Chuck Chimera Data Entry Person: Chuck Chimera WRA Score 1

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1 Famil: Arecaceae Taxo: Actiorhtis calapparia Som: Areca calapparia Blume (basiom) Commo Name: calappa palm piag peawar Questioaire : curret Status: Assessor Approved Assessor: Chuck Chimera Desigatio: EVALUATE Data Etr Perso: Chuck Chimera WRA Score Is the species highl domesticated? =-3, =0 102 Has the species become aturalized where grow? =1, = Does the species have weed races? =1, = Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) - If islad is primaril wet habitat, the (0-low; 1-itermediate; 2- High substitute "wet tropical" for "tropical or subtropical" high) (See Appedix 2) 202 Qualit of climate match data (0-low; 1-itermediate; 2- High high) (See Appedix 2) 203 Broad climate suitabilit (evirometal versatilit) =1, =0 204 Native or aturalized i regios with tropical or subtropical climates =1, =0 205 Does the species have a histor of repeated itroductios outside its atural rage? =-2,?=-1, =0 301 Naturalized beod ative rage = 1*multiplier (see Appedix 2), = questio Garde/ameit/disturbace weed =0, = 1*multiplier (see Appedix 2) 303 Agricultural/forestr/horticultural weed =0, = 2*multiplier (see Appedix 2) 304 Evirometal weed =0, = 2*multiplier (see Appedix 2) 305 Cogeeric weed =0, = 1*multiplier (see Appedix 2) 401 Produces spies, thors or burrs =1, =0 402 Allelopathic =1, =0 403 Parasitic =1, =0 404 Upalatable to grazig aimals =1, = Toxic to aimals =1, =0 406 Host for recogized pests ad pathoges =1, =0 407 Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humas =1, =0 408 Creates a fire hazard i atural ecosstems =1, =0 409 Is a shade tolerat plat at some stage of its life ccle =1, =0 410 Tolerates a wide rage of soil coditios (or limestoe coditios if ot a volcaic islad) =1, =0 411 Climbig or smotherig growth habit =1, =0 Prit Date: 11/20/2012 Actiorhtis calapparia (Arecaceae) Page 1 of 6

2 412 Forms dese thickets =1, =0 501 Aquatic =5, =0 502 Grass =1, =0 503 Nitroge fixig wood plat =1, =0 504 Geophte (herbaceous with udergroud storage orgas -- bulbs, corms, or tubers) =1, =0 601 Evidece of substatial reproductive failure i ative habitat =1, =0 602 Produces viable seed =1, = Hbridizes aturall =1, = Self-compatible or apomictic =1, = Requires specialist polliators =-1, =0 606 Reproductio b vegetative fragmetatio =1, = Miimum geerative time (ears) 1 ear = 1, 2 or 3 ears = 0, 4+ ears = Propagules likel to be dispersed uitetioall (plats growig i heavil trafficked =1, =-1 areas) 702 Propagules dispersed itetioall b people =1, = Propagules likel to disperse as a produce cotamiat =1, = Propagules adapted to wid dispersal =1, = Propagules water dispersed =1, = Propagules bird dispersed =1, = Propagules dispersed b other aimals (exterall) =1, = Propagules survive passage through the gut =1, = Prolific seed productio (>1000/m2) =1, = Evidece that a persistet propagule bak is formed (>1 r) =1, = Well cotrolled b herbicides =-1, =1 804 Tolerates, or beefits from, mutilatio, cultivatio, or fire =1, = Effective atural eemies preset locall (e.g. itroduced biocotrol agets) =-1, =1 Desigatio: EVALUATE WRA Score 1 Prit Date: 11/20/2012 Actiorhtis calapparia (Arecaceae) Page 2 of 6

