hepatic disorders, itches and an antidote to snakebite.

57 Annona reticulata L. Family-Annonaceae Hindi name-ramphal English name- Bullock s heart Location-MLB College, Bhopal Distribution- Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Assam. Description- A small bushy tree, not much different in its appearance than A. squamosa. The fruit of the species is however much larger, smoother on the outer surface with hexagonal markings. It has fewer seeds but the pulp is of a poor quality. Flowers: February March Fruits: March - April Uses- A tree grown in certain private gardens for its fruits. The oil obtained from the seeds is an Insecticide.

58 Annona squamosa L. Family-Annonaceae Hindi name- Sitaphal, Sharifa English name- Custard apple Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- All through the plains of India, specially Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Assam. Description- A small tree or shrub, nearly evergreen with dark brown bark. Leaves 2-8 cm long, stalked oblong or oblong- lanceolate, obtuse or sub acuminate nearly glaberous, pellucid dotted and slightly scented. Petiole 1 cm long. Flowers solitary and leaf opposed or 2-4 on short extra axillary branches, fragrant, drooping, yellowish green, pedicels cm long, bracteate below the middle. Fruit globose, green with a bumpy and tubercled outer skin.pulp soft, white, aromatic and sweet containing large black shining seeds. Flowers: May - July Fruits: September - October Uses- The fruit is highly valued. The root and leaves are used for destroying worms bred in sores as a valuable insecticide. A cooling drink is made from fruit pulp.

59 Anotis lancifolia (Dalz.) Hook. Family-Rubiaceae Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India (W. Peninsula) Description- Diffusely branched, perennial herbs with terete stems. Leaves membranous, ovate, acuminate, pubescent above, hairy on the nerves beneath; short petiole; stipules pubescent, shorty bristly. Flower purple in terminal and sub- terminal many flowered, corymbose- cymes; peduncles 4- gonous. Calyx hairy; teeth triangular, acuminate.corolla lobes triangular- oblong, acute, hairy outside.capsule long 2-4 seeded. Flowers: August - November Fruits: August - November Uses- Frequently found as a weed.

60 Anthocephalus cadamba A. Rich. Family-Rubiaceae Hindi name-kadamb English name- Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Indigenous to hotter parts of India. Distributed in Sri Lanka and Sumatra. Description- A large deciduous tree, trunk erect, branches horizontal and widely spreading, young parts pubescent. Leaves are large, ovate acuminate with parallel lateral veins. The veins are slightly raised and quite prominent under surface of the leaves. The tree produces enormous ball shaped round deep yellow flowers about 4-5 cm in diameter during the tree laden with such beautiful flowers in globose heads. The individual flowers are quite small. Flowers: May July Fruits : August - October. Uses- Wood light yellow, used for building and packing cases. Fruit acidic, eaten raw or cooked. As a decorative plant in gardens.

61 Antigonon leptopus Hook. &Arn. Family-Polygonaceae English Name-The coral creeper Location-Common in Bhopal, Raisen, Vidisha Distribution- Throughout India. A native of South America Description- A beautiful climber. Woody below. Ovate, cordate or deltoid somewhat rugose leaves with stem clasping petioles; veiny, acute to acuminate, glabrous. Large panicles of showy pink or white flowers, which terminate into tendrils. Perianth lobes petaloid, the outer ones larger. Seeds deeply grooved. Flowers & Fruits: July- November. Uses- Commonly grown in gardens and occasionally found as an escape.

62 Argemone maxicana L. Family-Papaveraceae Hindi name-pili kateri English name- Prickly Poppy Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Introduced from Mexico.Now it is naturalized throughout India. Description- A prickly robust sparingly branched, glabrescent, annual herb or bushy under shrub, divaricately branching from below. Stem and branches woody with yellow and milky juice. Leaves simple, alternate, with a semi amplexicaul base, prickly on both surface, white spot along nerves. Flowers solitary terminal with prickly peduncles, yellow capsule oblongellipsoid, prickly with 5-8 erectopatend spines on each valve. Seeds small many, scrobiculate, black or dark brown when ripe. Flowers & Fruits: January to June and more or less year round.

63 Uses-The latex is used in dropsy, jaundice and eye troubles. Oil extracted from seeds is used for burning and is applied medicinally ; the oil is also valued for painting purposes. Argyreia nervosa Burm.f. Family-Convolvulaceae Hindi name- Samandar ka pat English name- Elephant creeper Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India; Java. Description- Perennial twiner with milky juice, stem apressed- white hairy when young, glabrescent on maturity, brown in colour. Leaves ovate cordate glabrous above and densely white- tomentose beneath. Flowers rose purple, in long peduncled sub capitate cymes. Bract foliar, ovate lanceolate, acute, softly wooly, deciduous. Berry orange yellow in colour. Flowers: August- September Fruits: January- April Uses- Leaves are used as poultice for wounds and skin diseases.

64 Asclepias curassavica L. Family-Asclepiadaceae Hindi name- English name- Blood flower Location-Berasia road, Bhopal Distribution- A native of the West Indies or of Tropical America. Description- A perennial erect herb or under shrub with a woody base. Leaves narrow lanceolate or oblang lanceolate, glabrous. Flowers orange yellow or scarlet in terminal or axillary many- flowered umbels. Sepals glandular within. Corolla reflexed. Five erect spoon shaped coronal processes adnate to the stipitate column. Anther tips inflexed, pollinia 1 in each cell. Follicle inflated, beaked with numerous seeds. Flowers & Fruits: January - June Uses- Roots are used medicinally.

65 Averrhoa carambola L. Family Euphorbiaceae Location - common Distribution- Throughout India. Description- A medium sized tree with close drooping branches. Leaves sensitive, alternate, imparipinnate. Leflets 5-11 (2-5 pairs), Flowers in short axillary racemes or arising from the old wood, pinkish or purplish. Sepals 5. Petals 5, usually more than twice as long as sepals, oblong- obovate, variegated white and purple. Stamens10, of which 5 are shorter and of ten without anthers. Filaments dilated at the base. Fruits ovoid, oblong or ellipsoid, acutely 5 angled, turning yellow when ripe. Seeds arillate. Flowers Summer and rainy season. Fruits Cold season. Uses- The leaves, roots and fruits have antiscorbutic properties and are used as cooling medicines. The unripe fruit is astringent and is used as an acid.

66 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family-Meliaceae Hindi name-neem English name- The Margosa Tree Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- The neem is believed to be indigenous to Upper Burma and possible to the Deccan and other parts of South India. Description- A medium sized to large evergreen tree. Bark somewhat rough, grey. Leaves bright green consisting of 9-15 leaflets. Each leaflet oblique or slightly curves, coarsely toothed, shining on upper surface. Flower small, whitish, scented. The arrangement of stamens are peculiar, their stalks are united into a tube. The head of stamens are situated inside the tube and near its top that is toothed. Drupes oblong, 1-celled, 1-seeded, dark purple when ripe. Flowers: March-May Fruits: June-July Uses- Almost every part of the plant is bitter and is attributed with some medicinal properties. The bark is a good bitter tonic and also considered useful in skin diseases. Seeds

67 yield oil. The twigs are used for cleaning the teeth. The timber is durable and is used for making carts and in other purposes. Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn. Family-Barringtoniaceae Hindi name-samudra Phal English name- Location- 4 Imli, Bhopal Distribution- The tree is fairly common in the sub-himalayan tracts from the Ganges Eastwards to Assam, M.P. extending into the Peninsular India. Description- An evergreen tree, 9-12 m in height, found throughout India. Bark dark brown rough, leaves minutely denticulate, crenate, narrowed into the petiole, Flowers in long pendulous racemes, fragrant with bright red stamens, fruits bluntly quanrangular, cm long, broadest in the middle, angles broad, rounded. Flowers : February March Uses- The fruit is effective in cure of asthma and diarrhoea. The powdered fruit is also used as a snuff and in treating skin diseases. The bark is rich in tanning and is used for intoxicating fish before catching it.

68 Bauhinia purpurea L. Family Caesalpiniaceae Kachnar Hindi name- Location - common Distribution - India and China. Description- A medium sized tree, young parts covered with brown pubescence, leaves longer than broad, roundish; 9-11 nerved; cleft about half the way down; lobes with usually angular tips. Flowers large purple or rose coloured in terminal racemes; fragrant; pedicles small, 2- bracteolate. Calyx splitting into 2, nearly equal, reflexed parts; calyx- tube. 5- toothed at the apex. Petals rosy purple or white. Stamens 3-4 fertile; Staminodes filiform, unequal. Ovary stipilate. Style long; Stigma large, oblique Pod flat, pointed at both the ends, seeded compressed brown. Flowers & Fruits : September November Uses- Cultivated in gardens for its flowers. Bark is used for dying and tanning and also yield a fibre. Bark and leaves are medicinal. Flower buds are eaten or pickled and the foliage is a fodder.

69 Bauhinia variegata L. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-kachnar English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Description- A small crooked tree with dark, rough, brownish bark; branchlets glabrescent. Leaves ovate, leaflets connate, for about two- thirds. Flowers varied in colour, all white or four of them white and upper one red and veined with purple. Pods oblong, distinctly reticulate, both ends narrow, hard, dark brown or black, seeds many. Flowers: February April Fruits: July -October Uses- Bark is used for dyeing and tanning and also yields a fiber. Barks and leaves are medicinal. Flower buds are eaten or pickled and the foliage is a fodder.

70 Bixa orellana L. Family-Bixaceae Hindi name-latkan English name-annato Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Native of America, not naturalized in India, grown in many parts of the country and well established. Description- A small evergreen tree. Leaves alternate, cordate about 12 to 15 cm long. Flowers large about 3 to 6 cm in diameter. White or purplish-white. Capsule ovoid, reddish brown, 4 cm long, covered with soft bristles. Seeds numerous, embedded in a red pulp. Flowers: July-September Uses- The dye is extracted from the red pulp of the fruit. It is used for colouring, shoepolish, cotton silk, butter, cheese and confectionary. The pulp is used as an insect-repellent.

71 Blainvillea acmella ( L.f.) Phil. Hindi name- Family Asteraceae English name- Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Through out the greater Part of India, Ceylon, Java. Upper Burma. Tropical Africa, America and Australia. Description- An erect, robust annual. Leaves petioled, ovate or ovate- lanceolate, acute or acuminate, crenate- serrate, hispid on both surfaces. Heads shortly peduncled, arranged in cymes. Achenescurved. Pappus of minute bristles. Flower & Fruits September- January. Uses- Used as fodder.

72 Boerhavia diffusa L. Family-Nyctaginaceae Hindi name-pathar chatta, punarnava English name- Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Sri Lanka, Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia, Africa and America. Description- Herbs, perennial, diffuse, straggling, stems woody below; branches usually pinkish. Leaves ovate-oblong, unequal. Sinuate to repand, puberulous, whitish beneath. Flowers in terminal, diffuse panicles, much exceeding the foliage, pinkish mauve, sessile, bracts and bracteoles. Ovate, mm long, acuminate, puberculous. Antocarps fusiform, 3 mm long. Flowers & Fruits : October - April Uses- Roots are diuretic, laxative and referred for the treatment of urinary, liver, kidney and heart diseases. Leaves are used for the treatment of skin diseases and as an antidote of snake ite. Sometimes the leaves are eaten.

73 Bombax malabaricum L. Family-Bombacaceae Hindi name-semal English name- Red silk cotton Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Description- A large tree with a wide spreading crown, deciduous in winter. Trunk shapely buttressed at the base. Branches spinous in whorls, growing horizontally. Leaves digitately lobed. Leaflets 5-7, about 12 cm long. Flowers large, fleshy, deep red, sometimes yellowish. Pod ovoid, 12 cm long, blackish and woody when ripe. Seeds numerous, hard embedded in silky cotton. Flowers: February March Fruits: April - May Uses- The wood from the tree is largely used for making match-boxes and match sticks. It is much needed for tea chests, parcel cases, low quality pencils and coffins. The floss from the tree is used for stuffing pillows and quilts. The oil expressed from its seed is luminant and also used for soap-making.

74 Broussonetia papyrifera Venten. Family-Moraceae Hindi name- Paper mulberry Location-Ekant park, Bhopal Distribution- East Asia and Polynesia. Description- Trees, 8-10 m high; branches pubescent, marked with stipular scars. Leaves obliquely ovate or oblong, acuminate at apex, sometimes 3- lobed, dentate, scabrid above, pubescent beneath; petioles 3-5 cm. Male spike cylindrical, 5-6 cm long; peduncles pubescent. Female spikes capitate, compact, long pedunculate. Flowers red. Achenes in a head, red, fleshy, shining. Flowers & Fruits: May - July Uses- Bark yield fibres while wood is used for umbrella sticks.

75 Buchanania lanzan Sprengl. Family-Anacardiaceae Hindi name-achar, Chironji English name- Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the tropical forests of Peninsular India and Madhya Pradesh. Description- A medium sized tree. Bark thick, corky, young parts pubescent. Leaves thick oblong about 25 cm long, leathery, pubescent on the under surface. Flower small, greenishwhite in many flowered panicles. Fruit small, black globose or ovoid, store hard, two valved. Flowers: January - March Fruits: May - June Uses- The fruit is eaten and an oil is extracted from the kernels. The kernel (Chironji) is used in Sweatmeats. The bark is used for tanning. The wood is of poor quality, used for packing cases and yokes. The gum exudes from the stem is medicinally used.

76 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name-palash English name-flame of the forest Location-Ekant/Kolar Park Distribution- Throughout the tropical and subtropical forests of India. Description- A small or medium seized deciduous tree with crooked stem and large irregular branches. Bark fibrous, light brown or grey. Leaf consisting of 3 large leathery leaflets on a common stalk 4-9 in long, conspicuously swollen at its base. Flower 1½ -2 inches long clustered along the branches, bright orange-red. Calyx ½ in long, dark brown-velvetty. Pods 4-8 inches long, 1-2 in broad, the top end where the solitary seed is situated and edges thickened, the rest thin, strongly nerved. Flowers : Jan-May Fruits : Uses- Many useful products are obtained from it, such as fibre, gum, lac etc. A yellow dye is prepared from the flowers. The leaves serve the purpose of plates, and for wrapping the parcels. The foliage also serves as a fodder to buffalos and elephants. The seed yield an oil used as an anthelmintic.

77 Callistemon lanceolatus DC. Family-Myrtaceae Hindi name-bottle brush English name- Bottle Brush Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Tree planted in gardens and private houses throughout India. Description- A large handsome, evergreen shrub or tree with fissured bark and numerous drooping branches and willowy foliage. Leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, gland dotted, light green above, whitish below. Flowers red in terminal drooping, spikes resembling a bottle brush. Deciduous dry sepals. Stamens numerous, red coloured. Capsules with a truncate apex, opening by loculicidal small slits at the top. Flowers: October March Uses- The tree is used chiefly for ornamental purposes in garden, parks and private bungalows.

78 Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br. Family-Asclepiadaceae Hindi name-madar, safed akwa Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout the hotter and dry part of India; Sri Lanka, Malaya, Burma and South China. Description- A Shrub, sometimes attaining a medium size tree habit, very pale in colour. Usually almost all parts covered with loose soft white wool. Leaves almost sessile, large, thick, glacous- green, cordate at base. Flowers in umbellate cymes, buds ovoid. Corolla white or purplish. Corona lobes shorter than the column. Flowers & Fruits: November- July. Uses- Gun Powder charcoal is prepared from the wood. Garlands of flowers are used at religious ceremonies.

79 Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. Family-Asclepiadaceae Hindi name- Madar Location- Common in Bhopal. Distribution- In the hot and dry part of India; extending through Afganisthan, Persia, Arabia, Egypt and Tropical Africa. Description- An erect or decumbent milky shrub. Young parts hoairy or with white tomentum. Leaves thick, subsessile, ovate to obovate, acute, sub amplexicaul. Flowers in terminal and axillary umbellate to corymbose cyme ; Buds hemispherical. Flowers purplish red; Peduncles long ; pedicels longer then flowers. Calyx lobes acute. Corolla lobes glabrous, erect; corona-scales acute; corona lobes equally or exceeding the staminal column. Follicles recurved, smooth. Seeds flat, with a silky white coma. Flowers & Fruits: Cold and hot season. Uses-The leaves and latex are used medicinally. Charcoal for crackers is obtained from the roots.

80 Carissa carandas L. Family-Apocynaceae Hindi name-karaunda Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Sri Lanka, Java and Timor. Description- A large evergreen shrub, glabrous except the inflorescence, branchlets with twin hard stout spines, branches opposite, usually without spines. Leaves elliptic or obovate. Flowers white, not fragrant, in flowered pubescent corymbose cymes at the end of branches. Berry dark-purple when ripe, 4 or more seeded. Flowers : January -April Fruits : June - August Uses- The fruit is edible. Also used for pickles, jams, chutneys and as vegetables. Sold largely in the market.

81 Cassia alata L. Family Caesalpiniaceae English name Ringworm shrub, Winged senna. Location - common Distribution- Grows wild in wet places and is also cultivated for its ornamental foliage and showy flowers. Description- Small shrub, about 1.5 m. high, with horizontal branches. Leaves paripinnate, alternate; Leaflets 8-12 pairs, broadly rounded, at the base. Twigs and petioles usually reddish brown, Inflorescence in axillary and terminal erect spike ; Flowers yellow. Pod long slightly compressed with winged margin. Seeds numerous, black. Flowers- Fruits Uses- Leaves and stem are prescribed for constipation, oedema, hepatitis and icterus in a tea like infusion. Dermatomycosis, tinea imbricata, ringworm, scabies and impetigo are treated externally by rubbing with pounded fresh leaves or by applying fresh leaf juice on the diseased parts.

82 Cassia fistula L. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-amaltas English name- Indian Laburnum Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the greater part of India upto 4,000 feet in the Himalayas, Burma, Indo-China, Java and Philippines. Description- A moderate size deciduous tree with thick, smooth pale-grey bark. Rachis terete; leaflets 4-8 pairs. Flower bright yellow in racemes corymbose. Pod long, cylindrical, black or shining dark brown, divided into many. One seeded chambers by transverse partitions. Seed flat. Flowers : April July; Fruits : Cold seaso Uses- The pulp from the fruit of the tree is violent purgative and is used for herbal medicines. The wood of the tree is useful in making yokes, rice-ponders and even wheels of bullock carts. It is best used as an ornament in beautifying gardens and roadside avenues

83 Cassia renigera Wall. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name- English name- Pink Cassia Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree. Leaves peripinnate, leaflets 8-20 pairs, ovate oblong, tip acute, base cuneate. Flowers in racemes, on leafless branches. Sepals red, petals large, showy. Stamens 10, pods cylindric, smooth. Flowers : April to June Uses- As a decorative tree for beautification.

84 Cassia siamea Lam. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name- English name- Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout plains of tropical and sub-tropical India as an avenue tree. Description- A moderate sized tree with grey bark. Leaves paripinnate, leaflets oblongelliptic, young leaves with a slight brownish tinge. Flowers with petal bright yellow with faint red lines on the interior, obovate, rounded. Stamens 6-7 fertile, unequal. Ovary sub-sessile, many ovules. Pods flat, nearly straight, many seeded with thickened sutures. Seeds shining brown. Flowers : Summer season Uses- Planted for avenues and self-sown. Wood dark brown to nearly hard and durable but only used as fuel.

85 Cassia surattensis Burm. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-wal-ahlla English name- Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- From the foot of the Himalaya to South India, but very often planted, also in Malaya peninsula, Irelands and in North Australia. Description- A small tree, leaflets 4-6 pairs, pale green, glaucous. Rachis channeled above and with long conical glands between each of the 2-3 lowest pairs of leaflets. Stipules falcate, caducous. Flowers yellow in axillary corymbs. Stamens 10, nearly equal, pods straight, flat thin. Seeds in rows. Flowers: September - October Uses- Planted as a hedge in gardens.

86 Cayratia pedata (Law.)Juss. Ex Gagnep. Family Vitaceae Hindi name- Suvaha, Godhapadi English name- Location - common Distribution- Throughiut India in evergreen forests. Description- A Large but weak climbing shrubcompletekly hairless. Tendrils leaf opposed, branched. Wiry coiled. Leaves alternate, Pedately 5-7 foliolate, hairless; Leaf stalks 2-7 cm. long, terminal leaqflets elliptic to egg shaped. Base rounded or acute, apex acuminate, margin toothed with saw like teeth, stalk 1-2 cm. long; base unequal, stalk up to 1 cm. long. Flowers bisexual,hairless greenish yellow or yellowish white. About 3mm. across, placed on about 10 cm. long branched, axillary corymbose. Berries globose, about 1cm. across. Cremy white. Seeds1-2, flat, semicircular, smooth. Flowers & Fruits July- October

87 Uses- The whole plant of (excluding the roots) has low diuretic activity and has been a reputed remedy for cough, bronchitis, asthma, and joint pain and to check uterine reflexes. Celosia cristata L. Family Amaranthaceae Hindi name-murga ka phul Location- English name- Cockscomb Distribution- Cultivated through out India. Description- An erect, glabrous, branched, tall annual herb. Leaves often broad, alternate,acute at both the ends. Flowers smaller in terminal spikes, only of the lower portion fertile; bracts variously coloured. Flowers- September- October Uses- Commonly cultivatedin gardens as ornamental plants.

