PNVA Update: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug versus Trissolcus japonicus. Michael R. Bush, WSU Extension & Joshua Milnes, WA State University

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1 PNVA Update: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug versus Trissolcus japonicus Michael R. Bush, WSU Extension & Joshua Milnes, WA State University

2 An Emerging Insect Pest of Concern Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys Found on ornamental trees Emerge as a crop pest It will impact vegetable, fruit, berries, nuts, soybeans, maize & hops production Emerge as a nuisance pest It will impact local residents as it invades homes in autumn.

3 Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Distribution in 2009 In 2010, reported in Michigan Ohio 1 st detection Allentown, PA 2001 Researchers felt that it was only a matter of time for WA State!

4 Stink Bug Damage to Vegetable Crops Vegetable crop hosts: tomato, green bean, beans, pea, pepper, cabbage/cauliflower, cucumber, squash & pumpkin Agronomic crops: hops, soybean, corn, sunflower Fruit crops: apple, peach, Asian pear, pear, cherry, raspberry, blueberry, grape, currant (citrus).

5 Distribution of BMSB in WA State for 2012 WA Counties (2): Clark Skamania

6 Wanted Poster Dead or Alive Stink Bugs At Large in Washington State Adult Stink Bugs are a well-known family easily recognized by shield-like shape, five-segmented antennae, and for producing a most disagreeable odor when provoked. They can come in various shades of green, brown and black. There are a number of species in this family that are known for unwanted feeding and vandalism of plant crops like raspberries, apples, tomatoes and peppers. They may attack and damage ornamental plants en mass. images to Mike Bush at

7 Current Known Distribution of BMSB in WA State Whatcom Skagit Snohomish Photo by TJ Mullinax BMSB Confirmations- 320 County reports: Benton Co- 22 Franklin- 2 Kitsap Pierce Douglas Grant Spokane Whitman BMSB Hotspots: Clark Co. Walla Walla Co. Yakima Co. King Co. Lewis Franklin 2012 to 2017: 2 to 21 counties report BMSB

8 Pest Management of BMSB Sample first! Pesticide applications effective when BMSB nymphs are present. Why are pesticides not as effective as we hoped Highly mobile adult Numerous weed hosts Urban/suburban interface = Source of BMSB Feeding behavior reduces contact with pesticide residues; BMSB does not ingest surface residues.

9 An Update on the Distribution of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in WA and Potential Biocontrol Options Samurai wasp Brown Marmorated Stink (BMSB)

10 Biological Control of Pests Using Egg Parasitoids Egg parasitoids are a major source of biological control for stink bugs Sentinel egg mass surveys nation wide Native egg parasitoids are tested to see if they will attack BMSB: Super Family: Eupelmidae- Anastatus, Ooencyrtus Super Family: Scelionidae- Trissolcus, Telenomus.

11 Photo: E. Talamas East Asia Looking for a Solution to the BMSB 2007, foreign exploration by Dr. Kim Hoelmer and associates Locations: China, Japan and South Korea In 2007, Trissolcus japonicus (Samurai wasp) was placed under quarantine in 5 locations across the USA. Samurai wasp Photo: K Hoelmer Trissolcus japonicus Data by Dr. Kim Hoelmer USDA-ARS-BIIRU-Newark.

12 Choice/No-choice tests preformed with different stink bug species egg masses to a mated female Samurai wasp Data Title by Kim Hoelmer USDA-ARS-BIIRU-Newark.

13 Host Range Test for the Samurai Wasp with Native Stink Bug Vs BMSB: Choice Test Outcomes

14 The Impact of the Samurai Wasp on BMSB Short development time 10 generations/year Female-biased sex ratio May attack all eggs in a host s egg mass Males emerge first and wait to mate with emerging females Data by Dr. Kim Hoelmer USDA-ARS-BIIRU-Newark.

15 Sentinel Egg Masses Survey in Yakima, WA

16 Sentinel Egg Mass Incubation Process Predators observed attacking the BMSB eggs: Earwigs, flies, spiders, big-eyed bugs, lacewings instars Eggs collected from the field were placed in a small petridish and put in the incubator at room temperature Observed for any egg parasitoids to emerge from native and non-native stink bug eggs. Photos: J. Milnes

17 Developing a Sustainable IPM Program using Biocontrol Data by Dr. Kim Hoelmer USDA-ARS-BIIRU-Newark and the Northeastern IPM Center.

18 Discovery of the Samurai Wasp in Vancouver 2015 and in Walla Walla 2017 First sighting of Samurai wasp in a park in Vancouver WA Second sighting of Samurai wasp in a park in Walla Walla WA. Photo of Tj Title Vine Maple

19 Choice Tests in the Field Comparing EM of Native Stink Bugs Vs BMSB in Vancouver WA

20 Release of Samurai Wasp in Washington State 2017 Release of the Samurai wasp in Yakima WA 21 parasitized EMs were placed in the field.

21 What does the Future Hold for the Samurai Wasp Trissolcus japonicus 1) More release of the Samurai wasp in new areas 2) Looking at non-target effects (e.g., could the Samurai wasp attack US native stink bug eggs?) 3) Looking at the Samurai wasp host plant range in urban areas in Washington state (e.g., would there be enough diversity in nectar host plants to support the wasp population?) 4) Native and introduced enemies may provide the most promising long-term solutions for landscape-level reduction of BMSB population in Washington.

22 Acknowledgements Dr. Michael Bush WSU Extension and Gwen Hoheisel WSU Extension for their advice and help along the way. A newly-molted BMSB nymph

23 Questions?

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