Unit 3. Early Humans and the Agricultural Revolution 8000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.

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1 Unit 3 Early Humans and the Agricultural Revolution 8000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.

2 The Beginning of Humans

3 The Stone Age Old Stone Age Paleolithic Age 2,500,000 to 8000 BCE Made stone chopping tools Hunter-gatherers Humans migrated across the globe End of the Paleolithic coincided with the end of the last ice age Modern human beings overlapped with other hominids Cave paintings and small carvings New Stone Age Neolithic Age BCE Humans made numerous tools, as well as jewelry, from bone, wood, stone, tusks, etc. Pottery Permanent settlements Agriculture (farming) Animal domestication Modern human beings left as the only hominids on the planet

4 The Stone Age is divided into Two Parts The Old Stone Age- also called the Paleolithic Age The New Stone Age- also called the Neolithic Age

5 The Paleolithic Age 2,500,000 B.C B.C.

6 The Paleolithic Age The earliest period of human history is called the Stone Age. This period was called the Stone Age because of the tools and weapons used that were made of stone. In Greek, Paleolithic means, old stone. Therefore, another name for the Paleolithic Age is the Old Stone Age. The Paleolithic Age began around 2.5 million years ago and lasted until around 8000 B.C./B.C.E.

7 Surviving the Paleolithic Age What would life have been like during the Paleolithic Age? How would you have gotten around without any roads, farms or cities? What about without the technology you are used to?

8 Surviving the Paleolithic Age The Paleolithic people were nomads---people who regularly move from place to place to survive. They often traveled in groups or bands of members. How did the Paleolithic people survive? They were hunters and gatherers. This was their main task during the day.

9 Surviving the Paleolithic Age How did they know which food to eat and not to eat? If you were on a game show in the middle of the wilderness and didn t know which foods were which, what would you do to make sure you eat the right ones? Why would they travel in groups together?

10 Finding Food Much of the Paleolithic peoples lives centered around finding food. Men and women performed different tasks within their group. The men hunted and the women usually gathered. Men learned how to track animals and eventually developed the tools to hunt and kill them. For a long time, they would drive the animals off cliffs or used clubs to kills them. Eventually, they learned how to make traps and spears to increase their chances of killing their prey. They usually hunted animals such as buffalo, bison, wild goat, and reindeer. If they lived on the coast, they fished.

11 Finding Food Women usually stayed close to the camp to take care of the children and searched for berries, nuts and grains in nearby areas. What does this mean? They gathered! The camp was usually located near a river or other body of water. Everyone had a job to do find food! It is how they survived!

12 Invention of Tools The methods Paleolithic people used to hunt and gather their food were part of their culture, as were the tools they used. Technology-tools and methods to perform tasks-was first used by Paleolithic people. Originally, they would use sticks, stones and tree branches for tools. Then, they figured out how to use flint

13 Invention of Tools The use of flint stone was a major breakthrough for the Paleolithic people. Flint is a hard stone that Paleolithic people used to make spears with, as well as axes and many other tools to survive. They also used flint to create needles to sew animal hides together for clothes as well as nets and baskets.

14 Surviving the Paleolithic Era Climate played a large role in where the Paleolithic people lived. If they lived in a colder climate, they would find natural shelters such as caves and rock overhangs to shield themselves from the elements. If they lived in a warmer climate, they would build huts, with some living in caves as well. All of these shelters helped provide some protection against attacks from large animals.

15 Fire The once extremely difficult lives of the Paleolithic people became somewhat easier and more effective once they discovered how to make fire. What are some of the things the early people would have been able to use fire for?

16 Fire Some of the benefits of fire for the Paleolithic people: Provided light and warmth in cold, dark caves Could scare away animals; could also be used to chase animals from bushed to be killed People gathered around the fire to share stories They were finally able to cook their food, making it taste better

17 Fire Scientists believe early people discovered fire by using friction By rubbing two pieces of wood together long enough, they would become heated and charred. Iron pyrite, a specific stone, also helped with the starting of fires. Early humans mastered fire around 1,500,000 B.C.E.

18 Communication and Art The earliest people used sounds and physical gestures to communicate; the Paleolithic people eventually developed a spoken language. The Paleolithic people developed a spoken language so they could communicate more effectively with one another. Spoken language developed about 1.8 to 1 million years ago During this time, humans were spreading out across the globe and needed a way to talk to their group. One of the reasons scientists and historians think language developed around this time is because of the burials of humans that began to take place, which needed a much higher level of communication.

19 Communication and Art Early people also expressed themselves through art. Paintings in caves have been found all over the world, most often depicting animals. Humans were usually not portrayed in these paintings; historians think that the early people may have thought it good luck to paint an animal. They used animal fat and different colored rocks to create their paintings. One of the most famous findings of early cave painting was found in Lascaux, France on September 12, 1940 when four boys and their dog stumbled upon the cave, discovering the painting from another life time.

20 Communication and Art One of the paintings in the Lascaux Caves by early man

21 The Ice Ages The ice ages were long periods of extreme cold that affected all of the Earth. The most recent ice age began about 100,000 years ago and ended between 9000 and 8000 B.C.E. One of the most notable things about the ice age was it s causing the Earth s water levels to become lower, exposing the strips of dry land connecting the continents of Asia and North America. This land bridge allowed early humans to travel directly from Asia to North America by foot. Many of these early humans migrated south once in North America.