88 Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Family Apiaceae Hindi name-brahmi English name- Asiatic Penny- wort Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Through out India, Malaya, Srilanka and in all the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Description- A slender herbaceous variable herb with long creeping stems rooting at the modes. Leaves long- petioled, several at each mode, crenate, glabrous on both the sides. Stipules adnate to the petioles. Flowers small in clusters or umbels or sometime compound umbel, 3-6 in each umbel, sessile each with a pair of ovate sub amplexicaul bracts. Peduncles much shorter than the leaves. Petals minute, ovate, acute, slightly embricate. Stamens red. Fruits 2- seeded, indehiscent. Seeds much laterally compressed, brown, dull, oblong. Flowers & Fruits- November- July Uses- The Plant is medicinally used as a remedy for leprosy and other skin diseases and also for madness, cholera and heat effects.

89 Cestrum diurnum L. Family Solanaceae Hindi name-din ka raja Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India. Description- Under shrub, erect,branches scandent. Leaves elliptic or oblong, acute at apex rounded at base, shining, glabrous, petioles 1cm. long. Flowers in axillary fascicles or long, pedunculate panicles, fragrant. Calyx lobes obtuse. Corolla white, Hypocrateriform; lobes obtuse, reflexed. Stamens included. Berries globose, dark purple. Flowers & Fruits- Through out the year Uses- Cultivated in garden as ornamental plants.

90 Citrus limon Family Rutaceae Hindi name-nibu English name Lemon Location - common Distribution- Through out the plains of India. Description- A small prickly tree. Leaves ovate dark green, shining. Young flower buds light pinkish white, fragrant. Fruits oblong to round, with a thicker rind than Kagzi- lime and more juice. There is however a minute difference in flavour although it is equally acidic. Flowers & Fruits Uses- It is put to almost the same uses as the Kagzi- lime.

91 Citrus maxima Family Rutaceae Hindi name- Chakoptra, mahanimbu English name Paradise apple Location - common Distribution- Widely cultivated everywhere as a domestic fruit. Description- A tree about 10 m. high, young shoots thorny. Leaves alternate dark green shining above, obscurely puberulent beneath, petiole broadly winged. Inflorescence in axillary cyme; Flowers white, fragrant, fruit large, globose, Pale yellow, rind thick vesicles numerous, distinct. Seeds angular. Flowers- December- January Fruits April- June. Uses- The leaves used in epilepsy and convulsive cough. Fruit rind is effective for Dyspepsia, colic and cough. The seeds stripped of their envelope and charred are appled externally for impetigo. Message with heated young leaves is effective for treating bruises.

92 Citrus sinensis Mausami orange Family Rutaceae Hindi name- English name Sweet Location - common Distribution- Native of china. Different commercial varieties grown all over India. Description- A small tree or a large shrub. Leaves ovate. Elliptic, glabrous and dark green above. Flowers white fragrant. Fruit globose. Green yellow or orange, tight skinned and glossy in appearance. Juice sweet or sweet and sour. Flowers & Fruits : August- September Uses- The juice of fruit is appetizing and quite delicious. It is fairly rich in vit. C besides sugar. Used for making squashes and marualades from the skin. Chief commercial varieties are Malta, Mausami Washington navel, Blood red, and pine apple.

93 Cleome viscosa L. Family-Cleomaceae Hindi name- Hurhur, Hulhul Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Warmer parts of India and throughout the tropical region of the world. Description- Erect, glandular- pubescent, branching, annual herb. Stem grooved, densely clothed with glandular simple hairs. Leaves digitately 3-5 foliolate; leaflets sessile. Flowers yellow. capsule cylindric, glandular- pubscent. Seeds reddish brown, ribbed, subglobose. Flowers: July- October. Fruits: July- October. Uses- The pungent seeds are often used in curries as a substitute for mustard. They are also valued medicinally as anthelmintic, carminative and stimulant; externally they act as a vesicant. They give a fixed oil. The juice of the leaves used in ear troubles.

94 Clerodendrum indicum Hindi name- Family Verbenaceae English name- Location- Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- A native of Sikkim, Assam and Sumatra, extensively cultivated in both Hemisphere. Description- A shrub with virgate branches. Stems hollow, ridged. Leaves subsessile. Tapering at base, shortly acuminate, Flowers white in much elongate panicles. Bracts reddish when young. Calyx accrescent. Corolla narrowly funnel- shaped. Nutlets 4, in a persistent, enlarged calyx. Flowers- September- October. Fruits October- November. Uses- Used as ornamental plants.

95 Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Family Verbenaceae Hindi name- English name- Location - common Distribution- India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula. Description- A shrub, usually herbaceous, but occasionally woody. Passing upwards into bracts. Flowers many, conspicuous. Bracts sub- persistent, Pubescent, often coloured, Calyx cup- shaped; lobes or white, 2- lipped. Lips unequal. Filaments curved. Hairy at their bases. Drupe broadly obovoid, succulent, dark purple when ripe. Flowers & Fruits - June November Uses- Root; leaves and seeds are used in Medicines.

96 Cocculus hirsutus L. Family-Menispermaceae Hindi name- Tildhara English name- Location-Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal Distribution- India and Pegu; also in Tropical Africa. Description- A straggling slender scandent climber; young parts densely and softly villous; branches striate, dioecious. Leaves 3-5 nerved, irregular, ovate-oblong, sub-deltoid or subhastate, obtuse, sub acute or retuse, apiculate, sub- cordate or truncate at the base, softly villous on the serface. Petiole short. Flowers minute, pubescent, unisexual. Male flower in shot, axillary panicles, pedicels filiform; bracts minute. Sepal 6 in to series. Petals 6, membranous, obovate. Female flowers in axillary clusters of 2-3, rarely racemose; bract small, petal thick and fleshy. Ovaries, smooth, styles reflexed ; stigma terete, thick. Drupe black or dark purple. Flowers: November- March Fruits: April Uses- A fodder plant and used as cooling medicine in eye troubles.

97 Coroupita guianensis Gaertn. Family-Lecythidaceae Hindi name-naaglingam English name-cannon Ball Tree Location- Kilol Park, Bhopal Distribution- Tree introduced. Native to Guiana planted in few selected botanical gardens in Bengal, Karnataka, Maharashtra and M.P. Description- The tree is deciduous and flourishes only in a moist, humid climate. The leaves of the tree are large about 10 to 12 cm long, oblong, obovate, acute and entire. The flowers are fleshy, with concave petals about 4-5 cm long, pinkish from outside and somewhat purplish from with in very attractive clusters. The flowers are very fragrant and are offered to Lord Shiva. They appear in summer. The fruit of the tree is round, hard and brownish with a somewhat disagreeable odour from the soft pulp within. Flowers: May June Fruits: Uses- As an ornamental tree in gardens. Flowers used for worship in temples.

98 Costus speciosus (Koenig ex Retz.)J.E.Smith Family Zingiberaceae Hindi name- Kebu, Kenna, Keyu English name- Wild zinzer Location - common Distribution- Through out India in moist location. Description- A succulent herb with longleafy spirally twisted stems 2-3 m. in height and horizontal rhizomes; Leaves simple, spirally arranged, oblanceolate or oblong, glabrous above, silky pubescent beneath with broad leaf sheaths; flowers white, large, fragrant in dense terminal spikes, bracts bright red, stamens only one, perfect lip large with in curved margins; fruits globose or ovoid capsules,seeds obovoid or sub globose. Flowers- Fruits Uses- Rhizomes are used in vitiated conditions of Kapha and pitta, burning sensation, leprosy, skin diseases.

99 Crescentia cujete Family-Bignoniaceae Hindi name-bilayati Bel English Name- The Calabash tree Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India.a native of Tropical America. Description- A small tree of irregular growth. Leaves simple as well as 3-foliolate, fascicled, obovate of variable size, acute at apex, attenuate at base, chartaceous, glabrous above, pubescent beneath along mid rib. Calyx bilabiate up to base, glabrous. Corolla with combination of green, purple,red and yellow with dull purple lines, tubular, fleshy; lobes deltoid. Disc annular- pulvinate. Berries globose, seeds thin. Flowers & Fruits: Summer season Uses- The fruit shells are used for making utensils for domestic use. The fruit pulp is a diuretic and a febrifuge, although poisonous for the birds. The sap from the tree contain a dye used for colouring silk.

100 Crinum asiaticum L. Family-Amaryllidaceae Hindi name- Kanwal, Pindu English Namespider lily Location-Common in Bhopal. Distribution- Often cultivated within the area and throughout India. Description:- Bulb narrowed into a neck which is clothed with old leafsheaths. Leaves linear lanciolate,shortly acuminate, flat, narrow,with a sheathing base, bring green with smooth margins. Flowers white, fragrant at night; bracts long ; Pedicles shorter than bracts; Perianth tube greenish white,cylindric, lobes recurved or revolute. Filaments slender. Fruits subglobose, 1-2 seeded, beaked by the fleshy base of perianth. Flowers: At all seasons. Fruits: May- October. Uses: Roots are diaphoretic, emetic and used as a substitute of Ipecac. Bulbs are useful in liver and urinary troubles.

101 Curcuma zedoria (Beng.)Rosc. Family Zingiberaceae English name Cochin turmeric Location - common Distribution- Grow wild in damp deciduous forests; is also cultivated for ornaments. Description- Perennial herb, m. high Rhizome. Conical bearing several small tubers with long stalks. Leaves entire largely sheathed with purple veins along the main nerve on the upper face inflorescence cylindrical arising from the rhizome before the leaves ; flowers yellow; bracts greenish, pink at the tips. Flowers- Fruits Uses- The rhizome is active in dyspepsia colic. Vomiting, cough menstrual haematometea and menstrual disorders. It is also used as a restorative.

102 Dalbergia panniculata Roxb. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name- Dhobin Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal. Distribution- West and south India, Burma. Description- A deciduous straight tree. Leaflets 7-15, alternate, smaller or bicular or oval, larger oblong- elliptic or end once obovate, beneath pale glaucous, above sparsely hairy; petiole very short. Flowers small, pedicles slender; Bracts oblong; all parts clothed with pubscence. Flower bluish white standard oblong, emarginated; claws as long as calyx. Stamens inserted with petals in the middle of the calyx tube. Ovary 2-3 ovuled. Pod long, stalked, narrowed at the both the ends, 1-2 seeds. Flowers- April June Fruits: Winter season. Uses-Timber is very valuable for Furniture. The foliage is a good fodder.

103 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name-shisham English name- Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Sub-Himalayan tracts upto 1500 meters and plains of North India. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree with grey barks and downy young parts; leaves alternate, bifarious, impartipinnate; leaflets 3-5, obliquely ovate, glabrous, rachis zigzag. Flowers in panicles racemes which are much shorter than the leaves. Calyx teeth obtuse, twice the calyx, standard with a long claw, ovary pubescent. Pods strap shaped, 2-3 seeded. Flowers: March June Fruits: August onwards Uses- The wood is in high demand commercially for making doors, furniture and other construction work, as it is quite heavy, strong and durable. It is also used for making heels of sandals, musical instruments and electrical casings.

104 Datura metel Family-Solanaceae Hindi name- Kaladahtura English name- Thorn Apple Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Africa and the tropics of both hemispheres. Description- A shrubby herb with dichotomous branches. Stem flexous, glabrous. Leaves ovate- triangular, sinuate, unequal sided at the base. Flowers purple or white, large funnel shaped. Calyx base persistent, reflexed. Capsules pendulus or nodding globose, prickled on a short curved stalk. Seeds light brown frequently found on rubbish heaps and in waste ground. Flowers : Rainy season Fruits : January April Uses- The plant is used for making tattoo. Flowers and fruits are offered during worship. Leaves and roots are antispasmodic, narcotic; used in insanity, catarrhal fever.

105 Delonix regia (Boj.) Rafin. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-gulmohar English name- Flamboyant tree Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Native of Madagascar, naturalized in India and well established. Description- A beautiful medium-sized deciduous tree with a large canopy and horizontally spreading branches. Leaves bipinnate, thin and feathery. Leaflets linear, oblong, rounded, apiculate. Flower about cm in size. Varying from orange to range. Petals 5, racket shaped, bright scarlet to light orange with wavy margin. Pods elongate, flat, dehiscent. Seeds numerous, oblong. Flowers: April - June Fruits: Cold season Uses- The tree is used extensively all over India as a garden ornament because of its attractive flowers. It is fairly fast growing and is grown easily from seeds.

106 Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. Family -Gramineae Hindi name-bans English name- Bamboo Location - Common Distribution- Commonly found in the drier hill tracts in forest areas. Through out India, Java. Description- A gregarious bamboo. Culms variable, dark green, yellowish when old. Nodes swollen, lower often rooting. culm sheaths with brown hairs on the back, top ciliate; ligule narrow. Leaves variable in size, linear, lanceolate, rough hairy; auricle ciliate; ligule serrate. Flowers in large branching panicles of dense globular heads spikelets hairy, spinescent with 2-3 fertile mixed with many sterile flowers. Empty glummer 2 or more, spinescent, floral glumes ending in a spine surrounded by ciliate tuft of hairs; palea emarginated. stamens 6, free. Ovary stipilate; stigma plumose, Grain ovoid, beaked, hairy brown. Flowers- November Uses- Used for various purposes. Such as lathis, baskets, Mat- works, building etc. Leaves used as fodder. The seed is eaten.

107 Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name- Chuppa English name- Location-Throughout area, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the India, Tropical Africa, Malaya, Philippines and China. Description- An erect, ascending or prostrate often pluricaulous, perennial herbs. Stems glabrous or hairy and angular at the top. Leaves 1- foliolate. Flowers purple pink, in lax racemes, which are often combined in to panicles. Pods moniliform, lower margin deeply undulate, upper straight, 1- seeded joints on the lower suture, hooked hairy. Seeds suborbicular, brown. Flowers & Fruits: August - November Uses- The roots are bitter sweet, thermogenic, nervine tonic, expectorant and tonic. Plants are used in medicines.

108 Dillenia indica Linn. Family-Dilleniaceae Hindi name-chalta English name-elephant apple Location-M.L.B. college campus, Bhopal Distribution- A small genus found in Indo-Malaysian region extending to tropical Australia. About 6 species in India. Description- A handsome evergreen tree, ft. in height and 6 ft. in girth with a dense round crown. Leaf oblong-lanceolate, 8-14 in. long and 2-4 in. broad, with pointed apex and toothed margin. Flowers large 5-8 in. diameter, hard, consisting of 5 closely fitting imbricate sepals enclosing numerous seeds embedded in a glutinous pulp. Seeds small compressed reniform with hairy margins. Flowering and Fruiting-The tree flowers during May-August and fruits ripen during Sept.- Feb. Uses- The timber obtained from the tree is used in he form of planks and rafters for internal work. It is also used for making tool handles, gunstocks and bottoms of boats. The wood has a high calorific value. Ripe fruits are gathered and thickened sepals, which are sour, used as

109 flavorings in curries or made in to jams and jellies. The fruit is said to possess tonic and laxative properties, and is used for abdominal pains. The bark and leaves are astringent. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Family-Dioscoreaceae Hindi name-dang kand, ratalu Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India & Sri Lanka. Description- Large climbers. Tuber solitary, globose-pyriform, cm across sub-sessile. Stems twinning to the left, terete, grooved. Bulbis abundant, broadly ovate-cordate, subcaudate at apex, cordate at base, glabrous. Male flowers white, green or purplish in slender spikes clustered in the leaf axils or panicled, stamens 6. Female flowers creamy, axillary, in solitary or fascicled spikes; staminodes 6, stigma 3. Capsules quadrately oblong. Seeds winged at the lower side. Flowers: August - October Fruits: Cold season Uses- Tubers and bulbils are edible.

110 Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Family-Ebenaceae Hindi name-tendu English name- Coromandel ebony Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and Sri Lanka. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree with dark-grey bark; crooked trunk; young parts with rusty tomentum. Leaves sub-opposite, coriaceous, broadly ovate. Flowers white on the new shoots. Flowers monoecious, male flowers in short drooping clusters. Female flowers solitary, drooping, almost sessile. Fruit globose, yellow when ripe. Seeds 2-8 compressed. Flowers : February - April; Fruits : April May Uses- The wood of the tree is quite hard and durable. The heartwood is black and is used for making furniture, combs, toys and picture frames. It is called ebony. The leaves are mainly used for wrapping bidis.

111 Dolichandrone falcata Wallich ex DC. Family-Bignoniaceae Hindi name- Mersingi English name- Location-VIP Road, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Burma, Malaya. Description- A middle sized tree more or less pubescent, wood closed and even grained. Leaflets 5-7 broadly elliptic, obovate or almost orbicular shortly acute at apex, Flower white, in few flowered corymbs, Calyx stellately pubescent. Corolla white, lobes ovate oblong with undulate crisped margin; tube slender long narrow at base, gradually enlarging upwards capsule flat, much curved, acuminate glabrescent, green, turning black on ripening. Flowers & Fruits: March- June Uses- The plant is considered as abortifacient. Bark used as fish poison.

112 Eclipta prostrata (L.) Family-Asteraceae Hindi name- Bhringraj English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Srikanka, Malaya and in other warm countries. Description- A creeping and ascending herb, stems often creeping and rooting at the base, appressed pubescent. Leaves opposite, sessile. Head axillary and terminal. Achenes in female florets 3- angled, in bisexual 4-angled, tipped by hairy rim, glabrous; pappus 0. Flowers & Fruits: Almost all part of the year. Uses- The decoction of the whole plant is said to be useful in malaria fever. Taken with black pepper and honey in cases of cough and cold. It is also useful in asthma.

113 Enicostema verticillatum L. Family Gentianaceae Hindi name- English name Location Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the greater part of India, Java, West Indies, SriLanka and S. Africa. Description- An erect and procumbent, glabrous, perinnial herb. Stems 4- angled, branching from the base. Leaves decussate, sessile, varying in shape, ovate-lanceolate to linear. Flowers in whorled clusters, white, usually 3 in the axil. Calyx- lobes equal to the lobes, margins narrow membranous. Corolla tubular. Anther included. Stigmas large, 2-lobed. Capsules sub globose; seeds minute. Flowers & Fruits: June- December Uses- Plant is used as a tonic.

114 Ehertia laevis Roxb. Family Boraginaceae Hindi name- Datrangi, Chamror Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India, Ceylon, Persia, china, Australia Description- A small deciduous tree with spreading branches. Leaves elliptic oblong ovate or obovate, acuminate, glabrous, dark green and fleshy petioled. Flowers white, small, sessile, incorymbose cymes or racemes, pentamerous. Calyx small. Corolla tube short. Stamens5 exserted ; Filaments filliform. ovary 2-celled, ovules 2in each locule. Style bifid. Stigma capitate. Drupe small 2- celled, orange at first, turns black and wrinkled when ripe with 1-4 seeded pyrenes. Flowers & Fruits-March -May Uses-The wood is used for agriculture implements. Twigs used as fodder. The fruit is eaten.

115 Erythrina indica ( Lam.) Family Fabaceae Hindi name-rakta madar English name-the Indian coral Tree Location Distribution - Sea- coast of India ; Java, Polynesia. Description - A moderate sized tree armed with black conicle sprickles. Leaves deciduous; Petioles unarmed, readily disarticulating; stipules lanceolate. Very cadusous. Leaflets membranous, broadly rhomboid- ovate, nearly as long as broad, acute or acuminate; stipels small, gland like persistent. Flowers appearing before the leaves, in denseracemes, arranged in clusters of 1-3 on a puberulous or tomentose rachis; bracts and bracteoles tomentosae. Calyx 5- toothed, mouth oblique, soon splitting dpwn the back to the base and appearoing like a spathe. Corolla bright dazzling scarlet. Stamens exserted. Pods stalked. Subcylindric, Torulose, glabrescent. Seeds 4-8. Flowers - March- May. Fruits June- July. Uses - Planted as shade and support. In south India it is used as a support for the betel and pepper vines. The wood is also used for the manufacture of light boxes, toys etc.

116 Euphorbia hirta L. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name- Dudhi Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the hotter part of India; Shrilanka and in most tropical and sub- tropical countries. Description- A prostrate or ascending annual herb, branching from the root stock. Leaves elliptic or ovate- oblong with oblique bases, dentate or serrulate, acute or sub acute. Cyathia axillary and terminal, clustered in dense, crowded cymes. Involucres stalked, cup shaped. Capsules breaking in to 3 cocci. Seeds reddish brown, trigonous. Flowers & Fruits: Throughout the year. Uses- Used as fodder.

117 Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.ex Klotz. Family Euphorbiaceae Hindi name- English Name-Poinsettia Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India. A native of Mexico. Description- Shrubs 3m. high, branches cylindrical green. leaves alternate or elliptic to lanceolate acuminate at apex,cuneate or rounded at base, entire or sinuately lobed; petioles 4-6cm. long. Flowers cyathia in terminal, dichotomous, lax cymes; bracts oblanceolate, acuminate, bright red or occasionally light yellow. Involucral lobes fimbricate, ciliate; glands 8mm across, orange. Flowers & Fruits: November - March Uses-Commonly planted in gardens or in parks as ornamental plants.

118 Euphorbia tirucalli Family Euphorbiaceae Hindi name-sehud English name Milk bush Location - common Distribution- A native of Africa. Planted in gardens and as a hedge. Description- Shrub or small tree; smooth, green round branches with acrid milky juice. Leaves linear- oblong, obtuse soon falling off. Involucres short stalked stamen without perianth lobes. Female flower solitary, in the center of the involucres. Ovary stalked. 3- celled, 3- ovulate; styles 2- lobed. Capsule of 3, 2 valvate cocci. Seed albuminous. Flowers- August- September Fruits Uses- Stems and wood used for rafters and toys.

