Name AP World Summer Institute Assignment, 2015 Ms. Scalera. 1.) Define: bipedalism, primary source and Paleolithic Age.

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1 Name AP World Summer Institute Assignment, 2015 Ms. Scalera This assignment requires the use of the text AP World History: An Essential Course book, 2 nd Edition by Ethel Wood. Directions: you will need to read the following sections and fill out the outlines. Some parts will have guiding questions, other sections you will have to summarize on your own. Outlining is an essential part of the course, and is an important skill in college when you will be reading several texts. Unit 1, Chapter 1: pages Human Life Before 8,000 BCE 1.) Define: bipedalism, primary source and Paleolithic Age. 2.) According to archeologists, what was the most significant advantage of the human species over stronger animal species? Hunting and Gathering 1.) Summarize this section, paying close attention to status and gender.

2 The Importance of Tools and Paleolithic Culture 1.) Summarize these sections: The Neolithic Revolution 1.) Why is the Neolithic Revolution a marker event? 2.) Why is calling the Neolithic Revolution a marker event a bit deceiving? 3.) Define and differentiate between Horticulture and Pastoralism: 4.) Why were animals domesticated?

3 5.) Did the domestication of grains occur as a result of cultural diffusion or independent invention? 6.) List the 6 major changes that came as a result of the Neolithic Revolution: Be sure to highlight the details in your book; these major changes are important to the course. a.) b.) c.) d.) e.) f.) Unit 1, Chapter 2: 35-68: The Earliest Civilizations 1.) List the 7 major changes associated with civilizations: a.) b.) c.) d.) e.) f.) g.) 2.) Why is it controversial to use the term civilization? 3.) Define cultural hearth

4 Part 2: The Earliest Civilizations, The River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia 1.) When did Mesopotamia emerge? What were the major rivers? Why is the area a crossroads? 2.) What major political event happened in 2300 BCE? 3.) As time went on, the Babylonians (led by Hammurabi), the Hittites and the Assyrians came to conquer Mesopotamia. Why was Hammurabi s Code important? How did it affect the social structure? (pat attention to women and slaves) 4.) Why was cuneiform significant? What was the Epic of Gilgamesh about? 5.) the Mesopotamians had a polytheistic, nature based religion. The religious temples were known as.

5 Civilization in Egypt 1.) Discuss the impact of the natural environment on the development of Egypt: 2.) Discuss the long- distance trade that the Mesopotamian and Egyptians participated in: 3.) Egypt was at its height during the Old Kingdom and struggled during the Middle Kingdom. What events happened in the New Kingdom that ultimately led to the civilization s downfall? 4.) What was the Egyptian social hierarchy? (fill in the triangle) Was there social mobility? How were women treated? 5.) Mention some Egyptian cultural achievements

6 6.) Briefly discuss the religious practices of the Egyptians: The Indus River Valley Civilization 1.) The Indus civilization began around 5,000 BCE in what is today Pakistan,. Why do archaeologists have trouble understanding this civilization? (read pages to answer this question, as there are several reasons why). 2.) Who were the Aryans? 3.) How did geography impact the Indus civilization? 4.) What were the 2 major cities? 5.) List the most important economic characteristics and the most important political developments: (focus on trade, transportation and irrigation)

7 6.) What is the significance of the seals? 7.) How did the Indus River Valley decline? Ancient China 1.) List a brief chronology (time table of events) of the earliest Chinese (page 55) 2.) Summarize the geography of China and any impacts this had on Chinese development: 3.) List at least 3 economical/technological achievements of the early Chinese:

8 4.) The earliest dynasties were the Xia and the Shang. By the 12 th century BCE, the Zhou came into power. Why do archaeologists and historians know more about the Zhou? 5.) Why was the development of the bureaucratic system important? Who were these men ( shi )? 6.) Fill in the social pyramid: How did merchants and women fit into the social hierarchy? 7.) What was the Mandate of Heaven? Why was it important?

9 8.) Discuss Chinese religion and the importance of oracle bones (pictographs): 9.) Identify the most important texts of the early Chinese: 10.) China s most influential philosopher, Confucius, emerges toward the end of the Zhou dynasty. Read pages and summarize the key points of Confucianism, including any necessary vocabulary: Early Civilizations in the Americas: Before the late 15 th century CE, the civilizations in the Americas were isolated from the Eastern hemisphere, so agriculture was independently invented. Scholars believe the first people migrated into the Americas about years ago, from Asia through the Bering Strait or Aleutian islands (below the Bering Strait). 1.) Discuss the geographical influences: 2.) Summarize Olmec agriculture and irrigation:

10 3.) Why were priests important? What is the connection to astronomy? 4.) Discuss the Giant Heads and the calendar: 5.) Discuss the decline of the Olmec: 6.) How did the geographic setting of the Chavin prove difficult? 7.) Discuss the agricultural, domestic and metallurgical accomplishments of the Chavin:

11 8.) Briefly discuss the Chavin religion: The Middle Eastern Bronze Age Trade Network 1.) The era between 1700 and 1100 BCE is called the Late Bronze Age. This era is characterized by cosmopolitanism, which means: 2.) Briefly identify the following (who are they, where are they from): a.) Hittites: b.) Nubians: c.) Mycenaeans: 2.) Why did the Bronze Age Network collapse in the late 12 th century BCE? What was the impact? See next page for reference maps.

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