22 The Ice Ages How did humans survive during the ice ages? They ADAPTED! They made warmer clothes using different animal furs Built sturdier shelters They ate more meals enriched with fat They used fire to help keep them warm

23 The Neolithic Age 8000 B.C B.C.

24 The Neolithic Age In Greek, Neolithic means new stone. Therefore, the Neolithic Age translates to the new stone age. While some new stone technology was made, the biggest difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age was the existence of systematic agriculture, or, growing food on a regular basis. This change did not happen immediately, but eventually, it changed much of their habits from hunting and gathering to growing crops and domesticating animals.

25 The Agricultural Revolution The Neolithic Revolution is also called the Agricultural Revolution. People developed farming for the first time. For generations, humans had noticed plants growing where they had spit out seeds. Humans began planting seeds on purpose, which was the invention of farming. The first farming method was slash-and-burn. Farmers burnt grass and trees to clear a field. The ashes fertilized the soil. Farmers relocated every few years after exhausting the soil. People continued to hunt, returning to their farms to harvest their crops. Eventually, people built permanent homes near their farms so they could store and guard their grain. Permanent homes made following game difficult. Eventually, farmers domesticated animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep. Animals ate farm waste while fertilizing the soil.

26 The Agricultural Revolution Historians call the use of systematic agriculture during the Neolithic Age the Agricultural Revolution. Being able to plant crops constantly and not have to hunt for their food, humans began to leave their nomad ways and settle down in communities. Some historians consider the Agricultural Revolution the most important event in human history.

27 The Agricultural Revolution Early farmers grew many of the same foods we eat today such as beans, corn, potatoes, squash, rice, tomatoes, soybeans, and peanuts. By 8000 B.C.E., people in Southwest Asia began growing wheat and barley, as well as domesticating pigs, cows, goats and sheep. From this point on, farming continued to spread throughout Europe, Africa and Central China. By 6000 B.C.E., farming was a way of life for people in Europe, becoming the main source of economics, or, making, buying and selling goods or services.

28 The Agricultural Revolution In the span of just a couple thousand years, people were farming corn, rice, bananas, yams, potatoes, wheat, barley and squash in different parts of the world. They were able to do this consistently, making some of these items staples in their diets.

29 Life During the Neolithic Age People settled in villages where they built permanent homes since they were no longer nomads. They built homes near fields where they could grow crops as well as near water sources such as rivers. They could have access to the water for drinking as well as to grow their crops. One of the earliest known communities was Jericho, established around 8000 B.C.E. The location of Jericho is where modern-day Israel is now.

30 Life During the Neolithic Age Another very well-known first settlement was Catalhuyuk, where modern-day Turkey is now. This community existed between 6700 and 5700 B.C.E. and covered around 32 acres. Catalhuyuk was home to about 6,000 people at the time. The houses in Catalhuyuk were built very close to one another and people entered their home through holes in the roof, as they could walk from house to house on the roof. The people of Catalhuyuk also built shrines, or holy places to worship the images of gods and goddesses.

31 Catal Huyuk Mother goddess from Catal Huyuk. Typical Catal Huyuk interior (restoration). Wall mural of Catal Huyuk.

32 Why Live in a Settled Community? Pros Common culture expressed Mutual protection Near farms Grain and seed storage Cons Disease spreads more rapidly among a dense population Grain stores were tempting to raiders Permanent settlements suffered from natural disasters (drought, fire, floods)

33 The End of the Neolithic Age The end of the Neolithic Age was signaled by even more technology being developed such as the use of metals like copper and the development of bronze (the mixing of copper and tin). They were able to use these new metals for improved tools and weapons. The use of bronze coined the next era in history, The Bronze Age. This lasted between 3000 and 1200 B.C.E.

34 New Civilizations By the beginning of the Bronze Age, more and more complex cultures began to arise, called civilizations, in these communities. Four of the great river valley civilizations emerged around 3000 B.C.E.: Mesopotamia Egypt India China

35 New Civilizations One of the defining characteristics of these civilizations was the emergence of cities and governments. These first governments created were monarchies and had a king or queen as their ruler. They created armies to protect themselves against enemies and made laws to keep order within their community. During this time, religions also emerged, helping people to explain their lives, the force of nature and the role of humans in the world. Rulers often claimed that their own power was based on the approval of the gods.

36 Vocabulary Paleolithic Age - The Old Stone Age, this refers to the period before people began farming Neolithic Age - The New Stone Age, the period of time when farming became common and a building block for human civilization Ice Age - An extremely cold time in history about 100,000 years ago when glaciers (huge sheets of ice) covered the Earth. Land Bridge - A connection between two continents that allowed humans and animals to colonize new territories. A famous example was between Asia and North America and allowed humans access to the North and South American continents. Nomads - People who moved from place to place as a group looking for food Technology - An ability gained by the practical use of knowledge; for example, tools and methods to perform basic tasks Domesticate - To adapt a wild animal to living with humans for the advantage of humans, this was the taming of animals to provide food, transport, and clothing

37 Vocabulary Systematic Agriculture - The organized growing of food on a regular schedule, this was the invention of farming which has scheduled planting and harvesting periods Shrine - A place where people worship Specialization - The act of training for a specific job, this allowed for people to focus on their talents and trade their goods with neighboring communities Stone Age - The period of ancient human culture when people used stone to make their tools and weapons Bronze Age - The period of ancient human culture when people began to make and use Bronze instead of stone for tools and weapons Monarchy - A government whose ruler, a king or queen, inherits the position from a parent. Social Class - A division of society by wealth, occupation, or social status. Ancient classes included rulers, warriors, and priests at the top, farmers and traders below them and slaves at the bottom of society.

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