119 Feronia limonia L. Family-Rutaceae Hindi name-kabeet English name- Wood Apple Location-Sehore Distribution- Throughout the plains of India, occurs wild up to 1500 ft. in Western Himalayas. Common also in Thana District of Bombay and parts of India. Description- A medium sized tree, deciduous with spinous branches. Leaves aromatic, alternate with flat leaf stalks. Often winged, leaflets 5-7, opposite ovate. Fruit large, globular about 8 cm in diameter with hard woody pericarp of grayish-colour. Seeds numerous embedded in an aromatic pulp, acidic in taste. Flowers: February-May Fruits: October-December Uses- The wood is hard and durable and is used for house-building, making of agricultural tools and implements. It is also used for carving. The fruit pulp is edible and is made into delicious chutneys.

120 Ficus benghalensis L. Family-Moraceae Hindi name-bargad, Barh English name- The Banyan Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India except arid region. Widely planted or self-sown along roadsides, in lawns and gardens. Description- Evergreen, very large tree with many aerial roots from the branches with white latex, young parts softly pubescent. Leaves alternate, elliptic-ovate, lateral nerves 6-8 pairs, 3-5 nerved from base. Receptacles in axillary pairs, sessile, globose, puberulous red when ripe subtended by 3-broad coriaceous bracts. Male flowers near the mouth of the receptacle. Female flowers with perianth. Flowers: March-July Fruits: April - June Uses- It is durable under water and is therefore used for well curbs. The wood of the drops is tough and elastic and used for tent poles, cart-yokes and currying poles. Lac is sometimes collected on the tree.

121 Ficus carica Family Moraceae Hindi name-anjir English name -Fig Location - common Distribution- Native of Mediterranean region. Largely grown in N.W. India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and in S. Europe. Description- A medium- sized 6tree, branching from the base. Bark grey or dull white, smooth. Distant, horizontal wrinkles often found on the trunk. Leaves alternate, serrate dentate or 3-5 lobed, scabrid; Receptacles 1or 2, axillary, globose, yellowish. Purple when ripe. Flowers- January - April. Fruits June- October. Uses- Cultivated in gardens for its edible figs.

122 Ficus elastica Roxb. Family-Moraceae Hindi name-bargad, Barh English name- The Rubber Tree Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- The tree occurs in the outer Himalayas from Nepal East wards to Assam, Khasi Hills and Burma. Description- A large handsome evergreen tree with dense crown of dark green foliage and spreading branches, epiphytic in early stages, attaining a height upto 120 ft. when full growth, aerial roots numerous, often much buttressed and fluted in the trunk, leaves elliptic, 5-10 in long, coriaceous, with prominent midribs, bark grayish or reddish brown, fairly smooth but scurffy. Flowers: August Uses- The tree is most important indigenous rubber tree of India. The tree is considered to be a good source of fodder in Bengal. The wood is white or light brown in colour and is used as fuel. The bark of the tree yields latex.

123 Ficus glomerata Roxb. Family-Moraceae Hindi name-gular, Umar Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Common throughout India. Description- A moderate sized to large spreading tree with ovate, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, dark green leaves. Fruits red when ripe, 1-2 in. in diameter, sub-globose or pyriform, brone in large clusters on short leafless branches, emerging from the trunk and the main branches. Flowers & Fruits: Most part of the year. Uses- The wood is used for making cheap furniture, cots, cart yokes and axles, tea chests, rice pounders. Bark decoction and fruit juice effective in leucorrhoea. Fruits are astringent, stomachic and carminative.

124 Ficus hispida Linn.f Family-Moraceae Hindi name-gobla, Kutguler English name- Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- The tree is common throughout the outer Himalayas from Chenab East-wards to Bengal, Central and South India and Andaman Islands. Description- A moderate sized tree or large shrub with large opposite leaves in long and obovoid or turbinate fruits, 1 in. long, borne in pairs or clusters on leafless, often trailing, branchlets, Receptacles stalked, solitary or in pairs usually axillary, yellow when ripe, short peduncled, bracteate at the base. Fruits: January onwards Uses- The wood is soft and light. The bark contains tannin, wax, coutchouc and a glucosidic principle. It yield a rough fibre. The leaves and twigs of the tree are lopped for cattle and elephant fodder. The tree yields a latex.

125 Ficus krishnae Linn. Family-Moraceae Hindi name-krishna butt English name- Butter Cup Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Also in parks and gardens. Description- A moderate sized tree with a smooth grayish bark. The tree has leaves of cm size on an equally long leaf stalk. The leaves are curiously cup shaped, a feature uncommon to any of the fig species. It is believed that Lord Krishna willed the transformation of the leaves in the folded cup shaped structures and used them for drinking butter mil. The tree bears tiny pyriform fig about a cm or two across and attracts small humming birds, which feed on its figs. Flowers & Fruits: April-May Uses- As an ornamental and a curio in parks, gardens and on roadside avenues.

126 Ficus religiosa Linn. Family-Moraceae Hindi name-pipal English name- Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Almost throughout India either wild or cultivated. Description- A large deciduous tree with grey bark. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate, coriaceous, 3-nerved from base, lateral nerves 5-7 pairs, undulate, raised on either sides. Receptacles axillary, paired, sessile, obovoid or globose, dark pink or purple when ripe, wall thick, basal tract, copular, persistent. Fruits & Fruits: March - July Uses- The Pipal is used almost entirely as a shade tree. Being sacred to Hindus it is much planted near temples. In the forest, it is lopped for feeding goats, buffaloes, elephants and camels. The bark is used for ulcers and skin diseases.

127 Gardenia latifolia Family Rubiaceae English name Location - common Distribution- India and Ceylon. Fairly common in dry hills and in dry deciduous forests. Description- A deciduous tree; bark smooth grey. Leaves large, opposite or whorled, ovate or obovate, subsessile, rounded at the apex, crowded towards the ends of the branches, stipules connate. Flowers large usually solitary subsessile. White fragrant Calyx-teeth 5-9, lanceolate, ciliate corolla- tube densely pubescent thick and fleshy, Fruit globose without ribs; seeds many embedded in a pulp. Flowers - March- May Fruits Cold season Uses- Wood is used for making combs.

128 Gardenia lucida Roxb. Family-Rubiaceae Hindi name-dikamali English name- Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Found in central India and Deccan peninsula and commonly cultivated in gardens. Description- A handsome shrub or small tree with darker bark and longer distinctly stalked leaves. Flowers large, white changing to yellow, fragrant; fruit oval or sub globose with thin crustaceous endocarp. The plant is propagated by cuttings during rain. Flowers: October- November Fruits: November December Uses- The leaf, buds and the young shoots yield a resinous exudation, known in commerce as Dikamali or Kumbi Gum. It is antispasmodic, expectorant, carminative, diophoretic and anthelmintic. The timber is fairly durable, turns well on the lathe and takes a good polish.

129 Gliricida maculata H.B.k. Family-Papillionaceae Hindi name-vilayti siris English name-madre Tree Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution: Peninsular India and the West coast, especially Mumbai and Cochin. Description- A small deciduous tree with large grey branches sweep out in arch like fashion. Leaves pinnate, long, feathery with small black spotting glands on the undersides of the leaves. Flowers strikingly beautiful, pale pink and is immediately followed by the leaf fall in profusion. The fruit is a bean like pod. Flowers: February - March Fruits: April onwards Uses- The foliage is a very good green manure rich in nitrogen. The seeds are effective as a rat poison. The leaves are also used as fodder for cattle.

130 Gloriosa superba L. Family-Liliaceae Hindi name-kalihari English name-glory Lily Location-Berasia Distribution- A small genus of ornament at climbing herbs native of Tropical Asia and Africa. One species occur in India i.e. Gloriosa superba. Description- Tall Climbing or scrambling branched glabrous herbs with leafy tendrils and fleshy, cylindric, bifurcately branched tuber with fibrous roots. Stem annual, leafy. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, oblong-lanceolate, sessile, tip spirally twisted to form a tendril. Flower large, bisexual, crimson, axillary solitary or somewhat sub-corymbose at the ends of branches. Capsule ellipsoid, oblong, torulose. Seeds many. Flowers : June-October Uses- The leaf juice is used for killing lice in the hair. The tuber extract shows antibiotic activity. The tuber regarded as tonic, stomachic and anthelmintic when taken in doses of 5-10 grams, in larger doses they are intensely poisonous.

131 Gmelina arborea Roxb. Family-Verbenaceae Hindi name-gumhari English name-snap dragon Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India especially the Andamans. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree. Leaves large about 12 int 8 cm, opposite broad ovate or cordate, acute or acuminate, entire, tomentose and glaucous beneath, base cuneate, petiole glandular at the top. Flower brownish yellow, in paniculata cymes. Calyx campanulate, densely hairy, triangular. Corolla 2-lipped, infundi-buliform, oblique, lobes 5. Stamens 4,didynamous ovary 4-celled, style filiform, stigma bifid. Fruit, a fleshy ovoid or top shaped drupe containing 1 or 2 seeds. Flowers: March - May Fruits: March - June Uses- The root, bark and fruits are used medicinally. The wood of the tree is strong and durable. It is used for making, furniture, paneling musical instruments, agricultural implements, matchsticks, match-boxes etc. The wood ash and the fruits are used for dyeing.

132 Grevillia robusta Cunn. Family-Proteaceae Hindi name- English name- Silver Oak Location- Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Tree introduced. Native to Australia, Grown in parks and gardens throughout India. Description- A tall tree with a straight columnar growth. Tree partially deciduous. Young shoots rusty tomentose. Leaves decompound, leaflets entire, lanceolate green above, white silky benath, each leaf appearing fern like. Flowers golden orange in dwarf racemes. Fruit an oblique follicle. Seeds 1 or 2 winged. Flowers: March April Fruits : May - July Uses- The wood is hard and durable and is utilized for making furniture. It is grown as a decorative tree in gardens and as an effective windbreak.

133 Grewia asiatica Family Tiliaceaae Hindi name- English name - Location - common Distribution- An introduced tree. East tropical Africa. Description- A shrub or small tree with a spreading crown; young parts stellately pubescent; bark greyish white. Leaves broad ovate, acuminate irregularly toothed, hoary- tomentose beneath; Base obliquely cordate or rounded, 5-7 nerved; petioles hairy, thickened at the top; stipules acute, nearly as long as the petioles. Flowers small, red and yellow, Pubescent outside, in umbellate cymes; Peduncles axillary, 2-7 together; Pedicels 2-5, shorter than peduncles; Bracts lanceolate, Sepals whitish tomentose outside, reddish brown or yellowish inside. Petals emarginated. Oblong or ovate oblong. Gland about 1/3the length of petal, margin white villous, ovary villous. Drupe indistinctly lobed, pilose containing 1-2 one celled nuts. Flowers- March- May Fruits April- June. Uses- Fruit acidic, eaten; pulp made into a sharbat, cooling drink, bark used for making ropes.

134 Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Family Periplocaceae Hindi name- Gudmar English name Location - common Distribution- Through out the plains of India. Description- A large deciduous tree with pinnately compound leaves, each leaflets measuring about 10 cm. in length, elliptic and smooth edged. The tree bears small white flowers borne in large terminal panicles, which do not have any extraordinary appeal. The fruits of the tree are flesh and ovoid covered with soft, rusty and pubescence. They contain saponin and when rubbed with water, produce a rich lather. The roots of the tree also contain saponin. It is one of the fast growing trees of India. Flowers & Fruits May- June Uses- The Seeds contain saponin and are used extensively for washing of silk and woollen garments and jewellery.

135 Gymnosporia rothiana (Wight & Arn.) Family-Celastraceae Hindi name- Bharati English name- Location-Kolar park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India. Description- Thorns long straight and sharp. Leaves broadly obovate- cuneate, rounded or very shortly and bluntly acuminate, crenulate dark green glabrous and polished above, pale beneath, reticulately veined, petiolate. Flowers greenish white in short peduncled. calyx glabrous, divided nearly at the base; lobes broadly ovate or triangular. Petals ovate-oblong obtuse. Stamens shorter than the petals; filaments flattened, inserted below. Ovary glabrous; style stout, short sub cylindric; stigmas 3, as long as the style spreading. Capsules 3- lobed; seeds 6, ellipsoid, with a small basal aril, brownish orange, smooth, shining. Flowers:November- December Fruits: April June Uses-

136 Hardwickia binata Roxb. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-anjan English name- Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Found in the dry Savannah forests of the Deccan peninsular, central India and parts of Bihar and U.P. Description- A handsome deciduous tree upto 120 ft in height and 15 ft in girth with a clean cylindrical bole, ft in length. Bark dark grey, rough peeling off in papery flakes; leaves alternate, bifoliate. Leaflet sessile, entire obliquely ovate, coriaceous, flowers yellowish green, in lax panicles, pod strap shaped, narrow at both ends with seed near the tip. Flowers : Winter; Fruits : Summer Uses- The wood is very hard and durable. It is used for naves of cart wheels, oil mills, ploughs, clod crushers and for carvings, turning and ornament work. It is suitable for bench, lathe chucks, tool handles, railway keys, tent pegs, and brake blocks. The bark yields a redbrown fibre used for well ropes.

137 Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.- Ham.)Wallich. Family-Apocynaceae Hindi name-kuruchi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Through out India and Tropical Africa. Description- Shrubs or small tree, deciduous bark brown. Leaves broadly ovate to ellipticoblong. Acuminate at apex, rounded or tapering at base, glabrous or more or less tomentose especially beneath. Flowers in terminal, many flowered, cm. across cymes, fragrant. Calyx lobes lanceolate, 2.5-3mm.long,acuminat, ciliate. corolla white lobes oblong, mm. long, throat without ring of hairs, tube ca 1 cm. long, pubescent. Follicle usually marked with narrow white specks. Seeds linear, ca 1.5 cm. long; coma brown, about twice as long as the seeds. Flowers & Fruits: February- June Uses- Bark and seeds are used for the treatment of dysentery. Wood is used for making tobacco pouch and comb.

138 Holoptelia integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch. Family-Ulmaceae Hindi name-chirol, Papri English name- Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Sri Lanka and Cochin-China. Description- A large deciduous tree, bark smooth grey with tubercles on branches, tender parts pubescent. Leaves alternate, distichous, elliptic-ovate, main lateral nerves 4-8 pairs. Flowers green sessile, usually male and harmaphrodite mixed in numerous fascicles on the leafless branches. Fruits a dry, winged, compressed samara notched at the apex, wing verticulate, veined, crowned by persistent styles. One seeded. Flowers: February April Fruits: May Uses- Common along the roads and occasional in forests in the hills and slopes. Wood used as fuel. Bruised leaves are applied to boils.

139 Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Point. Family-Labiateae Hindi name-wilayati tulsi Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- A native of tropical America and the West indies. Introduced from America and more or less naturalized throughout India. Description- Erect woody, glandular- tomentose, sweet scented with tetragonal hispid stems. Leaves opposite, petiolate, densely hairy on the lower surface. Flowers blue or purple, sessile. Fruit of 2 dry ovoid nutlets, 2aborted and seen as rudimentary white structure at base, rougose, glabrous, brown. Flowers & Fruits : October January Uses- The plant powder is applied in parasitical cutaneous diseases.

140 Indigofera cordifolia Heyne ex Roth Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name- English name- Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India; Afghanistan, Baluchistan, North Australia. Description- A prostrate or diffuse annual herb, with many wiry branches from the root, clothed with long, white hairs. Leaves sub- sessile, hairy on both sides; stipules minute, setaceous. Flowers in dense sub-sessile 4-8 flowered heads. Calyx hairy outsides; tube very short; teeth linear, acute. Corolla bright red, not exerted. Pods cylindrical, straight, densely pubscent; seeds two, yellow. Flowers & Fruits: July Sept. Uses- The seeds are largely used as a famine food.

141 Ipomoea palmata Forssk. name- creeper Family Hydrophyllaceae Hindi English name Railway Location - common Distribution- Through out the plains of India. In wastelanda and commonly planted as ornamental. Description- Climbers, perennial; stems smooth or muricate, glabrous or villous at nodes. Leaves palmately divided into 5-7 lobes upto base 4-12 cm. long; segments lanceolate to ovate or elliptic. Flowers in lax, 1 to many- flowered cymes; Peduncles up to 8 cm. long; Pedicles 1-2 cm. long. Sepals ovate, subequal,4-6 mm. long, glabrous. Corolla purple or blue purple, infundibuliform, 3-6 cm. long Capsules subglobose, cm. across, glabrous. Seeds subglobose to ovoid, ca 5 mm long, densely short- tomentose. Flowers & Fruits June December Uses- The tuberous roots are consumed by villagers. Seeds are purgative.

142 Ixora parviflora Roxb. Family-Rubiaceae Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the hilly district of India and Sri lanka. Found in deciduous forest and also grown in certain gardens. Description- A large shrub or a small much branched evergreen tree; bark redish brown, glabrous. Leaves opposite, elliptic or obovate-oblong, obtuse; short petioled; stipules triangular Flowers white, fragrant, in terminal trichotomously branched corymbose panicle. Bracts and bractioles minute, subulate. Calyx tube minute; teeth 4. Corolla lobes 4, obtuse. Stamens 4, inserted on mouth of corolla; filaments short. Ovary 2- celled,2 seeded, style hairy; stigma 2- branched. Fruit 2 seeded, berry. Flowers: Hot and rainy season Fruits: Cold season Uses- As ornamental plants and wood is occasionally used for furniture and building.

143 Jatropha curcas L. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name- Bagberenda, Safed arand, Ratanjot English name- Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- A native of Tropical America. Often found in villages as hedge or fence plant. Description- A large shrub or a small tree. Leaves alternate, angular; long petioled. Flowers yellowish green, monoecious, in cymose panicles with acute bracts. Male flowers: Sepals 5, ovate, acute; petals 5, ovate, obtuse; stamens 5, free; disk of 5 glands. Female flowers: Sepals, petals and disk similar to male flowers; ovary 3 lobed; style 3. Fruits 3- lobed. Seeds dark brown, smooth ; often called physic nut and is a purgative. Flowers & Fruits: May- October Uses- The plant is used to treat skin diseases like scabies, eczema and ringworm. Seeds oil is used for illumination and making soap. Seeds are also used as fish poison.

144 Jatropha gossypifolia L. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name-lal Bharenda English name- Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Wild all over the plains of India. Introduced from Brazil, has become naturalized in certain parts of India. Description- A large shrub or a small tree with grey white to ash-coloured stem and brown lenticels throughout, young parts pale or deep purple. Many fascicled and branched glandular bristles on the petioles. Leaves 3-5 deeply lobed at first brown, afterwards becoming green. Flower purplish-reddish, monoecious in glandular corymbose cymes. Capsule oblong, 3- brownish, indehiscent. Seeds ellipsoid. Flowers & Fruits: July - November Uses- As an ornament plant used in large garden pots and shrubberies.

145 Jatropha podagrica Hook. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name- Safed Arand English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Naturalized in wastelands. Description- A xerophytic plant with egg shaped swollen stem, consisting mainly of water storing tissue. Erect, branches stout, glabrous with watery juice, bark grey, smooth, peeling in papery flakes, young parts hairy. Leaves alternate, angular; broadly heart shaped, often 5- lobed.the axis of the inflorescence is red as well as the flowers.the first branches of the dichasial and in female, the later in male flower. Flowers & Fruits: May - October Uses- The juice of the plants is said to be efficacious in scabies, eczema and ringworm.the seeds are some time use as sub-stiute for castor oil seeds.leaves used as antiseptic and depurative, Its latex is held in high repute as an anti- cancer agent.

146 Kigellia pinnata DC. Family-Bignoniceae Hindi name-jhar-phanoos English name- Sausage tree Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Tree of African origin. Grown throughout the plains of India. Description- A medium sized spreading tree of rapid growth with short trunk and long distorted branches. The bark of the tree is grayish brown rough. Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets 7-9, elliptic-oblong or obovate, entire or serrate, 3-6 in long pendulous, panicles. Fruit goured-like upto 18 in long x 5 in diameter, hanging by a rope like peduncle upto 7 ft long. Seed many, embedded in fibrous pulp. Flowers : Hot Season; Fruits : July Uses- Wood is hard and of good quality. Roasted seeds of the plant are reported to be eaten in times of scarcity. The dry fruit may be used for the preparation active carbon. The bark is used in rheumatism, dysentery and veneral diseases.

147 Koelreutaria paniculata Family-Sapindaceae English name- Golden rain tree. Location-Polytechnic road, Bhopal Distribution-Tree introduced. Grown in few well-known parks and Gardens. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree. Sparsely branched with a small crown. The leaves are pinnately compound up to 30 c.m. in size. The leaflets are ovate irregularly crenate- serrate, glabrous above and slightly pubescent on the veins. The flower in large terminal panicle up to 30 c.m. in length and are deep yellow in colour. The individual flowers are about 2-3 c.m. long with somewhat hairy filament. The most attractive features of the tree are the pinkish bladder like pods; quite thin and papery which are retained on the tree. It contain tiny black seeds about 5 or 6 in number. Flowers & Fruits: September - October Uses- As an ornament in garden.

