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1 Vocabulary: + Notes and Study Guide / Pre-Civilization and Simple Machines A.D. Anno Domini or The year of our lord (referring to Jesus Christ) B.C. Before Christ B.C.E. Before the Common Era = B.C. (Not everyone is Christian) C.E. Common Era = A.D. Genesis The beginning or origin (words like generate or genetics or genealogy) Pre-history Past events before writing History Past events that are written Archeologist study of past artifacts of people and cultures archae means ancient in Greek Artifacts man made objects tools, weapons, etc Anthropologist study the origins and development of people Paleontologist one who studies past geological periods through fossil remains Historians rely on written evidence someone s interpretation of the events Theories of Demiurge or Cosmogeny Creationism God created man and the earth or universe Evolution Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection Man evolved from primitive ancestors. Intelligent Design A superior being (God or something else) used scientific laws and principles to create man and the earth or universe. Philosophies of History: Cyclical: History repeats itself in cycles Linear: History starts at one point and continues on in a chronological timeline. Providential: God has a hand in the way history plays out. Progressive: Man continually gets better and better progressing. Theories of Government: Force Theory strong survival of the fittest Evolutionary Theory From family units clans / tribes Divine Right Rule by God s will Social Contract written contract or agreement between government and citizens Chapter Notes: I. Paleolithic Time Period: Old Stone Age * strong man / Alpha male /female leadership of small family group * reflection of animal life (the wolf pack) A. Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 million years ago (found a tooth, a lot unknown)

2 B. (1974) A. afarensis (Lucy) million years ago Found by Donald Johanson II. Neanderthals: Neander Valley Germany, originated about 200,000-30,000 years ago A. Technology 1. Stone Knives, spears, bone tools 2. Hide Cleaning and Food preparation tools 3. Clovis Points 4. Simple Machines: Lever, Pulley, Incline Plane, Wheel and Axle, screw, wedge. List 2-3 example of each B. Nomads 1. Small Family Groups people 2. followed warm climates and good weather 3. Camped near rivers and lakes 4. Found temporary shelter in camps or caves and cliffs 5. Hunters and Gatherers 6. Opportunistic Hunters Connection to animal hunting techniques following herds of animals (wolves) C. Culture and Belief 1. cared for the sick and aged 2. practiced medicine 3. belief in the afterlife a. burial rights - buried tools and weapons with their dead 4. Animism belief that all things have a spirit 5. fertility statues survival of the species 6. Cave Paintings - Lascaux Caves - deep in the caves - spiritual rights III. Homo Sapiens (thinking man) A. Originated about 100,000-35,000 years ago in Africa B. Cro-Magnon Man named after Cro-Magnon Cave in France 1. Hunting and Gathering more advanced a. hammers, hoes, pincers b. bone, antler, ivory c. fish hooks and bone needles d. stone ax 1. fell trees for boats and canoes and shelter e. long distance weapons 1. spear thrower (adle-adle) bows and arrows *More food, bigger animals/ mastodons, bison *greater population 15,000 B.C. - 2 million people IV. Mesolithic Middle Stone Age about 10,000 years ago

3 V. Neolithic Revolution About 4,000 years ago - Revolution means change What kind of changes occurred? *end of the Ice-Age produces new grasslands *Biomes climatic regions with specific plant and animal life for that climate *Global Warming Greenhouse Effect myth or reality? Global Warming Question - *Switch from food gathering hunting to food production farming and agriculture A. Domestication: taming wild plants and animals for use by man B. Pottery and Granaries / Food Storage Baskets and Weaving C. Agriculture 1. Middle East started 8,000 B.C. 2. China 5,000 B.C. 3. America 4,000 B.C. D. Domestication of Plants

4 1. Wheat and Barley Middle East 2. Rice- Southeast Asia 3. Corn, potatoes, beans, squash, tomatoes, chocolate Americas 4. Bananas, Yams Africa E. Beginning of - class differences gender roles division of labor V. Villages (More Complex Machines not the Industrial Revolution, but a start) A. Plow B. Fertilizer C. Weaving loom What does it mean to be civilized? Describe and give examples. VI. Civilizations mostly along rivers, Why? Egypt, China, Mesopotamia Different in America Aztec along a lake Texcoco in Tenochtitlan - Incas in high mountains of Peru ******The Big Three - * Surplus and storage of food leads to greater population and less migration * Specialization of Labor *Monumental Architecture Pyramids, Temples *Complex Religions *Public Works roads, irrigation, dams, ect. *Art and Architecture *Writing pictographs, hieroglyphics *Class Systems Priest, Nobility, Slaves, Workers (pg. 14) * Cities *Governments Vocabulary: City-States a political unit that included cities and their surrounding lands and villages Empires a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler Cultural Diffusion the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies. What allowed for the birth of civilizations?

5 Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Cognitive Needs How does Maslow s Hierarch of Needs relate to pre-historic man and the birth of civilization? Put a star in your notes where you believe pre-historic man and was on the hierarchy. Put a star where you believe civilized man is on the hierarchy. So in the end, which was it? Philosophy: Jean Jacques Rousseau Noble Savage, that life before civilization and agriculture was more pure, close to nature Thomas Hobbes Nasty, Brutish, and Short

Notes and Study Guide / Pre-Civilization and Simple Machines

Notes and Study Guide / Pre-Civilization and Simple Machines Vocabulary: Notes and Study Guide / Pre-Civilization and Simple Machines A.D. Anno Domini or The year of our lord (referring to Jesus Christ) B.C. Before Christ B.C.E. Before the Common Era = B.C. (Not

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