Historians, archeologists and anthropologists

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1 Historians, archeologists and anthropologists What s the difference?

2 Searching for our Human Ancestors Information taken from Echoes of the Past Senior Author: Garfield Newman McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 2001

3 The Earliest Beginnings 4 million years ago - earliest hominid biped 1.7 years ago - new species Homo erectus has evolved with a changed brain and body size thicker, rounder skulls & larger brains continue to develop for years years ago - Homo erectus reclassified as Homo sapiens

4 3 Homo sapien settlements by years ago: In Europe and Near East - Homo sapien neanderthalensis (Neanderthals) In Africa - Homo sapien sapiens (anatomically modern humans) In Asia - a 3rd population still largely a mystery

5 years ago: The African homo sapien sapiens invaded Europe and replaced the Neanderthal population, it is believed, by extinction. Anthropologists believe Homo sapien sapiens are our most direct ancestors.

6 Neanderthals Neanderthals

7 Neanderthals... Named after Neander Valley in Germany where first skeleton was found in 1856 Lived years ago during last European ice age. Powerfully built, heavily muscled Quite different from modern humans heavy set - average height of 5 3 (vs 5 6 today) and an average weight of 161 pounds Forearms and lower legs shorter than ours eyebrows rested on bony ridges, small chin, eyes sunken

8 Neanderthal Society day to day survival was a struggle males lived separately from women and children no permanent family units, mating randomly no formal leadership or laws wore primitive wraps for clothes but no adornments to distinguish social structure hunted woolly mammoth and woolly rhinos but also scavenged - horse heads found at Neanderthal sites females and children stayed closer to cave fires, prepared plant foods - crucial to Neanderthal survival due to uncertainty of male hunting success

9 A hard life Skeletal remains provide evidence that: the majority of children died in childbirth or in the first few years of life 80% of adults died within 40 years few strategies were implemented to make life easier - brute strength was relied upon.

10 Religious? there is evidence of Neanderthal burials signifying the possibility of some primitive spiritual beliefs no indication of religious ritual can be found

11 Neanderthal s demise no fossil evidence exists to support the theory of a Neanderthal - Homo sapien sapiens hybrid likely the invaders from Africa just replaced the Neanderthals within 2000 years interbreeding unlikely due to differing female pelvic structures (Neanderthal s had a 12 month pregnancy)

12 Great Leap Forward yrs ago - there began 2 significant advancements in human development 1 - modern anatomy development 2 - the start of innovative behaviour

13 A Sudden Mysterious Creativity tools with larger, thinner stone blades, some attached to shafts to make spears axes for wood cutting barbed harpoons and bows & arrows clothing was sewn, mortars and pestles for grinding food ingredients possibly, water craft were constructed Significantly, trade and aesthetic appreciation began sculpture and cave paintings were created - this appreciation of beauty is the beginning of modern humanity.

14 Upper Paleolithic Age Paleo (old) Lithic (stone) The beginning of human societies years ago People started living in small community groups of 5-10 families Semi nomadic hunters & gatherers Cro-magnons in Europe started fostering relationships with other groups of humans 100 s of kms away they had ability to plan ahead, storing food for winter

15 Paleolithic society Different bands came together in likely in summer and early fall to: form alliances barter & arrange marriages at grave sites, evidence exists for some social hierarchy along lines of age and gender (men in control) Personal adornment existed but not by all

16 Other advancements they sewed better fitting clothes better weapons meant more success hunting big game bison, reindeer, wild cattle, horses

17 Role of Woman Women and children were essential to the survival of Paleolithic society they gathering food and sewed baskets for the collection of fruits and vegetables they should be credited for % of the Upper Paleolithic diet they could reliable return from foraging with a full sack of food ex - roots, berries, potatoes, honey, shellfish the teeth of these people indicate a mostly vegetable diet

18 Role of women... Women also made clothing from animal hides, and took care of the children Older woman acted as advisors to younger ones - passing on wisdom and stories Women also gathered firewood and hunted small game, reptiles and insects to augment the diets of their family groups

19 Art, Ideas and Beliefs Read page Copy 5-6 points of significance regarding their art and religion

20 Neolithic Revolution (new stone age) Began in 9000 BCE A shift from hunting & gathering to agriculture Farming began and a nomadic lifestyle ended crops were planted and animals were domesticated (cattle, sheep, goats and pigs) flint sickles with curved blades improved agricultural efficiency metal products like copper knives, drinking vessels and buckets were created permanent towns began to form & a class system people were freed to pursue art, music, sports & leisure

21 Assignment 1. Answer page 39 # s 1or 2 2. With approximately 1/2 page of writing, describe your personal theory of human origins.

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