148 Lagerstroemia parvifolia Roxb. Family-Lythraceae Hindi name-landia English name- Location-Raisen Distribution- Throughout India. Description- A moderate size deciduous tree with ash coloured smooth bark. Smooth young parts pubescent. Leaves opposite, shortly stalked, elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, acute or acuminate, entire, glabrous above and glaucous beneath. Flower fragrant, in few or many flowered axillary and terminal panicles. Capsules ovoid or cylindrical. Seeds with terminal wings. Flowers : March - July; Fruits : Autumn Uses- The wood is used for agricultural implements and also for construction. The gum is edible. The bark and leaves are used for tanning. The leaves are used to feed tasar silk worms.

149 Lagerstroemia speciosa L. Family- Lythraceae Hindi name-jarul English name-the Pride of India Location-Common in Bhopal, Vidisha, Raisen Distribution- Throughout India especially in Assam, Bengal and Deccan Peninsular. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree with widely spreading branches and smooth pale green below, veined heavily on the under surface, oblong, lanceolate or elliptic, subacute, glabrous, petiole short stout. Flowers showy purple in large terminal panicles. Pedicles stout pubescent articulated below the middle and thickened upwards. Capsules woody, ellipsoid or sub-globose. Seeds glabrous, pale brown. Flowers : April - August; Fruits : Remain till the following flowering season Uses- Timber is valued next to the teak and used for boat building, carts etc. Roots are astringent; seed said to be narcotic, the bark and leaves are purgative. Fruit medicinally used; leaves and fruits are used for preparing tannin extract.

150 Lepidagathis cristata Willd. Family - Lentibulariaceae English name - Location - common Distribution- Through out the plains of India. Common in mixed forests and in wastelands. Description- Herbs, procumbent, cm high; branches spreading, 4- angled, almost winged. Leaves linear- oblong, lineolate, spinous serrulate, sessile. Flowers in globose, subradical heads, borne in the lower part of leafy branch; bracts ovate, spine tipped, pubescent ;bracteoles membranous,spine tipped. Calyx 4- partite; segments unequal, spine tipped; lower ones connate up to half way. Corolla white with brown or purple spots, ca 12 mm long, densely hairy in bud, Capsules ovoid, ca 5 mm. long, grooved, glabrous, seeds densely covered with hygroscopic hairs. Flowers & Fruits September- March. Uses- The plant is antipyretic and used for the treatment of itches and sores.

151 Leucas aspera (Willd.) Family Lentibulariaceae Hindi name-gopha, Bhodaki English name Location - common Distribution- Through out India, Mauritius, Java and Philipines. Description- An erect or diffuse, much branched, 4- angled. Deeply grooved,herb, hairy throughout leaves subsessile, linear or oblong, obtuse, subentire or crenate. Flowers sessile, bracts nearly as long as the calyx, linear, acute and tipped with a bristle, margins ciliate, calyx tube curved, lobes unequal ; corolla white enlarged and hairy above, annulate within; upper lip densely white woolly; lower longer than upper, Nutlets oblong; smooth brown. Flowers & Fruits August - February Uses- The plant is medicinal. Roots are used for asthma while the flowers for treating fever in children.

152 Mallotus phillipinensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. Family Euphorbiaceae Hindi name- Sindur English name Ka Location - common Distribution- Through out India, in evergreen and deciduous forests upto 1,500 m. Description- A small tree about 10 m. in height with grey or pale brown rough bark with irregular fissures; Leaves alternate, longer than broad, ribbed at the base ovate or ovate lanceolate, entire or shortly serrate red glandular beneath the transverse nervules prominent; flowers dioecious small in spike, the males clustered sessile or very shortly pedicillate in erect long terminal spikes pedicillate in erect long terminal spikes usually several together, the females nearly sessile in short spikes; fruits globose. Flowers & Fruits Uses- The glandular hairs, which are reddish brown in colour, are acrid, thermogenic, purgative, digestive and depurative. It is also used in making sindoor.

153 Malvaviscus conzettii Greenm. Family - Malvaceae Hindi name- Madar, Safed akwa English Name- Location- Common in Bhopal,Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Native to South America. Introduced from there to India. Description- An Ornamental shrub. Attain a height of about 3 meters or more. Leaves ovate, entire, crenate- serrate or cordate rough and usually posses 3- lobes. Flowers solitary crimson- scarlets, red or orange-red or axillary peduncles hanging like closed balls. Petals erect, do not spread open. Staminal column exserted. Stigma 10. Fruit a berry, White colour turning to deep scarlet later. Flowers & Fruits: September- March. Uses- Commonly grown in Hedges of gardens and near houses for its beautiful flowers.

154 Mangifera indica L. Family-Anacardiaceae Hindi name-aam English name-mango Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Description- Mango, popularly known as the king of fruits. It is the most ancient and popular fruit of India since time immemorial. There are thousands of cultivated and wild varieties grown in India. The tree is medium sized to large with a thick corky bark. Leaves are about cm oblong-ovate with crenulate margins in some varieties. Flowers are in large panicles, the male flowers usually at the apex of panicle and the hermaphrodite lower down. Drupe has many variable forms of colour and aroma. Flowers: February April Fruits: May-July Uses- The wood is used for planking, door, windows, packing cases and for coffins. The fruits are eaten in all stages and are pickled. The gum obtained from the bark is used in medicine. The dried kernels are eaten, pickled or used for a variety of preparations.

155 Martynea diandra L. Family Martyniaceae Hindi name- Bichu English name- Tiger s claw or Devil s claw Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Native of Maxico, becoming naturalized in India. Description- A annual herb or under shrub. Roots deep yellow. All parts velvety pubscent. Leaves large, ovate, dentate glandular, long petioled. Flowers rosy, large, diadandrous, drooping in short axillary and terminal racemes. Bracts and bracteoles petaloid. Corolla tube dilated above. Stamens 2 perfect- ovary 4 celled, 4- ovuled. Stigmas sensitive. Fruit with 2 long curvedhorns serving for animal dislersal. Seeds 4, compressed, presence of a semilunar, extra floral nectary at the base of the pedicel isvery characteristics. Flowers- Aug.- Sept. Fruits October- November. Uses-

156 Melaleuca leucadendron L. Family-Myrtaceae Hindi name-kayaputri English name-cajeput Tree Location- MLB Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Native of Malaya, Burma and Australia. Description- A medium sized, straight evergreen tree with pendulous branches, white or ashy bark peeling off in large papery flakes. Leaves flat, more or less lanceolate, parallel-veined, coriaceous, aromatic, tapering both ends and short petioled. Flowers yellowish white in erect terminal spikes which are often proliferous. Stamens numerous in 5-bundles, ovary 3-celled with many ovules on peltate, placentae. Capsules subglobose, loculicidally dehiscent at the apex. Flowers & Fruits: March-May Uses- The wood is strong and durable used for posts, piles and shipbuilding. It is suitable for stuffing cushions, pillows and mattresses and fishing nets. Oil from leaves used in medicine.

157 Melia azedarach L. Family-Meliaceae Hindi name-bakain English name- Persian Lilac Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Description- A medium sized to large tree with dark grey bark. Leaves imparipinnate, bi or tripinnate, Pinnae opposite. Leaflet lanceolate, serrate, acuminate base more or less oblique. Flowers honey scented in long peduncled axillary panicles which are shorter than the leaves. Flowers light violet blue. Drupes hard coated, yellow when ripe. 4 to 5 seeded. Flowers: March-May Fruits: May-July Uses- Various portion of this tree are used medicinally. The seeds yield oil which is suitable for making soaps and hair oils. The fruit is insect repellent. The wood is used for making furniture.

158 Michellia champaca L. Family-Magnoliaceae Hindi name-champa English name-the Champak Tree Location- IIFM Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the gardens on the plains of India and Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats. Description- A very shapely tree of medium to low height with a fine conical formation. Rusty tomentose shoots with dark grey bark. Leaves are large, ovate-lanceolate, entire about 12 to 15 cm long. The flowers borne in summer are solitary, large about 5-6 cm in diameter, creamish-yellow and beautifully scented. Fruits appear in spikes about 6-10 cm long. The seeds are brown with a pinkish fleshy aril. Flowers: April - September Fruits: Cold season Uses- The wood is quite soft and beautifully mottled. It is used for making decorative furniture, second grade pencils, bobbins and drums. A variety of camphor is extracted from its wood by distillation. Champaca oil is used for making soaps and perfumes are extracted from its flowers. The flowers are also used for making dyes.

159 Millingtonia hortensis L.f. Family-Bignoniaceae Hindi name-akashneem English name-jasmine Tree Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Planted throughout India, Probably indigenous to Burma and Malaya. Description- A medium sized tree with a straight columnar bole. The leaves of the tree are pinnately divided, each leaflet having dentate margins and in general appearance are quite similar to those of the common Bakain. The bark of the tree is rough and corky and is easily detachable. The white flowers are tubular in shape measuring about 6 to 8 cm. They have five unequal lobes about 3cm in diameter. They are pleasantly fragrant and the older flowers fade to a pale yellow before they finally drop off. Flowers: November December & April June Uses- The tree is the source of an inferior grade of cork obtained from its spongy bark. Also used for plantation in Avenues and roadsides.

160 Mimosa pudica L. Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name-lajwanti, Chui-mui English name-touch me not Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Introduced from Tropical America and almost naturalized throughout India; abundant in South India. Description- A diffuse under shrub clothed with long bristles from bulbous bases. Leaves sensitive digitate, pinnae 1-2 pairs, leaflets pairs. Flower heads dense, globose, long peduncled, very small. Corolla pink or purple. Stamens 4, anthers not gland-tipped. Pods flat, slightly curved with 3-5 segmented valves; sutures prickly and persistent. Flowers : August October Fruits: November to December Uses- The root and leaves are widely used medicinally.

161 Mirabilis jalapa L. Family-Nyctaginaceae Hindi name-gulabbas English name- Four O clock Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Native of Tropical America. Description- A large erect, much branched herbaceous plant with perennial tuberous roots, rather fleshy stems. Leaves ovate, truncate or cordate.flower white red or yellow, showy, open late in the afternoon. Corolla tube elongated. Fruits leathery. Flowers & Fruits : August - December Uses- Commonly grown in gardens.

162 Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. Family-Rubiaceae Hindi name-kaim English name- Location- Kartoli forest, Raisen Distribution- All through the plains of India. Description- A medium sized to large deciduous tree. Bole often short fluted, buttressed; bark grey, smooth, exfoliating in scales; leaves variable, elliptic, suborbiculate or obovate, flowers in globose head, greenish yellow, fragrant, capsules oblong, seeds minute winged. Flowers: May July Fruits: Following cold and hot season. Uses- The wood is used for making agricultural implements, combs, cups and carvings. A fibre obtained from its bark is used commercially for cordage etc. The bark and root of the tree are used for fevers and colic.

163 Moringa oleifera Lam. Family-Moringaceae Hindi name-sainjha English name- Drumstick tree Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Sub-Himalayan tracts and throughout the plains of India and Pakistan. Description- A medium sized tree with a rough corky bark, soft wood, pungent root, tomentose young parts. Leaves usually tripinnate. Pinnae opposite, 4-6 pairs, pinnulae opposite 5-10 pairs, the upper most pair unifoliate. Ultimate leaflets 6-9 pairs, opposite, elliptic, ovate or obovate, pale beneath, obscure nerves, entire and membranous. Flower white, honey scented, pedicelled in large spreading panicle. Pod upto 45 cm long, cylindrical, ribbed, pendulous. Seeds winged. Flowers: January March Fruits: April - June Uses- Oil is extracted from its seeds, which is used as a fixative for perfumes. It is also edible. The pods, flowers and leaves are cooked as vegetables. The roots and gums are used in medicine.

164 Mucuna prurita Hook. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name- Kaunch English name-cowage Location-Vidisha Distribution- Punjab plain from the base of the Himalaya to Ceylon and Burma cosmopolitan in the tropics and often cultivated. Description- A slender extensive climbing annual. Branches appressed pubescent, glabrescent. Petiole silky; stipules lanceolate; leaflets ovate-rhomboid, membranous, green and glabrouscent above, lustrous with grey silky pubescence beneath. Flower dark purple, in large, drooping, 3-30 flowered racemes. Bracts and bracteoles hairy, caducus. Calyx 2-lipped, with few pungent bristles. Pod 4-6 seeded, turgid, s- shaped, hooked at the tip, clothed with dense, pale brown, irritating bristles; seeds with an oblong, funicular hilum. Flowers: September- November Fruits: December- February Uses- The root and seeds are medicinal.

165 Murraya exotica L. Family-Rutaceae Hindi name-kamini English name- Location- Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India. Description- A large evergreen shrub or a small tree with a fragrant bark. Leaves imparipinnate with 3 to 9 leaflets about 2 to 3 cm long, ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, gland dotted. Flower white, sweetly fragrant, in corymbose clusters. Berries globose, small red or deep orange containing one or two seeds. Flowers : Summer & rainy seasons. Fruits : Cold Season Uses- Used chiefly in gardens as an ornament. It forms an excellent compact hedge. The wood also used in turnery, making walking sticks and mathematical instruments. The fragrant bark is used in perfumery.

166 Murraya koenigii L. Family-Rutaceae Hindi name-meetha neem, Kadai patta English name-cury plant Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, especially in the evergreen forests of peninsular India. Description- A large shrub or a small tree with a close shady crown, deciduous in summer for a short while. Leaves typically aromatic, leaflet about 3 cm., ovate, lanceolate, unequal at the base. Flowers white, fragrant, in corymbose clusters. Fruit about 1cm in diameter, globose, turning back to maturity and rugose. Flowers : Summer season Uses- The aromatic leaves are widely used all over India for flavouring curries. They are digestive and appetizers.

167 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Family-Nyctanthaceae Hindi name-harsingar English name-tree of sorrow Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India. Description- Bushy shrub or small tree with drooping 4-angular branches with stiff hairs. Leaves opposite ovate, scabrous with unicellular warty trichomes and grandular hairs. Flower white to orange fragrant. Sessile 3 to 5 together on axillary, solitary or fascicled penduncles. Capsule orbicular, compressed, 2-celled, separating in to 2. One seeded pyrenes. Flowers & Fruits: September - January Uses- As an ornament in gardens. The Saffron coloured base of its flowers is used for extracting a golden coloured dye.

168 Oogeinia oojensis Roxb. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name-tinsa English name- Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Found in hilly forest region throughout India. Description- A medium sized deciduous tree, with short crooked trunk and grey thin bark. Leaves pinnately 3-foliated, petiolate, leaflets coriaceous, glabrous, in short fascicled racemes from the nodes of old branches, pedicels filiform. Bract small, ovate-acuminate, flower white in colour, pods flat, joints 2-3 times as long as broad. Seeds brown when ripe. Flowers: February - May Fruits: May - June Uses- The gum exudes from the bark is used medicinally and also as fish poison. The wood is much valued. The twigs are lopped for fodder.

169 Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth.ex Kurz. Family-Bignoniaceae Hindi name- Arlu, Syonakh, Pharkhat English name- Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India in decidous forests, in moist areas. Description- A small to medium sized deciduous tree up to 12 m in height with soft light brown bark with corky lenticels; leaves very large 2-3 pinnate with 5 or more pairs of primary pinnate, rachis very short, cylindric, swollen at the junction of the branches, leaflets 2-4 pairs ovate or elliptic, acuminate, glabrous; flowers lurid to reddish purple outside, dull or pale pinkish yllow with in, numerous in large erect racemes; fruits flat capsules, upto 1m long tapering to both ends. Flowers & Fruits: June - March Uses- The plant is used medicinally. The roots are astringent, bitter, acrid, antiinflammatory, expectorant, and diuretic. The seeds are purgative.

170 Oxalis corniculata L. Family-Oxalidaceae Hindi name- Chalmori English name- Wood sorrel, yellow sorrel Location- Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and Srilanka. Description- Appressed- hairy, perennial herbs with long, creeping stems and ascending shoots with pubescent and appressed hairs. Stems creeping and rooting at the base. Leaves digitately 3- foliolate. Flowers in umbellate clusters borne in long peduncles. Capsules subcylindric, 5 angled, beaked, tomentose. Seeds, brown, rugose. Flowers & Fruits: October - May Uses- The plant is used as a remedy for convulsions in children and for healing fractured bones. The plant is used to treat burns, wounds and body sores.

171 Passiflora foetida L. Family Passifloraceae Hindi name- English name- Stinging passionflower Location Distribution- Through out India, Malaya, Srilanka and in all the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Description-A perennial climbers with tendrils,stem hollow, tubular, leaves alternate, trilobed, Flowers white, solitary in the axile of the leaves ; coronal violet. Fruit globose enveloped by remains of pinnatifid bracts, Yellow when ripe, edible; seeds numerous. The whole plant is densely hirsute. Flowers & Fruits June- Sept. Uses- The Whole plant considered as sedative properties and is used in the treatment of nightmare and anxiety. Plant is medicinally used as a remedy for leprosy and other skin diseases and also for madness, cholera and heat effects

172 Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne) Benth. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-peltoforum English name-yellow Flame Tree Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Native of Sri Lanka, In tropical regions. Description- A large handsome dark foliaged tree with rusty tomentose shoots and a fairly spreading crown. Leaves are deep green, leaflets close-oblong. Flower showy. Hypanthium shallow and stigma broadly peltate. Pods oblong, copper-coloured, compressed, indehiscent, thinner and winged towards both sutures with the wing each side equal. Seeds 1-3. Flowers: September - November Fruits: December onwards Uses- The tree is extensively planted in gardens and roadside avenues for decorative purposes. The timber is used for cabinet making.

173 Pergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. Hindi name- Sagovani, Jutak, Utaran English name- Location-Throughout area, Bhopal Family-Asclepiadaceae Distribution- Throughout the hotter parts of India, up to 900 m. Description- A slender foul smelling perennial milky twining herb with hispid stems; leaves simple, opposite, suborbicular, cordate, acuminate, velvety pubescent beneath, margin ciliate; flowers greenish yellow or dull white tinge with purple, in axillary long peduncled umbellate or corymbose clusters; fruits reflexed follicles with long beakand soft spines, seeds many, ovate, truncate at the apex, densely valvaty- pubescent on both sides. Flowers & Fruits: October - March Uses- Decoction of plant leaves is useful in asthma and snakebite. The dried leaves are being used in combination with the bark of Terminalia arjuna and honey for curing the deisease. Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.

174 Family Palmae Hindi name- Khajoor, Khajoori English Name- Wild Date Palm, Date sugar Palm Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen Distribution- Throughout India Description- A tall palm. Trunk covered with woody bases of old leaf stalks. Many roots suckers quite common, leaves large, dull green, pinnate. Leaflets cm long with terminal spines. Leaf stalks flattish. Flowers dioeciously. Male flowers panicles white, 15 cm long and female flower cm long. Berry oblong, 5cm long, yellowish brown by mature. Flowers & Fruits: May- July Uses-The leaves are made into baskets, fans etc. the fibre obtained from the leaves. Stalk is made into ropes. The palm is useful for the nutritious and sweet juice extracted from it.

175 Phyllanthus niruri auct. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name- Jangli Amli, Bhui Amla Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Introduced throughout India; Shrilanka and in most tropical countries. Originally an American plant. Description- An erect, glabrous, shallow- rooted annual. Stem angular; branches spreading. Leaves distichous, simple, overlapping, sub-sessile, appear to compound, oblong obtuse; base rounded, stipules subulate. Flowers yellowish green, axillary, hanging down below the branchlets; the males 1-3, the female solitary. Sepals 6. Male flowers with 3 stamens, antherslits appear transverse; Disc of minute glands. Female flowers with 3 celled ovary, styles 3, minute, free, 2-fid; disc lobed. Capsules depressed- globose, smooth. Seeds trigonous, pale brown, longitudinally ribbed. Flowers & Fruits: July Oct. Uses- Used as diuretic in native medicine; and also used against jaundice.

176 Physalis minima L. Family Solanaceae Hindi name- Bandhapariya English name- Country Gooseberry Location - common Distribution- More or less through out India, Ceylon. Tropical Africa and Australia. Description- A herbaceous annual, prostrate or often erect. Stem striate, often viscidly Pubscent. Leaves membranous, ovate, entire or distantly crenete. Flowers solitary, on deflexed slender pedicles, yellow. Corollaoften spotted at the base within berries enclosed within the inflated, 5-10 ribbed calyx. Seeds disclosed or reniform, orange- yellow. Flowers & Fruits July- December Uses- The mature fruits are eaten by native children.

177 Pinus roxburghii Chir Family Pinaceae Hindi name- English name Pine tree Location - common Distribution- Through out the Himalayas. Description- A tall graceful pine with a rough and corky bark. Branches whorled up on the trunk, Needles light green in clusters of tree, Male cone cylindrical larger on short, stiff stalks, in clusters of 2-5, fruiting cone ovoid or conical 10-15cm. long. Flowers & Fruits - September- October Uses- The wood is a second rate timber used for house building, cheap furniture and parcel cases for fruits. It is used for making matchboxes. Rasin obtained from the sapwood is used in the manufacture of bangles. The resin yields a tan from which turpentine oil is also distilled.

178 Piper nigrum L. Family Piperaceae Hindi name- Kalimirch English name- Blackpepper Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Found in hotter and moist parts of India. Description-A climbing perennial plants, stems glabrous, rooting at the nodes.leaves alternate, coriaceous, rounded at base; Apex pointed, recurved nerves prominent beneath. Inflorescence in drooping spike. Flowers opposite to and shorter than the leaf. Berry globular red when ripe. In diameter, sytrongly scented and bitter to the taste. Flowers & Fruits- May- August Uses- The berries, well known for their stomachic, anodyne and antibacterial properties are prescribed for treating dyspepsia, vomiting, diarrhoea and colic resulting from cold. The powdered berries, applied topically, cure to toothache. They can also be used in insecticide against clothes moths.

179 Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name-jungle Jalebi English name- Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- A native of Mexico, introduced into the Philippine Island and India. Description- A moderately large tree with small stipular spines persistent on the trunk. Bark grey-white or slate coloured. Leaves twice pinnate, pinnae 2, leaflets 2, obovate or ellipticoblong. Flowers yellowish white, in globose, axillary heads forming terminal panicles. Pods spirally twisted, reddish brown and 6-8 shiny black seeds embedded in whitish edible pulp. Flowers: January April Fruits: April August Uses- A sweet whitish pulp of seeds are eaten raw or in curries. The pods are also utilized as a cattle fodder as the seeds contain a large amount of oil.

180 Plumbago capensis Family-Plumbaginaceae Hindi name-kala chirchitta Location-M.L.B. Garden, Bhopal Distribution- Native of the cape of Good Hope, Found in open forest area. Description- A beautiful garden shrub or some times a climbing bush. Stem much branched. Scandent over other bushes. Leaves sub verticillate, unequal, lanceolate, arranged in whorls of 5, flowers blue. Flowers & Fruits : January August Uses- The entire plant used medicinally.

181 Plumeria acuminata L. Family-Apocynaceae Hindi name-champa English name- Pagoda Tree Location- Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India. Description- A symmetrically shaped small tree with the succulent branches divided and sub-divided dichotomously. The funnel shaped flowers appear throughout summer in large erect cymose, clusters, creamish white in colour, waxy, with a yellow throat and a very refreshing fragrance. The big leaves are elliptic lanceolate, about 30 cm long, glossy green and leathery. Flowers & Fruits : Hot & Rainy season. Uses- As a decorative plant in large cement tubs and in the ground in gardens.

182 Polygonum glabrum Willd. Family-Polygonaceae Hindi name- Nali English name- Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Ceylon, Australia, China, Africa, America. Description- A large erect glabrous herb rooting from lower nodes. Stem brown or reddish below. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, glandular- punctate with large, non-ciliate ocreae. Flower pink, in erect racemes forming a terminal panicle. Perianth eglandular. Anthers reddish. Nutlets orbicular, biconvex, dark brown, polished. Flowers & Fruits: September - March Uses- Plant used medicinally by native people.

183 Pongamia pinnata A.Cunn. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name-karanj English name- Indian Beach Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal & Raisen Distribution- India, throughout tropical Asia. Description- A moderate sized glabrous almost evergreen or deciduous tree with soft grayish green bark. Leaflets 5-7, oblong or ovate, obtuse or shortly acuminate, sub-coriaceous, petioled, stipules and petiolules small. Flowers lilac-rose or white tinged with violet or pink, in simple peduncled axillary pendulous racemes, which are nearly as long as leaves. Pods woody, oval-oblong with a pointed beak containing 1-2 seeds. Flowers: March to May Fruits : Cold Season. Uses- The wood is used for making parcels cases and cheap furniture. The seeds yield oil, which is medicinally used for skin diseases. The leaves serve as a fodder for cattle.

184 Prosopis juliflora Family Mimosaceae Hindi name-kabuli Kikar English name Mesquit Location - common Distribution- Through out the arid zones of Northern India. Description- A medium sized tree. Branches spinous. Leaves small about cm. oblique- oblong. Flowers in spikes, greenish to yellowish, Pendulous. Tree introduced, although originally from Mexico. Flowers & Fruits April- June Uses- For making crude furniture like cots, wooden handles and fencing purposes. Good as firewood.

185 Psidium guajava L. Family-Myrtaceae Hindi name-amrood English name-guava Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India, Specially the Indo-gangetic region. Description- An erect, woody shrub or small tree with reddish brown wood and scaly brownish bark. Leaves opposite, coriaceous, not gland dotted, oblong or oblong-elliptic, glabrous above, petiole short; the main lateral veins pairs, prominently distinct above. Flowers on axillary peduncles of 1-3 flowered. Calyx tube ovate. Petal free, fruits many seeded, yellow with white or deep pink pulp. Flowers & Fruits: July - September Uses- Wood is hard and used for handles of spears and gun-stocks. The bark of the tree is also used in tanning.

186 Psoralea corylifolia L. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name- Babchi, Bachudi English name- Malay tea scur Location-Forest area, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and Srilanka. Description- An erect, woody, annual herb, with horizontally spreading, gland dotted branches. Stem and branches grooved, young parts clothed with white hairs and purple glands. Leaves 1- foliolate, broad ovate to roundish, repand-toothed, both sides with copious black glandular dots. Flowers 10-30, bluish purple. Pods ovoid- oblong, closely pitted, mucronate, black, glabrous, indehiscent. Seeds smooth, adhering to the pericarp. Flowers & Fruits: September - April Uses- The plant is used medicinally. The seeds are laxative, diuretic astringentand aphrodisiac. Seeds are also used in skin diaeases.

187 Pterocarpus santalinus L.f. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name- Lal chandan, Rakta- chandan English name- Red Sandal wood tree Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- The drier, hilly zones of dry deciduous forests. Description- A tree about 12 m height. Bark blackish brown, cm thick, deeply cleft in to rectangular plates by deep vertical and horizontal cracks.branchlets drooping, hairless. Leaves 3-foliolate, cm long; rachis swollen at base; leaflets usually3, rarely 4 or 5, broadly egg shaped or orbicular, base round or slightly heart shaped, apex rounded or deeply notched, margin entire, leathery, shiny, hairless, distinctly stalked. Flowers bisexual, stalked, in axillary simple or sparingly branched racemes, yellow and fragnant. Pods unequally orbicular, flat and winged. Seeds 1 rarely 2, more oer less kidney shaped, smooth and reddish brown. Flowers & Fruits: October - March Uses- Decoction of plant leaves is useful in asthma and snakebite. The dried leaves are being used in combination with the bark of Terminalia arjuna and honey for curing the deisease.

188 Pterospermum acerifolium L. Family-Sterculiaceae Hindi name-kanak champa English name- Location-Kamla Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the plains of India and the sub-himalayan tracts. Cultivated extensively as a roadside avenue tree. Description- A tall majestic deciduous tree. Leaves peltate, round in shape, palmately veined, dark green above and grayish white on the under surface. It is a spreading tree with more or less conical formation. The flowers are large, almost 10cm in size with a leathery calyx covered with a rusty pubescens. The flowers are pleasantly fragrant. Flowers: March-August Fruits: March-August Uses- In horticulture and forestry as a shady avenue tree.

189 Punica granatum L. Family-Punicaceae Hindi name-anar English name- Pomegranate Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Native of Iran to North-West India. Cultivated throughout India. Description- A glabrous deciduous large shrub or a small tree with spiny or thorny branches and dark grey bark. Leaves opposite, sub-opposite or clustered, oblong, obovate or oblanceolate, narrowed to the short petiole, not dotted, membranous. Flowers sessile, bright red or vermilion red, terminal solitary or in 3-flowreed cymes. Stamen indefinite, ovary many-celled and many ovuled. Fruit a globose, fleshy balauste reddish brown. Seeds angled, arid filled with an acidic or sweet juice. Flowers : March - July Fruits : July - September Uses- The fruit is eaten raw and the juice is very nutritious. The bark and rind of the fruit are used in medicines; a good remedy for stomach disorders. The bark is used for tanning and dyeing.

190 Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name-jalpitri, Putranjia English name-mild Olive tree Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution: Throughout India. Description- A medium sized densely foliated tree with somewhat drooping branchlets. The leaves are oblong-ovate about 6 to 8 cm long. Flowers are small, dioecious, yellow, male flower in dense axillary clusters, sepals ciliolate, filament connate at the base. Female flowers 1-3 in the axil, ovary silky, 3-celled, style 3, recurved, and stigmas large. Fan shaped, drupe 1, pointed, hoary and hard. Flowers: April - August Fruits: Winter & Summer seasons Uses- Rosaries are made up of the hard stones of the fruit to place round the necks of children as it is believed to keep them in good health. Leaves are used as fodder and the seeds yield an oil which is used for burning. Also planted as a tall hedge in large garden compounds.

191 Quisqualis indica L. Family-Combretaceae English Name- Rangoon creeper Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India. A native of Java and Malaya. Description- A large subscandent shrub. Stem tomentose pubescent.leaves opposite, elliptic- oblong, main nerves 6-8 pairs. Flowers deep pink or red coloured, fragrant in terminal drooping corymbose spike.petals oblong. Calyx tube 5-fid. Flowers & Fruits: Summer and monsoon. Uses- Chinese used the nut of worms. They are boiled or roasted and the kernel or the water in which they are boiled is used and from 6-12 doses given 3-times every other day.

192 Rauwolfia serpentina L. Family Apocynaceae Hindi name- Sarpagandha English name Serpentine root Location Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Moist deciduous to evergreen forest. Description- An Erect, glabrous, suffruticose under shrub, bark brown. Leaves whorl, lanceolate. Flowers white or pinkish often tinged with violet, in many flower irregular corymbose cymes. Drupe single or didymous and connate, Purplish- black when ripe. Flowers & Fruits: March- October Uses- The juice of the leaves has been used as remedy for opacity of the cornea. The plant is referred as antidote to snakebite and for the treatment of high blood pressure.

193 Ravenella madagascariensis J.F. Gmel. Family Strelitziaceae English name The Traveller s Tree Location - common south parts of India. Distribution- A native of Madagascar. In Description- A very elegant tall, slender tree with a tree sub- aerial stem, Which bears large fan shaped terminal crown of lanceolate oblong, distichous or 2- ranked leaves with long petioles, resembling those of the Plantain. Flowers large in short axillary recemes from the axils of large distichous cymbiform bracts. Sepals 3, free similar, Petals 3, free 3 lateral like the sepals, median shorter. Fertile stamens 5 or 6 with linear anthers. Ovary 3- celled, styles 6 toothed at the tip. Fruit a long loculicidal many- seeded capsule seed with a coloured fimbricate aril. Flowers & Fruits July- September Uses- As a decorative specimen in gardens.

194 Ricinus communis L. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name-arandi English name-castor Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Probably of African origins, now widely cultivated in tropical countries. Description- Large shrub or small tree, evergreen, soft-wooded, glaucous, upto 4m high. Leaves alternate, cm across, 6-13 lobed, ovate lanceolate, acuminate, irregularly serrate; petioles with 1-2 glands at apex. Flowers in terminal, pyramidal, leaf opposed panicles. Male tepals ovate-lanceolate, unequal 5 mm long, glandular. Stamens many. Female tepals 8-10mm long caduceus, styles 3, bifid. Capsules cm long with 3,2-vlaved loci. Seeds oblong, smooth and shiny. Flowers & Fruits: September May. Uses- Roots and leaves are used to treat jaundice. Seed oil is used to treat skin diseases and rheumatism. It is also used for illumination, making soap and in paint, varnish and candle industries.

195 Roystonea regia (Kunth.) Family Palmae English name Royal palm, Bottle palm. Location - common Distribution- A native of Cuba. Through out the plains of India, in parks and private gardens. Description- A tall annulate, fine palm with a columnar, single bole. Trunks smooth, covered with a whitish substance, generally thickened at the middle. Leaves very large, terminal, pinnate leaf sheath elongate. Leaflets finely papyraceous, ensiform, many nerved length wise; apex shortly bifid. The lower pinna is often produced into a long pendulous whip. Flowers- Fruits Uses- As an ornament in gardens.

196 Ruellia tuberosa L. Family Acanthaceae Hindi name- English name Location Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- A native of Tropical America. Now naturalized in India. Description- An erect much branched herb. Fleshy tuberous roots occur. Stem stout, quadrangular. Leaves spreading, oblong, shining, shortly petioled, narrowed at base, entire to subundulate-crenate. Flowers blue- violet or deep blue, paired, in the axils of leaves, fall- off before mid day. Bracts and bracteoles narrow. Calyx glandular. Corolla tube abruptly norrowed below. Capsules linear. Flowers & Fruits: July September Uses- Generally planted in garden. Also found in wastelands and forest areas.

197 Russelia equisetiformis Schlecht. & Cham. Family Rusaceae Hindi name- English name The coral Fountain or firecracker plant Location - common Distribution- Through out the plains of India. Description- An erect or drooping much branched shrub, resembling Equisetum When vegetative. Stems ribbed. Leaves whorled linear, lanceolate or ovate, upper reduced to scale. Flowers numerous, red to bright scarlet, on 1 to 3- flowered, borne on the drooping branches in great profusion. Flowers Most of the year Fruits Uses- Used as a common garden shrub.

198 Samanea saman (Jacq.)Merr. Family-Mimosaceae Hindi name-vilayati siris English name-rain Tree Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- A native of tropical America and West Indies. Introduced to Jamaica and Tropical India. Description- A large or medium sized evergreen tree with short trunk and large spreading crown, often forked from the base. Bark dark-grey, young parts pubescent. Leaves 2-pinnate, pinnae 3-7 pairs. Leaflets 8-10 pairs. Leaf rachis with a gland between one to all the pairs of pinnae, no gland at base. Flowers with peduncles 1-3-nate, axillary or appearing racemed in the axils of very young leaves. Flowers distinctly pedicelled with a bract on the pedicel. Pods with seeds embedded in fleshy sweet pulp and firm sutures. Flowers: May Jun Fruits: March - April Uses- The wood is useless. The pods are sweet and eaten by cattle. The pods fed to cows are said to increase milk.

199 Santalum album L. Family-Santalaceae Hindi name-chandan English name-sandal Wood tree Location- Bhopal Distribution: Peninsular India, especially Mysore in Karnataka and certain other regions of South India. Description- A small sized glabrous evergreen tree. Partially parasite in its earlier stage of growth. Leaves opposite, subcoraceous, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acute, entire, base acute, petioled. Flowers small, at first pale than deep crimson, inodorous, in trichotomous panicles. Perianth campanulate with 4-valavate segments. Disc lobes very thick, stamens 4, exserted. Drupe globose, purple, black and ribbed when ripe. Flowers: September December; Fruits: March-April Uses- The wood is highly values for its fragrance and used in the manufacture of cosmetics, perfumes etc. It is amongst the costliest wood trees of the wood.

200 Saraca indica Family Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-sita Ashok English name- Ashoka Location - Distribution- Cultivated in gardens. Through out the plains of India. Description-A medium sized evergreen tree with a nice rounded formation. Leaflets oblong or oblong lanceolate. Flowers orange,fragrant in large corymbose clusters. Petals absent. The flowers are usually concealed within the flesh pink young leaves. Calyx petaloid, orange, tubular. Flowers- March- April. Fruits Uses- It is one of the sacred trees in India. Cultivated mainly in gardens for its flowers.

201 Scilla indica Baker. Hindi name- Family Liliaceae English name- Location - common Distribution- India, Ceylon, Abbyssinia. Description- Bulb ovoid or sub- globose. Leaves appearingwith the flowers, variable, oblong to oblanceolate, subacute, narrowed into a sheathing petiole, rather fleshy, waved,obtusely keeled, dull and glaucous beneath, scape stout. Flowersgreenish purple in many flowered racemes; bracts minute, scarious; Pedicles filiform; Perianth segments linear oblong, obtuse. Filaments purple; anthers ellipsoid. Capsules membranous. Flowers & Fruits June- July Uses- Used in medicine as a stimulant, expectorant and diuretic.

202 Sesamum indicum L. Family-Pedaliaceae Hindi name- Til English name- The Gingeli- oil plant, Sesame Location-Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Probably a native of Tropical Africa. Grown in many of the tropical regions of the world. Description- An erect, pubescent, glandular herb, branching from the base. Leaves simple, altrnate, linear- oblong above, llower opposite, often compound or deeply divided. Flowers purple or rosy, solitary, with vesicular glands at base. Capsules valvular, seeds black or white. Flowers : August October Fruits: November - February Uses- Roots and leaves are emollient and a decoction of them forms a good hair wash that will promote hair growth and will blacken them. Externally it is used for dryness of the skin and leucoderma. Seed oil is used as edible oil.

203 Sida cordifolia L. Family-Malvaceae Hindi name- Kungyi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the hotter part of India, and tropics generally. Description- A robust herb or small, diffuse, much branched, undershrub; tomentose all over and with thin speading hairs on the stem. Leaves cordate, ovate- oblong, crenate-serrate, 7-9 nerved not acuminate, downy on both sides; petiolate; stipules linear, shorter then the petiole, deciduous. Flowers white or pale yellow; peduncles axillary, solitary or few together,jointed near the flower. Flowers : August December Fruits : October January Uses- Commonly grows as weeds.

204 Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. Family-Solanaceae Hindi name- Bhatkattaiya English name- Yellow berried nightshade Location-Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, in dry situation as a weed on roadsides and wastelands. Description- A herb, perennial, diffuse, prickly, woolly; branches zig-zag, bearing strong, yellow prickles. Leaves ovate or elliptic, sinuate or subpinnatifid, obtuse or subacute at apex, stellate hairy, with prickles on midrib and vein. Flowers in extra axillary, few flowered cymes. Calyx lobes linear or lanceolate. Corolla bluish purple to violet; lobes deltoid, pubescent outside. Berries globose, orange-yellow. Seeds compressed, smooth. Flowers & Fruits: December - June Uses- The plant is used for nervous and respiratory disorders, cough, rheumatism, colic, asthma, sore throat and skin diseases. Decoction of roots is given in fever and spermatorrhoea.

205 Sterculia alata Family Sterculiaceae Hindi name- English name Location - common Distribution- Sikkim, chittagong and the southern peninsula. Now in road avenues and some park all over India. Description- A large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves large about 30 cm. long. Broadly ovate entire both surfaces smooth and shining. Flowers in short, rusty, tomentose follicle, woody about 15 cm. in diameter. Flowers & Fruits - February- March. Uses- The Wood is strong and lasting and is used for making packing cases,tea- chests and boats.

206 Sterculia urens Roxb. Family-Sterculiaceae Hindi name-kullu English name- Location- Jail Road, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India. Description- A moderate sized tree, outer bark peeling off like paper, whitish tinged with pink, branches spreading marked with large scars. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, palmately 5-lobed glabrous above, tomentose beneath, cordate, lobes entire, caudate-acuminate, petioles long, velvety tomentose; stipules caduceus. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, a few bisexual or female mixed with many male flowers, in much branched panicles covered with glandular-yellow tomentum. Follicle 4-6 red, covered with stinging bristles, seeds dark brown. Flowers: December - February Fruits: April May. Uses- The bark gives a fibre. It yields a gum called Katira used in textile industry. The seeds are roasted and eaten.

207 Strychnos nux-vomica L. Family-Loganiaceae Hindi name-kuchla English name-nuxvomica Tree Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the tropical forests of India. Description- An evergreen tree, often partially deciduous. Bark smooth, whitish. Branches channeled, compressed, dilated near the nodes. Leaves opposite, broad elliptic, 5 to 12 cm long, shining. Flowers in cymose clusters, greenish-white, slightly downy. Fruit globose at first and yellow to orange when ripe. Seeds embedded in a white pulp, numerous, flat, grey, shining, nearly circular. Flowers & Fruits: March-January Uses- The wood of the tree is resistant to termites and is used for tools, handles, ploughs and cart-wheels. Strychine is obtained from its seeds and are the source of the homeopathic drug Nux-vomica.

208 Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Family-Myrtaceae Hindi name- Laung, Lavanga English name- Clove tree, Cloves Location-Ekant park, Bhopal Distribution- Cultivated in South India. Description- A pyramidal or conical evergreen tree usually up to 12 m in height with a single main branch bearing obliquely oriented branches; leaves simple, lanceolate, gland-dotted, fragrant; flowerbuds greenish to pink, clustered at the ends of the branches, highly aromatic; fruits fleshy, dark pink drupes; seeds oblong, grooved on one side. Flowers : August October Fruits: November - February Uses- The cloves are acrid, bitter, aromatic, digestive, antibacterial, expectorant and diuretic. The oil is useful in catarrh, cough and bronchitis. Cloves are used in Garam masala.

209 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. Family-Myrtaceae Hindi name-jamun English name- Black Plum Location-Ekant/Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Sri Lanka, Malaya and Australia. Description- A medium sized tree with smooth grey-bark and terrate branches. Leaves coriaceous, variable, elliptic, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, shortly acuminate, shining glabrous, gland dotted, petiolate. Flower tetramerous, sub-sessile in trichotomous lateral panicles from the scars of fallen leaves. Calyx tube funnel shaped, limb cup-shaped. Petal united into a calyptra and falling off in one piece. Berries ovoid oblong, dark purple, juicy and 1 seeded. Flowers: April June; Fruits: June-July Uses- The wood is hard and durable and is used for building purposes and agricultural implements.

210 Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston. Family Myrtaceae Hindi name-gulab Jamun English name- Rose- Apple Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal, Distribution- Throughout India. Description- A large shrub or small tree with spreading branches; Leaves simple, opposite, lanceolate, narrowed into short petioles, secondry nerves jointed by a prominent looping intramarginal vein, Flowers greenish white in short terminal racemose cymes, stamens many, Yellowish white; Fruits pale yellow to pinkish white, blobose; seeds 1-2, grey in large cavity of the succulent pericarp. Flowers & Fruits- June- Sept. Uses- The bark is astringent, bitter, sweet, haemostatic, depurative, vulnerary, antidiarrhoel and anthalmentic. The fruits are sweet and aromatic and are edible.

211 Tamarindus indica L. Family-Caesalpiniaceae Hindi name-imli English name- Tamarind Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Believed to be indigenous to Tropical Africa. Planted in the area throughout for its fruit, also an ornamental tree in gardens. Planted as an avenue tree throughout India. Description- A large deciduous tree with thick-ask grey bark. Leaves broadly elliptic, coriaceous, sub-acute or acuminate, long petiolate. Flowers sessile, pale greenish yellow, foetid smelling, interrupted spike. Calyx lobes 5, triangular, wooly inside, stamens 10, ovary tomentose. Fruit ovoid or globose, nut hard and grey velvety. Flowers: June-August Fruits: Cold Season Uses- The fruits are used in the treatment of Jaundice. The half ripe fruit is considered to be purgative but the ripe and dried fruit has the opposite property.

212 Tecoma stans (L.) H.B. & k. Family-Bignoniaceae Hindi name-tecoma English name- Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution: A native of South America or of the West Indies. Description- Shrub, glabrous, 1.5 to 2.5 m high. Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets 3-7 ellipticovate or lanceolate, acuminate at apex, serrate, glabrous, sessile. Flowers in glabrous racemes or panicles, fragrant. Calyx lobes deltoid, acuminate, corolla bright yellow, abruptly contracted at the base. Disk fleshy, 5-lobed. Capsules cm long, erect, often lenticellate. Seeds orbicular compressed. Flowers & Fruits: Throughout the year. Uses- Commonly planted in the garden hedges.

213 Tectona grandis L.f. Family-Verbenaceae Hindi name-sagon English name-teak Tree Location- Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Description- A very large deciduous tree with quadrangular and channeled branches, covered with tawny stellate tomentum. Leaves opposite, large, elliptic obovate, entire, cuneate at base, under surface tawny-tomentose. Flowers numerous, white sweet-scented, pedicillate, rotatiform, only few fertile, di or tri chotomously branched, terminal tomentose, cymose panicles. Fruit a drupe, globose, hairy, enclosed in the bladder like calyx. Flowers: August - September Fruits: Cold season Uses- Wood is stung, scented, and very durable and takes a fine polish. The wood is highly priced for house building and costly furniture, cabinetwork, railway sleepers, bodies of pianos and harmoniums and tobacco pipes. The leaves yield a dye, which is used for dyeing silk and cotton fabrics.

214 Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Sarphonka weed Family Fabaceae Hindi Name - English name Wild Indigo Location A common of open and waste places Distribution- Through out India, Ceylon, Malaya and in Siam. Description- A much branched suberect herbaceous perennial with slender terete. Glabrescent branches. Leaves short- petioled; stipules sub reflexed; leaflets 9-21, narrowly oblanceolate, obtuse, mucronate, silky beneath, glabrescent above; Petiolute minute, calyx as long as the pedicles, densely silky; teeth linear, as long as the tube. Corolla twice as long as the calyx; standard pubescent on the back, style flattered, glabrescent on the back,style flattened, glabrescent stigma penicillate. Pods linear, curved mucronate, seeds 5-6. Flowers September- November Fruits Cold season Uses- The roots are useful in inflammations, skin diseases, scrofula elephantiasis, dyspepsia asthama, bronchitis, anaemia, Pimples. The leaves are useful in dyspepsia,pectoral diseases, haemorrhoides and bruises. The seeds are useful in skin diseases and rat poisoning.

215 Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Family-Combretaceae Hindi name-arjun English name-arjun Location-Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Common on the banks of streams. India & Sri Lanka. Description- A large handsome, glabrous tree. Bark peeling off in large flakes. Leaves more or less opposite, oblong, elliptic unequal sided with 102 glands at base of the leaf lamina. Flowers small, sessile, greenish-yellow in short axillary spikes or terminal panicles, pendulous. Calyx glabrous, teeth triangular, minute. Petals 0, stamens 10, much exerted. Ovary glabrous. Dish hairy, Fruit drupaceous. Flowers: April May Fruits: Cold Season Uses- The wood is used for carts & agricultural implements. The bark and the wood are medicinally used. The bark is useful as anti-ischaemic and cardio-protective agent in hypertension and ischaemic heart diseases. The leaves are a potential source of fodder.

216 Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Family-Combretaceae Hindi name-bahera English name- Beleric Myrobalan Location-Ekant Park, Bhopal Distribution- Found in forest areas. Almost throughout India and Sri Lanka. Description- A large deciduous tree with thick-ask grey bark. Leaves broadly elliptic, coriaceous, sub-acute or acuminate, long petiolate. Flowers sessile, pale greenish yellow, foetid smelling, interrupted spike. Calyx lobes 5, triangular, wooly inside, stamens 10, ovary tomentose. Fruit ovoid or globose, nut hard and grey velvety. Flowers: February May Fruits: Cold Season Uses- The fruits are used in the treatment of Jaundice. The half ripe fruit is considered to be purgative but the ripe and dried fruit has the opposite property.

217 Terminalia catappa Linn. Family-Combretaceae Hindi name-jungli Badam English name- Indian Almond Location-PGBT College, Bhopal Distribution- Cultivated in gardens. Native to Moluccas, Andaman Island. Wild in Malaya Peninsula. Description- A tall deciduous tree. Bark rough, Branches whorled and horizontal. Leaves clustered at the ends of branches, obovate. Flowers small, white arranged in spike, arising in the axils of the leaves. Male at the top and female below. Petals absent, Bracts minute. Male flowers most numerous, calyx 5 parted. Fruits broadly oval in outline, elliptical and 2- winged. Flowers: July August Fruits: August - September Uses- In Papua New Guinea, a decoction of old leaves are given to cure sore throat. The kernel is eaten.

218 Terminalia chebula Retz. Family Combretaceae Hindi name-har, Harad English name-chebulic myrobalan Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India, Burma, Siam, Malay Island. Description- A large deciduous tree with thick dark brown bark. Young parts rusty pubescent. Leaves 3-6 inch long, distant, mostly sub-opposite, ovate or elliptic, usually acute, rounded more or less hairy when young. Petiole 1 inch, spikes terminal, bracts conspicuous, flower buds caduceus. Flowers bisexual, sessile, dull white or yellow, strong scented. Drupe long, ovoid, 5 ribbed when ripe. Flowers & Fruits- April - June Uses- The most important product of this tree is the dried fruit, which constitute the black Myrobalan of commerce, one of the most valuable of Indian tanning material. The fruit is also used in medicines. The kernel is eaten and the leaves afford good fodder for cattle.

219 Terminalia tomentosa W & A Family-Combretaceae Hindi name-saj English name-ain Tree Location-Raisen Distribution- Throughout the moist regions of India, Sri Lanka. Cultivated in lawns and roadsides. Also common in forest areas. Description- A large deciduous tree, bark dark-grey or black, much furrowed, exfoliating in thick rectangular plats, inner bark reddish brown. Leaves alternate or sub-opposite, 5-9 by in. oblong, elliptic or obovate, coriaceous, glabrescent above tomentose beneath. Flowers either before or together with the leaves, bisexual, dull yellow, sessile in large panicled lax spikes. Calyx teeth 5, ovate, acute. Flowers: April June Fruits: February April Uses- The bark and fruit is used for tanning and dyeing the nets of fisherman. Timber is used for various purposes.

220 Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland ex correa Family Malvaceae Hindi name-parash, Parash pipal English name Portia Tree Location - common Distribution- Costal regions of India and as a common garden tree. Description- A small evergreen tree with a rough bark. Leaves cordate, often with glands at the top end of the leaf stalk about cm. long. Flowers solitary or in pairs, yellow in colour with a purplish center. Fruit capsular, globose, depressed about 5 cm. in size calyx adheres to the fruits at maturity. Flowers & Fruits May- July Uses- The wood of the tree is quite hard and durable. It is used for making carriages, yokes, wheels of bullock carts, gum stocks and carving works; The orange coloured juice of wood is used for dyeing wool. The oil expressed from its seeds is used as a luminant.

221 Thevatia neriifolia Juss. ex. Family-Apocynaceae Hindi name- Peela Kaner English Name- Yellow Oleander Location-Common in Bhopal, Raisen, Vidisha Distribution- Throughout India. A native of Tropical America and the West Indies. Description- An introduced evergreen, much branched. Bark brown, woody, milky latex present.leaf dark green, glabrous, shining, narrow apex pointed alternate zigzag manner. Milky latex present, Flower dark, yellow, funnel shaped. Fruit angular, 1-seeded, calyx persistant. Flowers & Fruits: Most of the year.. Uses- Commonly planted in gardens as ornamental plant.

222 Thunbergia erecta (Retz.) Family-Thunbergiaceae Location- Common in Bhopal. Distribution- Throughout India. A native of South America Description- A beautiful climber. Woody below. Ovate,cordate or deltoid somewhat rugose leaves with stem clasping petioles; veiny, acute to acuminate, glabrous. Large panicles of showy pink or white flowers which terminate into tendrils.perianth lobes petaloid, the outer ones larger. seeds deeply grooved. Flowers & Fruits: July- November. Uses- Commonly grown in gardens and occasionally found as an escape.

223 Tridax procumbens L. Family - Aestaraceae Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India, Indegenous in central America. Description- A weak straggling annual procumbent- ascending, presently hispid herbs. Stems branched creeping at base, sub erect or trailing above. Stems and branches hairy. Leaves opposite on short petioles. Achenes oblong, densely silky hairy, black pappus of many shining feathery bristles. Flowers & Fruits: All the year around. Uses- A very common weed found almost every where in waste places.

224 Triumfetta rhomboidea Lam. Family Tiliaceae Location - common Distribution- Punjab, Bengal and South ward to Mysore also in Burma. Description- An undershrub, suffruticose. Leaves irregulary toothed, glabrous or stellately hairy above. Grey tomentose; stipules subulate. Flowers yellow in racemes; buds oblong, clavate pedicles very short tomentose. Sepals linear- oblong. Petals shorter than sepals. Fruits ovoid, Pubescent beneath the spins. Flowers & Fruits- August- December Uses- A common weed.

225 Vitex nigundo L. Family-Verbenaceae Hindi name-sambhalu, Nirgudi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- India Srilanka, Afghanistan, Philippine Island. Description- A large shrub, m. high. Leaves 3-5 foliolate; leaflets oblanceolate, acuminate at apex, acute at base, chartaceous, glabrous above grey, pubescent beneath. Flowers in terminal and upper axillary. Calyx white- spotted, 5- toothed. Corolla purple to violet; tube 5mm. long. Drupes globose, 4mm. across, black. Flowers: June- January Fruits: Cold season Uses- Leaves and roots are used in medicines.

226 Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Family Solanaceae Hindi name- Ashwagandha English name White cherry Location Nutan College Campus, Bhopal Distribution- Common in Balauchistan and mountains of Afganistan. Description- An under shrub,branches tomentose. Leaves elliptic-ovate, acute at apex, truncate-acute at base, minutely stellate pubescent beneath. Flowers fascicled, pedicillate. Calyx up to 2 cm long, glabrous or pubescent; teeth linear, acute. Corolla greenish yellow, 5- lobed; lobes oblong, obtuse. Berries orange red at maturity, membranous. Seeds discoid. Flowers & Fruits: July December Uses- It is diuretic. The leaves are very bitter and given in infusion in fever. The fruits are diuretic. The roots and leaves are powerfully narcotic and the latter are applied to inflamed tumours and the former for obstinate ulcers and rheumatic swelling of the joints, usually mixed with ginger.

227 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz. Family Lythraceae Hindi name- Dharu-Dhao English Name- The red bell bush Location- Common in Bhopal, Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Throughout India, Ceylon, Baluchistan, Tropical Africa, Madagascar, China, Japan, Sumatra and Java. Description-A Much branched shrub. Bark pale brown, peeling off in fibres, young parts with small black glands. Leaves opposite decussate, sessile, ovate-lanceolate, entire, acute light green in colour. Flowers in axillary clusters, on slender pedicels, rarely solitary. Floers white in colour. Ovary 2- celled, many ovuled, placentation axile. Capsule enclosed by the persistent calyx tube. Flowers Feb. April Fruits- April - June Uses- The wood is used as fuel. Leaves used as tanning material. Flowers used as dye.

228 Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. Family Apocynaceae Hindi name-dudhi English name Location IIFM, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and Srilanka. escription- A small tree with glabrous.leaves elliptic or elliptic- oblong, acuminate; petiole short. Flowers in lax, terminal, corymbose, dichotomous cymes. Bract minute, deciduous. Calyx glabrous with rounded lobes. Corolla lobes obtuse; corona of numerous scales. Fruit of two distinct deep green follicles cohering at the apex only,pendent, on allover the leafless branches. Seeds with a tuft of hairs at the base. Flowers : March- May Fruits: Cold Season Uses- The leaves are used in dyeing.

229 Zizyphus jujuba Lamk. Family-Rhamnaceae Hindi name-ber English name-indian Jujube Location- Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India; Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, China, Australia and Africa. Description- A small much branched tree or a large shrub, young parts softly pubescent. Bark rough, grey or dull black. Prickles solitary or paired, when paired one often straight, the other bent. Leaves orbicular rotund, symmetrical. Flowers greenish yellow. Drupe oblong, globose, fleshy, smooth, yellow or orange when ripe, stone 1-2 celled. Flowers & Fruits: September January Uses- Various parts of the tree is used medicinally. Wood is used for the manufacture of well wheels, saddle and is also used for fuel. The leaves are used as fodder and also food for tussar silkworms. Lac is produced on its branched. The root-bark is used for tanning.

230 RET plant species of Central Eco- region BOTANICAL NAME FAMILY COMMON NAME S. No. 1 Abrus precatorius L. Fabaceae Gunj/Ratti 2 Adhatoda vasica Nees. Acanthaceae Adusa 3 Alangium salvifolium(linn. f. )Wang. Alangiaceae Akol 4 Aristolochia indica L. Aristolochiaceae Gaulari 5 Asparagus racemosus Willd. Liliaceae Satawari 6 Bridelia retusa(l.)spreng. Euphorbiaceae 7 Capparis zeylanica Capparidaceae Hartar(Gayraspur) 8 Cayratia cornosa Wall. Vitaceae Kumbela 9 Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Liliaceae Safed Musli Cissampelos pariera Linn. Menispermaceae Suleta/Dhaknirbisi/ 10 Patha 11 Clitoria ternatea L. Papilionaceae Aparajita Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Asclepiadaceae Nagbel 12 Schult. 13 Curcuma caesia Zingiberaceae 14 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. Papilionaceae 15 Dioscorea daemona Roxb. Dioscoreaceae Baichand 16 Dolichandrone falcata Seem. Bignoniaceae Mersingi 17 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae Amla 18 Gardenia turgida Roxb. Rubiaceae Papra Helicteres isora L. Sterculiaceae Marorphali 19 Hemidesmus indicus Shults. Asclapiadaceae Anantmool/ 20 Kapoori Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.- Apocynaceae Kuruchi 21 Ham.)Wallich.ex G. 22 Kydia calycina Roxb. Malvaceae 23 Lannea coromandalica (Houtt.) Anacardiaceae 24 Morinda tinctoria L. Rubiaceae 25 Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Chir-chitta 26 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Papilionaceae Bijasal 27 Tinospora cordifolia(willd.)miers. Menispermaceae Gurbel 28 Ventilago denticulata Rhamnaceae Kewati (Gya) 29 Zizyphus oenoplia Mill. Gard. Dict. Rhamnaceae Makor/ Beri

231 223 Any of the following criteria may be used to assign categories: Population Reduction Observed / Estimated / Inferred Suspected Causes clearly reversible AND understood AND ceased or Observed / Estimated / Inferred Suspected or Causes not ceased OR understood OR reversible IUCN Criteria CRITICALLY ENDANGERED 1) 90% decline over last 10 years or 3 generations based on any of the following: ENDANGERED 1) 70% decline over last 10 years or 3 generations based on any of the following: VULNERABLE 1) 50% decline over last 10 years or 3 generations based on any of the following: (a) Direct observation (b) An index of abundance appropriate for the Taxon (c) Decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and / or habitat quality (d) Actual or potential levels of exploitation (e) Effect of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites OR OR OR 2) 80% decline / 10 years or 3 generations based on any of (a) to (e) above 2) 50% decline / 10 years or 3 generations based on any of (a) to (e) above 2) 30% decline / 10 years or 3 generations based on any of (a) to (e) above

232 225 Any of the following criteria may be used to assign categories: Population Reduction Projected or Suspected Observed / Estimated / Inferred / Projected Suspected or CRITICALLY ENDANGERED 3) 80% decline with in next 10 years or 3 generations (max. 100 years) based on any of (b) to (e) above 4) 80% decline / 10 years or 3 generations (max. 100 years) based on any of (a) to (e) above ENDANGERED 3) 50% decline with in next 10 years or 3 generations (max. 100 years) based on any of (b) to (e) above 4) 50% decline / 10 years or 3 generations (max. 100 years) based on any of (a) to (e) above VULNERABLE 3) 30% decline with in next 10 years or 3 generations (max. 100 years) based on any of (b) to (e) above 4) 30% decline / 10 years or 3 generations (max. 100 years) based on any of (a) to (e) above Causes not ceased OR understood OR reversible (Time period includes bath past and future) > 80% decline / 10 years or 3 generations based on any of (a) to (e) above Any of the following criteria may be used to assign categories: B 1. Extent of Occurrence (EOO) CRITICALLY ENDANGERED Estimated <100 km 2, and estimates indicating at least any two of (a ) to (c): ENDANGERED Estimated <5,000 km 2 and estimates indicating at least any two of (a ) to (c): VULNERABLE Estimated <20,000 km 2 and estimates indicating at least any two of (a ) to (c):

233 226 (a) Severely fragmented or single location (a) Severely fragmented or not more than 5 locations (a) Severely fragmented or not more than 10 locations (b) Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following: 1. Extent of Occurrence 2. Area of occupancy 3. Area, extent and / or quality of habitat 4. No. of locations or sub- populations 5. No. of mature individuals (c) Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: 1.Extent of Occurrence 2. Area of occupancy 3. No. of locations or sub- populations 4. No. of mature individuals Any of the following criteria may be used to assign categories: B 2. Area of Occupancy (AOO) CRITICALLY ENDANGERED Estimated <10 km 2, and estimates indicating at least any two of (a) to (c): (a) Severely fragmented or single location ENDANGERED Estimated <500 km 2 and estimates indicating at least any two of (a) to (c): (a) Severely fragmented or not more than 5 VULNERABLE Estimated <2000 km 2 and estimates indicating at least any two of (a) to (c): (a) Severely fragmented or not more than 10 locations locations (b) Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following: 6. Extent of Occurrence 7. Area of occupancy 8. Area, extent and / or quality of habitat 9. No. of locations or sub- populations 10. No. of mature individuals

234 227 (c) Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: 1.Extent of Occurrence 2. Area of occupancy 3. No. of locations or sub- populations 4. No. of mature individuals Any of the following criteria may be used to assign categories: Population size g decline Estimated Continuin CRITICALLY ENDANGERED Estimated <250, mature individuals and either: (1) At least 25% with in 3 years or 1 generation (max. 100 years) ENDANGERED Estimated <2,500, mature individuals and either: (1) At least 20% with in 5 years or 2 generation (max. 100 years) VULNERABLE Estimated <10,000, mature individuals and either: (1) At least 10% with in 10 years or 3 generation (max. 100 years) Continuing decline in no. of mature individuals Observed / Projected / inferred OR (2) And at least one of (a) to (b): (a) Population structure 1.No sub- Population >50 OR 2. 90% in one sub-population (b) Extreme fluctuations OR (2) And at least one of (a) to (b): (a) Population structure 1.No sub- Population >250 OR 2. 95% in one subpopulation (b) Extreme fluctuations OR (2) And at least one of (a) to (b): (a) Population structure 1.No sub- Population >1000 OR 2. All in one population (b) Extreme fluctuations

235 228 Any of the following criteria may be used to assign categories: Population size CRITICALLY ENDANGERED Estimated <50, mature individuals ENDANGERED Estimated <250 mature individuals VULNERABLE Very small or restricted population with either: (1) Estimated <1000 mature individuals OR (2) AOO < 20 km 2 / locations 5 such that it is prone to effects within a very short period E. Probability of extinction in the wild At least 50% within 10 years / 3 generations (max. 100 years) At least 20% within 20 years / 5 generations (max. 100 years) At least 10% within 100 years Taxon Data Sheet 1 1. Botanical name Abrus precatorius L. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Fabaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Ratti / Gunj / Gumchi 6. Habit Perennial Climber 7. Habitat On hedges and bushes in exposed areas of forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma 9. Current regional distribution Central Eco region Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR

236 11 a Time/Rate 15 Years (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), E (Edaphic factor), L (Loss of habitat), Tp (Trade for part) Name(s) Ratti, Gunj 16. Trade National Global Level(s) Local Regional Part traded Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Leaves, root and seeds 18. Recent field studies 19. Status A2c - Criteria based on Vu - IUCN 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation-

237 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Abrus precatorius 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Oomachan 1994 Place:Vidisha Dr. K.K. Khanna 2000 Location: Gyaraspur forest Nearest village : Gyaraspus Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 2005 Place: Vidisha Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Gyaraspur forest/lateri forest Dr. Ranjana Verma Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Mr. M.K. Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 15-20

238 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 5 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Sehore Dr. Pratibha Singh Location:Budhni Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

239 Taxon Data Sheet 2 1. Botanical name Adhatoda vasica Nees. 2. Synonym(s) Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. ; Justicia adhatoda L. 3. Family Acanthaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Adusa, Vasa 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat Common in waste lands 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma, Malaysia, Srilanka 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation), I (Human Interference) Name(s) Adusa 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Root, leaves and flowers Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Roots, leaves and flowers are referred for the treatment of cough and asthma, while only leaves are considered as antipyretic. 18. Recent field studies

240 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

241 Adhatoda vasica 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.K.Jain Place: Vidisha Dr. Pratibha Singh Oct 2005 Location: Gyaraspur forest Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Gyaraspur Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: Dr. Ritu Thakur Indivisual of Sp.:10-15 Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. M. oomachan 1990 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.K. Jain 1998 Location: Gyaraspur forest Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

242 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2000 Place: Sehore Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

243 Taxon Data Sheet 3 1. Botanical name Alangium salvifolium (Linn. f.) Wang. 2. Synonym(s) Alangium lamarchii Thw. 3. Family Alangiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Akol 6. Habit Deciduous tree 7. Habitat Found near the hilly region or slope of the forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout the India, China, Ceylon, Burma and E. Africa 9. Current regional distribution Central Eco region Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Raisen Vidisha Bhopal a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), L (Loss of habitat) Name(s) Akol 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Fruit Effect on population - Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Hair tonic, used in blood pressure 18. Recent field studies Dr. S.K. Jain Udaigiri, Vidisha Feb.2006 Dr. Ravi Upadhyay - Budni forest Dec Status - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring Yes areas?

244 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Flora of Central India, Flora of Bhopal & Direct observation in field study. Alangium salvifolium 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain Oct Place: Vidisha Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Location: Gyaraspur,Lateri Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 10-20

245 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Taxon Data Sheet 4 1. Botanical name Aristolochia indica L. 2. Synonym(s) A. lanceolata Wight, Icon.Pl. 3. Family Aristolochiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Isharimul 6. Habit Herbaceous climber 7. Habitat In mixed Forest areas 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, America 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation)

246 16. Trade Name(s) Isharimul Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Root, leaves and seeds Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Roots are used for treatment of snakebite, fever, decoction of leaves for cough while seeds for inflammation and biliousness. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

247 Aristolochia indica 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain Oct Place: Vidisha Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Location: Gyaraspur,Lateri Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village: Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Jyotsna Singh Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 4 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2000 Place: Sehore Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : 5-8 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

248 Taxon Data Sheet 5 1. Botanical name Asparagus racemosus Willd. 2. Synonym(s) A.jacquemontii Baker; A. officinalis L. 3. Family Liliaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Satavari, Satawari, Satmooli 6. Habit Climbing shrub 7. Habitat Hilly tract of forest area & scrub jungles. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India Africa, Malaysia, Australia 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Sehore, Raisen, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), T(Trade), Lf (Loss of habitat because of exotic fragmentation), Lp (Loss of habitat because of exotic plants), Hf (Harvest for food) Name(s) Satawar 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Roots Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments The tuberous root are eaten and are used in medicine. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status A2c Vu

249 - Criteria based on - IUCN 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Asparagus racemosus 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 2005 Place: Vidisha Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Gyaraspur forest/lateri forest Dr. Ranjana Verma Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Mr. M.K. Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen

250 Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Taxon Data Sheet 6 1. Botanical name Bridelia retusa Spreng. 2. Synonym(s) Cluytia spinosa Willd. 3. Family Euphorbiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Ek-veer, khaja, Khasai, Gondani, Ekdania 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat Deciduous forest, Mixed forest, Generally in moist ravines 8. Original global distribution India, Burma 9. Current regional distribution Central Eco region Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate (Years/generations) 30 years

251 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Bhopal Raisen Sehore Barkheda Lateri 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Hf (Harvest for food), L (Loss of habitat), T(Trade) Name(s) Khasai, Ekdania 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Fire wood Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Timber used as fuel. Bark is very astringent and is used for tanning. Fruits are edible. 18. Recent field studies Dr. Ravi upadhyay Dr. S.K.Jain, Deptt. of Botany, S.S.L. Jain College, Vidisha 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 3% 21. Existing conservation - measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population - also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment Yes 27. Data sources (Including Flora of M.P.

252 literature) 28. compilers 29.Reviewers Flora of Bhopal Bridelia retusa 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichouliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 2005 Place: Vidisha Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Gyaraspur forest/lateri forest Dr. Ranjana Verma Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

253 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

254 Taxon Data Sheet 7 1. Botanical name Capparis zeylanica L. 2. Synonym(s) Capparis horrida L.f. Suppl. 3. Family Capparidaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Hins, Jhiris 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat In scrub forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Java, Philippines 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Grazing, I (Human Interference) Name(s) Hins 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Leaves, Fruits Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Wood is used for fuel. Young shoots and leaves are eaten by goats. The fruit is made in to pickles. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5%

255 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

256 Capparis zeylanica 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

257 Taxon Data Sheet 8 1. Botanical name Cayratia auriculata DC. Gambel 2. Synonym(s) Cayratia cornosa (wall. Ex wight.) 3. Family Vitidaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Kumbela 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat In scrub forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Java, Philippines 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Grazing, I (Human Interference), Hm (Harvest for medicine) Name(s) Kumbela 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Fruits are eaten. 18. Recent field studies Leaves, Fruits 19. Status - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5%

258 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

259 Cayratia auriculata 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Gyaraspur,Lateri Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Ranjana Singh Dr. Jyotsana Singh Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

260 Taxon Data Sheet 9 1. Botanical name Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) 2. Synonym(s) Anthericum tuberosum Roxb. 3. Family Liliaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Safed musli 6. Habit Herb 7. Habitat In sal forests and moist places 8. Original global distribution 9. Current Central Eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 5 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation) Name(s) Safed musli 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Tuberous root Declining Effect on population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Roots are edible and used as tonic while leaves are used as vegetable. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures

261 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

262 Chlorophytum tuberosum 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Fprest area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Oomachan 1994 Place:Vidisha Dr. K.K. Khanna 2000 Location: Gyaraspur forest Nearest village : Gyaraspus Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

263 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Cissampelos pariera L. 2. Synonym(s) C. convolvulacea Willd. 3. Family Menispermaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Patha 6. Habit Climbing Shrub 7. Habitat Found in moist places. 8. Original global distribution India, Srilanka and Singapore 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Sehore, Raisen, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm Name(s) Patha 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Declining Roots Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Root, bark and leaves are used in medicine and the stem gives fibre. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status

264 - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

265 Cissampelos pariera 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 2005 Place: Vidisha Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Gyaraspur forest/lateri forest Dr. Ranjana Verma Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2000 Place: Sehore

266 Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

267 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Clitoria ternatea L. 2. Synonym(s) 3. Family Papilionaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Aparajita 6. Habit Climbers 7. Habitat In hedges and thickers. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm(Harvest for medicine) 16. Trade Name(s) Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments A dye is obtained from the flowers and seeds. Various parts of plants are used medicinally. 18. Recent field studies

268 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

269 Clitorea ternatea 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichouliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Sehore Dr. Pratibha Singh Location:Budhni Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2000 Place: Sehore

270 Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 5 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

271 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Asclepiadaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Nagbel, Nangor, Karanta 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat Common in mixed deciduous forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Vidisha, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation) Name(s) Nagbel 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Root, leaves and flowers Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Fibres obtained from plants are used by tribals for cordage and for making a kind of cloth. The plant is also medicinal. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu

272 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

273 Cryptolepis buchanani 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Dr. Pratibha Singh Dr. Ranjana Verma Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichouliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

274 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Curcuma caesia Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Zingiberaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Kali haldi, Kariya hakdi, Narkachura 6. Habit Rhizometous herb 7. Habitat Hilly moist shady area 8. Original global distribution India 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Sehore 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 5 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), L(Loss of habitat) Name(s) Kali haldi 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Declining Rhizome Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Asthma, Kali Khansi 18. Recent field studies 19. Status A2c - Criteria based on Vu

275 - IUCN 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

276 Curcuma caesia 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

277 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Dalbergia latifiolia Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Papilionaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Kala shisham 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat Deciduous forest 8. Original global distribution Central and south India, Penninsular region 9. Current regional distribution Central Eco region Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hp Name(s) Kala Shisham 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Wood used as fuel. Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Gum exudes from the stem is medicinally used. Felling for timber and collection of fruits.wood is used for furniture and agricultural implements. 18. Recent field studies Dr. Ravi Upadhyay Dec Status - Criteria based on

278 - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 3 4% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

279 Dalbergia latifolia 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

280 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Dioscorea daemona Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) Dioscorea hispida Dennst. 3. Family Dioscoreaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Baichandi 6. Habit Climber 7. Habitat On hilly slopes and in mixed forest. 8. Original global distribution India, Burma 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Grazing Name(s) Baichandi 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Bulb Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Tubers are poisonous but sometimes eaten after a thorough wash. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status A2c - Criteria based on Vu

281 - IUCN 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

282 Dioscorea daemona 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : 5-10 Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2000 Place: Sehore Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai

283 Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park /Kolar park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

284 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Dolichandrone falcata Seem. 2. Synonym(s) Bignonia spathacea Roxb.; Spathodea falcata Wallich. 3. Family Bignoniaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Mendal, Mersingi 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat Forest areas 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation) Name(s) Mersingi 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Bark and Fruits Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments The plant is considered as abortifacient. Bark is used as fish poison. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5%

285 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

286 Dolichandrone falcata 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Gyaraspur forest Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Gyaraspur Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Mrs. Manisha Nashikkar Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : 5-10 Dr.Aruna Jain Dr. Aprna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Ms. Smita Todekar a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

287 Record no. 4 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Dr. Pratibha Singh Dr. Ranjana Verma Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichouliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

288 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Emblica officinalis Gaertn. 2. Synonym(s) Phyllanthus emblica L. 3. Family Euphorbiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Amla 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat Tropical dry deciduous and tropical moist deciduous forest, hill slopes and valleys 8. Original global distribution 9. Current Central Eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Bhopal Raisen Vidisha Gyaraspur 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm(harvest for medicine),tp(trades for parts), Ov (Overexploitation), Grazing Name(s) Amla 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Fruit, bark and leaves Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Fruit, bark and leaves are used for Tanning and dye. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation

289 measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

290 Emblica officinalis 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1999 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Lateri forest Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Lateri Dr. Pratibha Singh Block: Dr. Ranjana Varma Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Kirti Jain Individual of sp. : Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichouliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park /Kolar park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

291 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Gardenia turgida Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) Gardenia montana Roxb. 3. Family Rubiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Papra 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat Found on slopes of dry forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 9. Current regional distribution 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Bhopal Raisen Sehore Astha, Budhni Lateri, madagan 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats L (Loss of habitat), Ov (Overexploitation), Hm (Harvest for medicine) 16. Trade Name(s) Papra Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Stem Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments The wood is strong and durable and is used for shipbuilding, carts, boxes, and turnery. Fruit and roots are used medicinally. 18. Recent field studies Dr.Ravi Upadhyay - Jan Status - Criteria based on A2c

292 - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

293 Gardenia turgida 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1998 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Gyaraspur Dr. Pratibha Singh Block: Dr. Ranjana Varma Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Kirti Jain Individual of sp. : 5-10 Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Mr. M.K. Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 5-12 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park /Kolar park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 6-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

294 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2001 Place: Sehore Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : 4-7 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

295 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Helicteres isora Linn. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Sterculiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Marorphali, Kapasi, Jhonkaphal, Bhendu 6. Habit Shrub / small tree 7. Habitat Throughout forest areas. 8. Original global distribution M.P., Punjab, Bengal, Java, Australia, Srilanka 9. Current Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha regional distribution 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Bhopal Laxmi Narayan Giri 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm(Harvest for medicine),lp(loss of habitat),grazing, E (Edaphic changes) 16. Trade Name(s) Marorphali Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Fruit Effect on population Declining Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Used in dysentery. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2cd Vu

296 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

297 Helicteres isora 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1998 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Gyaraspur Dr. Pratibha Singh Block: Dr. Ranjana Varma Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Kirti Jain Individual of sp. : 5-10 Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Dr. Ritu Thakur Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Mr. M.K. Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichouliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2001 Place: Sehore Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : 4-7 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Taxon Data sheet 20

298 1. Botanical name Hemidesmus indicus Shultes in Roem. & Schults 2. Synonym(s) Periploca indica Linn. 3. Family Asclepiadaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Anantmool, Kapoori 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat Occasionally found under shade in moist, inhedge 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Srilanka Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 9. Current regional distribution 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine) Name(s) Anantmool 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Declining Root Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Medicinally used for fever skin disease and also against snakebite. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu

299 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

300 Hemidesmus indicus 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1998 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park /Kolar park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 6-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Mr. M.K. Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichouliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Taxon Data Sheet 21

301 1. Botanical name Holarrhena pubescence (Buch.- Ham.) 2. Synonym(s) H. antidysenterica Wallich 3. Family Apocynaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Kuruchi, Kura, Khoda, Dudhi 6. Habit Small tree 7. Habitat Common in mixed deciduous forest. 8. Original global distribution Throughout India 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Vidisha, Raisen, Bhopal, Sehore 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation) Name(s) Kuruchi 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Root, leaves and seed Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Bark and seeds are used for the treatment of dysentery. Wood is used for making tobacco pouch and comb. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures

302 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes Flora of M.P. vol. II (Mudgal, Khanna)

303 Holarrhena pubescence 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village: Mrs. Manisha Nashikkar Block: Dr. Pratibha Singh Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ranjana Varma Individual of sp. : Dr. Kirti Jain a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichouliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park /Kolar park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 4-8 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

304 Record no. 4 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Ravi Upadhyay 2001 Place: Sehore Location: Budhni forest Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300m Individual of sp. : 4-7 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

305 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Kydia calycina Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) K. fraternal Roxb. 3. Family Malvaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Pula, Polao, Patha, Puli 6. Habit Small trees 7. Habitat Deciduous forest 8. Original global distribution Throughout India 9. Current regional distribution Central Eco region Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20,000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats L (Loss of habitat), I (Interference) Name(s) Pula 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Fibres and bark is used for coarse ropes. Leaves are medicinal. Mucilagenous bark is employed for clarifying sugar. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu

306 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

307 Kydia calycina 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain Dr. P.N. Shrivastva Place:Vidisha Location:Gyaraspur, Shamshabad Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr.Ravi Upadhyay 2003 Place: Hoshangabad Location Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Place: Sehore Dr. Solanki 2002 Location: Kannod, Delabadi, Salakanpur Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

308 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Lannea coromandelica 2. Synonym(s) L. grandis Engler 3. Family Ancardiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Ghinghan, Moyan 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat In deciduous forest 8. Original global distribution Throughout India 9. Current Central Eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Sehore Raisen Vidisha Astha, Budni Shyamla hills Kurwai forest 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats L(Loss of habitat), Hm (Harvest for medicine) Name(s) Moyan 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Gum Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Gum, in Bomb as explosive. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on Vu - IUCN A2c 20. % of global presence 5%

309 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

310 Lannea coromandelica 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2003 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Mr. M.K.Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. M. Oomachan 1999 Place: Bhopal Location: MVM college area Nearest village : Block: Altitude: Individual of sp. : 5-10 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

311 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Morinda tinctoria Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) M. pubescens J.E. Smith 3. Family Rubiaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Acc 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat In deciduous forest 8. Original global distribution Central province, South India and Bengal 9. Current Vidisha regional distribution 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population Reduction-PR <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% 11 a Time/Rate 30 yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Vidisha Near river charan teerth 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats L(Loss of habitat), Hm(Harvest for medicine) 16. Trade Name(s) Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Roots and Leaves Effect on population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Root and leaves are used medicinally 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on A2c

312 - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

313 Morinda tinctoria 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain Place:Vidisha LocationCharan tirtha Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Place: Block: Nearest village : Altitude: Individual of sp. : Location: a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Place: Location: Nearest village : Block: Altitude: Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

314 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Plumbago zeylanica L. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Plumbaginaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Chitrak 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat In waste places near garden and shaded area. 8. Original global distribution Southern India and Malaysia, South East Asia 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Raisen, Sehore, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 5 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine ) 16. Trade Name(s) Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Declining Root Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments In Cancer treatment. The root is used as medicines. 18. Recent field studies 19. Status A2c - Criteria based on Vu

315 - IUCN 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighboring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources (Including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

316 Plumbago zeylanica 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1995 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village: Mrs. Manisha Nashikkar Block: Dr. Pratibha Singh Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ranjana Varma Individual of sp. : Dr. Kirti Jain a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr.Ravi Upadhyay 2003 Place: Hoshangabad Location Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

317 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. 2. Synonym(s) - 3. Family Papilionaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Bijasal, Bija 6. Habit Tree 7. Habitat Tropical dry deciduous forest 8. Original global distribution M.P., Gujrat, Sub Himalayan Tract 9. Current regional distribution Central Eco region Bhopal 10. Elevation range (m) 11.Population Reduction-PR <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO 20000Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000Km No. Of locations / Sub populations Bhopal Bhadbhada 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats E(Edaphic factor), Hm(Harvest for medicine), L(Loss of habitat), Tp(Trade for parts) 16. Trade Name(s) Bijasal Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Wood, Bark and Gum Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments In diabetes, For musical instruments 18. Recent field studies Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2cd En

318 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

319 Pterocarpus marsupium 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1995 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village: Mrs. Manisha Nashikkar Block: Dr. Pratibha Singh Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ranjana Varma Individual of sp. : Dr. Kirti Jain a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Mr. M.K.Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Mrs. Manisha Nashikkar Dr. S.S. Khan Dr. Nasreen Siddiqui Feb Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Idgah hills Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : 5-10 Dr.Aruna Jain Dr. Aprna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Ms. Smita Todekar a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

320 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers 2. Synonym(s) Cocculus cordifolius DC. Syst. 3. Family Menispermaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Gurbel 6. Habit Climber 7. Habitat In gardens on tree and along the wall 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma and Srilanka 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm(Harvest for medicine), L(Loss of habitat), Ov (Overexploitation) Name(s) 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Malaria, Liver tonic 18. Recent field studies Root, stem and leaves. 19. Status

321 - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon Yes continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers

322 Tinospora cordifolia 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Gyaraspur,Lateri Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr.Ravi Upadhyay 2003 Place: Hoshangabad Location Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

323 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Ventilago calyculata Tulasne in Ann. 2. Synonym(s) V. maderaaspatana Gaertn. Fruct. 3. Family Rhamnaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Kewati 6. Habit Woody climber 7. Habitat Found in dry forest areas in shady place on the slopes. 8. Original global distribution Throughout hotter parts of India and Java. 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Sehore, Raisen, Vidisha 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 10 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Hf (Harvest for food) Name(s) Kewati 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on population Declining Roots Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Bark yields good cordage fibre. The seeds are eaten when cooked and the oil is used in cooking locally. 18. Recent field studies

324 19. Status - Criteria based on - IUCN A2c Vu 20. % of global presence 5% 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

325 Ventilago calyculata 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1994 Place: Gyaraspur,Lateri Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Mr. M.K.Khan (DFO) Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ritu Thakur Individual of sp. : Dr. Aruna Jain Dr. Aparna Laskar Ms. Shiko Kichauliya a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr. Shashi Rai Dr. P.K. Rai Dr. S.S. Khan Aug Place: Bhopal Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Ekant Park /Kolar park Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Dr. Kirti Jain Dr. Chetna Shrivastava Block: Ms. Shiko Kichauliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : 4-8 a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

326 Taxon Data Sheet Botanical name Zizyphus oenoplia (L.) Mill. 2. Synonym(s) Rhamnus oenoplia L. 3. Family Rhamnaceae 4. Taxonomic status Species 5. Vernacular names Makor 6. Habit Shrub 7. Habitat In dry forest and bushy places 8. Original global distribution Throughout India, Burma 9. Current Central eco regional region distribution Bhopal, Vidisha, Sehore, Raisen 10. Elevation range (m) 800 m 11.Population <30% 30 to <49% 50 to <80% >80% Reduction-PR 11 a Time/Rate 30 Yrs. (Years/generations) 12. Extent of occurrence- EOO Km Area of Occupancy-AOO 2000 Km No. Of locations / Sub populations 14.a Data quality 2,3,4 15. Threats Hm (Harvest for medicine), Ov (Overexploitation), I (Human Interference) Name(s) Makor 16. Trade Level(s) Local Regional National Global Part traded Effect on Declining population Data quality 2,3,4 17. Other Comments Fruits are eaten. Branches used for fencing 18. Recent field studies 19. Status - Criteria based on A2c - IUCN Vu 20. % of global presence 5%

327 21. Existing conservation measures 22. Is the presence of taxon continuous with neighbouring areas? 23. Are the outside population also under similar threats / pressures? 24. Recommendations Research / Mangement a) in situ b) ex situ i) cultivation ii) Level of difficulty in propagation / cultivation 25. Existing cultivation- 26. Previous assessment 27. Data sources(including literature) 28. Compilers 29.Reviewers Yes

328 Zizyphus oenoplia 9. Current regional distribution Record no. 1 Who? When?(D/M/Y) Where? Dr. S.K.Jain 1995 Place: Vidisha Dr. S.S.Bhadoria 2004 Location: Mahadevi Temple Dr. P.N.Shrivastava Nearest village: Mrs. Manisha Nashikkar Block: Dr. Pratibha Singh Altitude: 300 m. Dr. Ranjana Varma Individual of sp. : Dr. Kirti Jain a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 2 Who? When? Where? Dr. S.S. Khan July 2005 Place: Raisen Dr. Pratibha Singh Location: Kartauli Forest Area Dr. Ranjana Verma Nearest village : Khasaiwali Dr. Kirti Jain Block: Ms. Shiko Kichpuliya Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000 Record no. 3 Who? When? (D/M/Y) Where? Dr.Ravi Upadhyay 2003 Place: Hoshangabad Location Nearest village : Block: Altitude: 300 m. Individual of sp. : a) >50 b) 100 c) >100 d) 1000

329 Abrus precatorius L. Family Fabaceae Hindi name- Ratti, Gunj English name- Indian liquorice Location-Kartoli forest Raisen Distribution- Through out India, Srilanka and through out the tropics. Description- A perennial climber ; branches numerous, slender, glabrous or sparsely silky. Leaves peripinnate, in opposite pairs, ligulate oblong, membranous, glabrous above, thinly silky beneath ; Petioles small and hairy at the base. Flowers crowded in many flowers racemes, which are shorter than the leaf. Calyx teeth short,thinly silky. Corolla 3-4 times than calyx Pink or white with a pink tinge. Ovary many ovuled; style short, incurved ; stigma capitate. Pods oblong, 3-5 seeded, truncate. Seeds usually scarlet with a black spot or white with a black spot. Flowers- August- Oct. Fruits- Cold season Uses- The hard red seed with black tips (crab s eyes) stung into necklaces, rosaries etc. and used as Jeweller s weights (Ratti). The roots are used as Indian Liquorices.

330 Adhatoda vasica Nees. Family-Acanthaceae Hindi name-vasa, Adusa English name- Malabarnut Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- All over the plains of India and in the lower Himalayan ranges, Srilanka, Burma and Malaysia Description- A small evergreen sub- herbaceous bush. The leaves are cm. in length, Minutely pubscent and broadly lanceolate. The inflorescence dense, short pedunculate, bracteate and spike terminal. The corolla is large and white with lower lip streaked purple. Flowers & Fruits: November- April Uses- The Plant is used as medicinally. leaves and flowers are used in cough and asthma. Large doses of fresh juice of leaves have been used in T.B. Its local use gives relief in Pyorrhea and in bleeding gums.

331 Alangium salvifolium (Linn. f. )Wang. Family Alangiaceae Hindi name-akol, Angol,Dhera English name-sage leaved Tree Location- Kohefija, Kolar Park in Bhopal,Raisen & Vidisha. Distribution- Native of Coromandel, found through out dry parts of India. Description- A small tree with spinescent branches and grey bark. Leaves simple, alternate, membranous, varying in size and shape(linear-oblong to elliptic), acuminate, entire, petiolate, nearly glabrous, base acute or rounded. Flowers in axillary clusters, small,white, fragrant, woolly, 5-10 toothed. Petals 5-10 pubescent outside, reflexed. Stamens many, hairy. Ovary inferior,1-4 celled; Ovule usually solitary, attached to the top of the locule. Stigmas very large. Fruit a berry, globular, crowned with persistant calyx-limb, Purplish red to black. Flowers- February- April Fruits- May -August Uses-Root bark is an antidote for several poisons.the roots are useful for external application in acute case of reumatism, leprosy and inflammation and for external and internal application in case of bites of rabid dogs. Fruits are useful in treating burning sensation.

332 Aristolochia indica L. Family-Aristolochiaceae Hindi name- Isharimul English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Tropical and sub tropical regions of India. Description- A perennial twining herb, glabrous. Stems woody below, slender above, stems and branches grooved. Leaves variable, elliptic ovate,obovate, obtuse or acuminate at apex, cuneate, subcordate at base, entire or wavy margin, punctate. Flowers in axillary racemes. Perianth greenish white, 2-3 cm. long, limbpurple or brown; tube cylindrical, inflated at base. Capsules oblong- sub globose, cm. long. Seeds 3 angled. Flowers & Fruits: July-February Uses- Roots are used for the treatements of snake bite, fever and minor ailments of children; decoction of leaves for cough while seeds for inflammations and biliousness.

333 Asparagus racemosus Willd. Family-Liliaceae Hindi name-satawar; Satmooli English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Through out India and Java. Description- An extensively scandent, much- branched, spinous under shrub. Rootstock tuberous; branches angular, woody. Leaves reduced to sub- erect or subcurved spines. Cladodes 2-6 together, falcate. Flowers small, white, fragrant, simple or branched racemes. Pedicles filiform, jointed. Perianth-segments linear-oblong, obtuse. Stamens-6. Anthers purplish, subglobose. Ovary 3- celled, 2 or more ovuled. Style very short. Stigmas 3, spreading. Berry globose, produced when leafless, red when ripe. Flowers: June- December. Fruits: Cold season. Uses-The tuberous roots are eaten and are used in medicine.

334 Bridelia retusa (L.)Spreng. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name-ekdania, Khasai English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Tropical regions of India. Description- A deciduous tree, 4-7 m high, spinous when young; bark grey. leaves ellipticoblong, obtuse at apex, usually rounded at base, glabrous and bright green above,glaucous and finely tomentose beneath; secondry nerves pairs.flowers in axillary clusters or long, axillary or terminal spikes with male and female flowers intermixed greenish yellow, sessile or shortly pedicellate. Male outer tepals deltoid- obovate, 2- conate.female tepals spathulate. drupes 8mm across, purple black, supported by persistant calyx. Flowers & Fruits: July- February Uses- Wood is used as timber for rafters, posts and agricultural implements. Leaves are ised as fodder. Mature fruits are sweet and edible.

335 Capparis zeylanica L. Family Capparidaceae Hindi name-jhiris, Hins Location- Kolar Park, Bhopal Distribution- Through out the greater part of India, extending to Java and Phillipines. Description- A climbing shrub; branches terete; young parts clothed with rufous tomentum. Leaves varying in shape from shining above; base cuneate. Flowers with sepals densely pubescent outside and concave; petals densely villous, oblong, ciliate, shorter than the stamens. stamens many ; filaments long, purple. Ovary or gynophore, ellipsoid, apiculate, glabrous. Fruit a berry, red when ripe, sub globose, on a greatly thickened stalk, obtusely 4- angled, seeds many. Flowers- Jan.- April Fruits- May- June Uses- Wood is used for fuel. Young shoots and leaves are eaten by goats. The fruit is made into pickle.

336 Cayratia cornosa Wall. Family-Vitaceae Hindi name-amalbel, Gidardrak, Ramchana English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout on the hills, west coast and western ghats in India. Description- A some what fleshy climbing shrub usually pubescent when young ; tendrils short, slender and branched; Leaves tri foliate usually pubscent, leaflates dentate; flowers in branched; long peduncled cymes,flowers buds globose ; fruits fleshy berries; seeds pyriform or triangular, rounded and rugose on the back. Flowers: July- August Fruits: cold season. Uses- The Plant is sour, astringent and is useful in vitiated conditions vata and kapha, tumour, fever, dropsy, wound,ulcers. The fruits are said to be eaten.

337 Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Family-Liliaceae Hindi name-safed musali Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Tropical regions of India and Africa. Description- A perennial ; root tuberous, cylindrical, fleshy, leaves radical, crowded at the base, membranous, usually ensiform, falcately recurved, wavy or crisped on margins, sessile. Flowers in simple or shortly branched racemes; Scape 15-90cm. long with a small sheath; Pedicles jointed at or below the middle, perianth white ; segments elliptic. Anthers about as long as the filaments recurved, finally revolute. Capsule oblong 1cm. long, 2 lobed at apex. Seeds irregularly orbicular flat. Flowers & Fruits: May- August Uses- Roots are edible and used as tonic while leaves are used as vegetables.

338 Cissampelos pariera Linn. Family-Menispermaceae Hindi namesuleta, patha, dakhnirbisi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution-Tropical and sub tropical India, Srilanka. cosmopolitan in warm countries. Description- A twining shrub. Stem short throwing out long herbaceous,tomentose branches. Leaves 1-4 inch usually peltate, orbicular to reniform, more or less cordate at the base, apex obtusely mucronate. Male cyme long peduncled, axillary or nearly so many flower, hairy; bracts minute. Racemes of female flowers 1-2 axillary, with large reciform or orbicular hoary bracts. Drupessubglobose, hirsute, scarlet. Flowers & Fruits: Uses- The root bark and leavesare used medicinally and often as a substitute for the true Pareira brava of commerce.

339 Clitoria ternatea L. Family- Papilionaceae Hindi name- Aparajita English name- The Mussel- shell creeper Location- Nutan college campus. Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, and cosmopolitan in most tropical countries. Description- A beautiful climber with terets, slender, downy stems. Leaves pinnately 3-9 foliate, oval or oblong, obtuse, subcoriaceous. Stipules small, striate, persistent. Stipels minute, linear. Flower solitary, axillary; bracteoles large, obtuse.calyx teeth lanceolate, nearly as long as the tube. Corolla bright blue with an orange center or white.pods flat, linear sparingly hairy, 6-10 seeded. Flowers: Rainy season Fruits: November December Uses- A dye is obtained from the flowers and seeds. Various parts of the plants are used medicinally.

340 Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. Family-Ascepediaceae Hindi name-nagbel, Karanta, Dudhbel, Nangor English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Through out tropical regions of India. Description- A large shrub, climbing; branches white, terete. Leaves oblong, ovate or elliptic, acuminate at apex, usually acute at base, shining above, glaucous beneath, coriacious; main secondry nerves more than 7 pairs, horizontal and uniting within the margin; petioles long. Flowers in axillary, short, pedunculate cymes; bracts ovate or lanceolate with scarious margin. Calyx lobe ovate, acute. Corolla pale greenish yellow; Lobes linear or linear- lanceolate. Corona5 clavate, fleshy. Folicles lanceolates, stout, straight, tapering. Seeds compressed, long, black. Flowers & Fruits: May- February. Uses-The fibre obtainded from the plants are used by the tribals for cordage and for making a kind of clothes. The plant is also medicinal.

341 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. Family-Papilionaceae Hindi name-sitsal English name-the Rose wood Location-common Bhopal Distribution- Dry forest of South and central India, frequently associated with Teak and Bamboo. Also found in Burma. Description- A large glabrous tree with dark purple heartwood. Leaflets 3-7, generally 5, alternate broad- obovate or orbicular, obtuse or emarginated. Flowers greenish or yellowish white on slender pedicles as long or nearly as long as the calyx tube, in axillary, branched and divaricating panicles. Calyx segments oblong or obovate, obtuse. Stamens 9, all united in a sheath, open on the upper side. Ovary glabrous with 5 ovules, style slender, nearly as long as ovary; legume oblong-linear or oblong lanceolate, 1-4 seeded. Flowers & Fruits: October- February. Uses- The wood is used for furniture. Combs and great variety of ornaments are carved of it. Largely used for yokes, cart wheels, ploughs and other agricultural implements, boat building and for constructions.

342 Dioscorea daemona Roxb. Family-Dioscoreaceae Hindi name- Baichandi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Common on hill slopes and in mixed forest of Tropical regions of India. Description- Herbaceous twins, with glabrous, lobed tubers often with bulbils on the nodes. Stems stout, with short recurved prickles. Leaves 3- foliate, middle one obovate- elliptic. Male flower is dense, long spikes. Capsules reflexed, sub cordate at base, rounded at apex, glabrous. Seeds winged at base. Flowers & Fruits: September-May Uses- Tubers are reported to be poisonous but sometimes eaten after a through wash.

343 Dolichandrone falcata Seem. Family-Bignoniaceae Hindi name- Mersingi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, Burma, Malaya. Description- A middle sized tree more or less pubescent, wood closed and even grained. Leaflets 5-7 broadly elliptic, obovate or almost orbicular, Flower white, in few flowered corymbs, Calyx 1.7 inch. Corolla tube slender long, capsule flat, much curved. Flowers & Fruits: March- June Uses- The plant is considered as abortifacient. Bark used as fish poison.

344 Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Family-Euphorbiaceae Hindi name-aola, Amla English name-emblic myrobolan Location-Common Distribution- Throughout tropical India, Sri Lanka, China and Malay islands. Native of Tropical Asia. Description- A deciduous tree with white shining grey bark, peeling off in flakes. Leaves closely set along the branchlets, distichoud, resembling pinnate-leaves, linear, obtuse, entire, glabrous. Stipules acute. Flower greenish yellow in axillary fascicles on lower leaves. Flowers unisexual, male and female both very small, greenish in small clusters. Fruits about ¾ in diameter, orange shaped, yellowish green, fleshy containing a 6-ribbed stone which ultimately split into 3 portions each containing usually 2-seeds. Flowers : March - May; Fruits : November- February Uses- The fruit, bark, leaves are used in tanning and dyeing. The fruits are eaten, usually picked as they are very astringent. They are also used medicinally. The timber is hard and red but as it splits badly it is little used.

345 Gardenia turgida Roxb. Family-Rubiaceae Hindi name- Papra English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and Burma. Description- A deciduous tree armed with axillary leaf bearing spines; bark bluish grey. Leaves clusted at the end of the branches, opposite oblong or semi orbicular, obtuse, glabrous above, velvety tomentose beneath, sessile or narrowed into an obscure petiole; stipules triangular, caducous. Flowers often unisexual, Fragrant arises from the young leafless shoots; males in fascicles, the female solitary, calyx of male flowers turbinate, pubescent, teeth minute; of the female flowers campanulate; teeth oblong, foliaceous, corolla white with oblong lobes in both stamens as many as corolla lobes; anthers with only the tips exerted; ovary 1-celled, many ovuled; placentas parietal. Fruit large, woody, ovoid or globose with many seeds. Flowers: April- May, mostly when leafless Fruits: Take a year to ripen. Uses-Wood used as fuel,fruit some time eaten. Fruits and roots are used medicinally.

346 Helicteres isora L. Family-Sterculiaceae Hindi name-maror phali English name- Location- Common Distribution- From Punjab to Bengal to South India and Sri Lanka; also Malay Peninsula, Java and Australia. Description- A large shrub, young branches rough with scattered stellate hairs. Leaves bifarious 5-7 palmi nerved, often 3 lobed, irregular, serrate. Flowers solitary in few flowered minutely bracteolate cymes, scarlet or red turning to lead colour, zygomorphic. Follicles 5, twisted together into a screw, stellately tomentose, seeds numerous, angular. Flowers & Fruits: July - February Uses- The bark yields a strong fibre. Juice of root is given in diabetes, eczema, stomach afflictions and snake bite. The dried fruits are used in the form of decoction as well as in the form of powder to all types. The flowers are said to be used in relieving from constipation.

347 Hemidesmus indicus Shults. Family-Asclepiadaceae Hindi name- Anantmool, Kapoori English name-the Indian sarsaparila Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India and Srilanka. Description- A variable plant, prostrate, semierector twining shrub. Stems purplish or vinaceous. Leaves opposite, variable in shape and size. Flowers in sub-sessile axillary cymes; Pedicels short, clothed in many overlapping bracts. Calyx 5- partite. Corolla 5-fid, tube short, lobes valvate. Corona scales 5. stamens with free filaments, anthers cohering at the apex. Follicles cylindric, pointed at the apex. Flowers & Fruits: Rainy and cold season. Uses- The Plant is used for fever, skin diseases, and also against snake bite.

348 Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.- Ham.)Wallich.ex G. Family-Apocynaceae Hindi name-kuruchi English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Through out India and Tropical Africa. Description- Shrubs or small tree, deciduous bark brown. Leaves broadly ovate to ellipticoblong. Acuminate at apex, rounded or tapering at base, glabrous or more or less tomentose especially beneath. Flowers in terminal, many flowered, cm. across cymes, fragrant. Calyx lobes lanceolate, 2.5-3mm.long,acuminat, ciliate. corolla white lobes oblong, mm. long, throat without ring of hairs, tube ca 1 cm. long, pubescent. Follicle usually marked with narrow white specks. Seeds linear, ca 1.5 cm. long; coma brown, about twice as long as the seeds. Flowers & Fruits: February- June Uses- Bark and seeds are used for the treatment of dysentery. Wood is used for making tobacco pouch and comb.

349 Kydia calycina Roxb. Family-Malvaceae Hindi name- English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Punjab,W. Ghats and Burma.common in forest areas. Description- A handsome moderate- sized tree of flowering as a shrub, young parts covered with grey stellate hairs. Leaves palmately 7- nerved, cordate, 3-7 lobed; lobes angular, the midlobe the longest, glabrous above, hoary tomentose beneath; petioles cm. long. Flowers pure white or pink, polygamous, in axillary or terminal large panicles. Plants generally dioecious, Bracteoles accrescent and spreading in fruit. Calyx campanulate, 5- lobed, accrescent. Petals5, clawed, adnate to the staminal tube. Stamens monadelphous; tube shorter than the petals and split into 5 segments each bearing 3-5 sessile anthers at the apex. Carpels 3; style branches 3. Capsule loculicidal, sub- globose, tomentose. Seeds reniform furrowed. Flowers: August- November. Fruits: Cold season. Uses- The fibre of inner bark is used for coarse ropes, the leaves are medicinal, and the mucilaginous bark is used for clarifying sugar. Wood used as fuel.

350 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Family-Anacardiaceae Hindi name- Ghinghan English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Hotter part of India,Burma, the Andaman Islands and Ceylon. Description- A deciduous tree; bark ash coloured, red inside. Leaves alternate, few at the end of the branches, leaflets membranous, ovate-oblong, acuminate, shining, entire, pink when young; base acute or rounded, often oblique; lateral nerves 6-8 pairs. Flowers in crowded cymose fascicles, male and female usually on different branches and appear when the tree is leafless. Bracts many, ovate, ciliate, acute. Calyx 4- lobed, persistent, ciliate. Petals 4, ovateoblong, spreading. Disk annular, 4-lobed. Stamens 8-10, inserted within the disk. Ovary 1- celled, with 3-4 distinct styles, ovule pendulous from the top of the cell. Drupe, small, oblong. Flowers: February-April Fruits: May- June Uses- A yellowish white gum obtained from the bark is used in calico- printing, and also medicinally.

351 Plumbago zeylanica L. Family-Plumbaginaceae Hindi namechitrak, chirchitta English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India (hotter parts); and in tropical regions of the world. Description- Erect or straggling, perennial under shrubs. Stem and branches terete, striate green, often white punclate beneath. Flowers white, in terminal and axillary raceme combined into a leafy panicle, rachis glandular. Fruit oblong, acute, longitudinally followed, with a patent or recurved calyx. Seeds oblong. Flowers: September- March. Fruits: September- March. Uses- The root is used in medicines.

352 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Family-Fabaceae Hindi name- Bijasal, Bija English name-indian Kino Tree, Malabar Kino Tree Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout India, in deciduous and evergreen forests. Description- A medium sized tree,15-30m. in height with dark brown of grey bark having shallow cracks and exuding red gummy substances or injury; leaves compound imparipinnate, leaflets 5-7 coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, emarginated or even bilobed at apex, glabrous on both surfaces, laminar nerves numerous, prominent; Flowers yellow in terminal panicles, corolla with crisped margins ; Fruit nearly circular, glabrous, flat winged pods, convexly curved between stipe and style, wings veined, seeds 1-2 convex bony. Flowers: May- June Fruits: December- March Uses- The heart wood is astringent, bitter, acrid, cooling, anti-inflammatory. The leaves are useful in boils, sores and skin diseases. The wood is highly valued for cart and boat building, for cotton gins, agricultural implements and furnitures. The gum is anti pyretic, anthalmintic and liver tonic.

353 Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.)Miers. Family-Menispermaceae Hindi name-gulancha, Gulel, Gurbel Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the tropical India, also in Burma and Srilanka. Description- An Extensive glabrous climber with succulent corky grooved bark and lenticellate stems. Plant dioecious. Branches sending down long filiform, Pendulous, fleshy aerial roots. Leaves cordate, roundish or lobed, acute or acuminate, glabrous petioled. Flowers small unisexual, yellow in axillary or terminal racemes. Male flowers fascicled or clustered in the axiles of small bracts. Sepals 6, in two series, and broadly elliptical rounded yellow. Petals 6 equal clawed or broadly spathulate and concave round the stamens when young. Stamens 6, filaments free. Female usually solitary, similar to male, but the sepals are green ; Petals flat; staminodes 6, short, linear; Carpels 3 widely separated on the short gynophore, style very short.drupe1-3, ovoid smooth Flowers & Fruits: Hot and Rainy season. Uses- The entire Plant is used in medicine. A valuable tonic and best given in infusion.

354 Zizyphus oenoplia Mill. Gard. Dict. Family-Rhamnaceae Hindi name- Makor, Beri English name- Location-Common, Bhopal Distribution- Throughout the hotter parts of India, Tropical Asia, Australia Description- A semi scandent, Prickly shrub; Young branches rusty tomentose. Leaves many, diastichous, acute or sub acuminate, sub entire or minutely denticulate, Petiole short, stipules stout hooked Flowers in sub- sessile pubscent paniculate cymes, Short,diastichous, compressed. Calyx hairy outside; Lobes ovate acute. Petals obovate, cuneate, shorter than the calyx lobes, exceeding the stamens.disc with 10 short deeply pitted lobes, glabrous. Stamens 5. Ovary 2 celled, style 2, united almost to the apex. Drupe globose or obovoid, 1-2 celled black ; stones woody or bony. Flowers: June- September Fruits: November- December Uses- The fruit is eaten. Branches used for fencing.

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