3 Supportig Data: Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR. [Is the species highl domesticated? No evidece] WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. NA WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. NA PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Dave's Garder. PlatFiles: Calappa Palm - Actiorhtis calapparia. [Accessed 19 Nov 2012] PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Essig, F.B./Maka,T.J./Bussard, L.. A Sstematic Histological Stud of Palm Fruits. III. Subtribe Iguauriae (Arecaceae). Brittoia. 51(3): PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Radall, R.P.. The itroduced flora of Australia ad its weed status. CRC for Australia Weed Maagemet, Gle Osmod, Australia Chog, K.Y./Ta, H.T.W./Corlett, R.T.. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plat Flora of Sigapore: Native, Naturalized ad Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversit Research, Natioal Uiversit of Sigapore, Sigapore USDA ARS Natioal Geetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Iformatio Network - (GRIN) Radall, R.P.. The itroduced flora of Australia ad its weed status. CRC for Australia Weed Maagemet, Gle Osmod, Australia Chog, K.Y./Ta, H.T.W./Corlett, R.T.. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plat Flora of Sigapore: Native, Naturalized ad Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversit Research, Natioal Uiversit of Sigapore, Sigapore Nickret, D.L./Barceloa, J./Pelser, P./Molia, J.E./Callado, J.R.. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippies Radall, R.P.. A Global Compedium of Weeds. 2d Editio. Departmet of Agriculture ad Food, Wester Australia USDA ARS Natioal Geetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Iformatio Network - (GRIN). [Species suited to tropical or subtropical climate(s) 2-High] "Climate Zoes: New Guiea ad the Solomo Islads. " [Qualit of climate match data 2-High] [Broad climate suitabilit (evirometal versatilit)? No] "Hardiess: USDA Zoe 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F) USDA Zoe 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F) USDA Zoe 11: above 4.5 C (40 F)" [Broad climate suitabilit (evirometal versatilit)? Borderlie. Elevatio rage 1000 m] "Habitat: Tropical raiforests from sea level to 1000m (3000'). " [Native or aturalized i regios with tropical or subtropical climates? Yes] "the Solomo Islads, with a additioal species restricted to the Solomos" [Native or aturalized i regios with tropical or subtropical climates? Yes] "Climate Zoes: New Guiea ad the Solomo Islads. " [Does the species have a histor of repeated itroductios outside its atural rage? Australia] [Does the species have a histor of repeated itroductios outside its atural rage? Sigapore] [Does the species have a histor of repeated itroductios outside its atural rage? Yes] "Naturalized: ASIA-TROPICAL: Ido-Chia: Thailad; Malesia: Idoesia - Sumatra; Malasia" [Naturalized beod ative rage? No evidece i Australia] [Naturalized beod ative rage? No evidece i Sigapore] "cultivated ol" [Naturalized beod ative rage? No evidece[ "Widespread i Malesia but probabl ot ative to the Philippies. MINDANAO: Davao. Isolated trees i agricultural lads mostl plated with cocout ad betel ut, c. 500m altitude." [Naturalized beod ative rage? Ukow] Report of "ucofirmed aturalizatio" i the Philippies [Naturalized beod ative rage? Yes] "Naturalized: ASIA-TROPICAL: Ido- Chia: Thailad; Malesia: Idoesia - Sumatra; Malasia" Prit Date: 11/20/2012 Actiorhtis calapparia (Arecaceae) Page 3 of 6

4 Radall, R.P.. A Global Compedium of Weeds. 2d Editio. Departmet of Agriculture ad Food, Wester Australia Radall, R.P.. A Global Compedium of Weeds. 2d Editio. Departmet of Agriculture ad Food, Wester Australia Radall, R.P.. A Global Compedium of Weeds. 2d Editio. Departmet of Agriculture ad Food, Wester Australia Radall, R.P.. A Global Compedium of Weeds. 2d Editio. Departmet of Agriculture ad Food, Wester Australia Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR Frech, B.R.. Food Plats of Solomo Islads. A compedium. Food Plats Iteratioal Ic., Burie, Tasmaia [Garde/ameit/disturbace weed? No evidece] [Agricultural/forestr/horticultural weed? No evidece] [Evirometal weed? No evidece] [Cogeeric weed? No evidece] WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. [Allelopathic? Ukow] [Produces spies, thors or burrs? No evidece] "The palm grows to 40 or 50 feet i habitat with a sleder, light-colored truk that Is ever more tha 8 iches i diameter." [Produces spies, thors or burrs? No] "Descriptio: A tall palm with a arrow truk. The truk is gre-brow with a bright gree crowshaft. It has a appearace a little like a cocout. It grows m high. The frods are divided alog the leaf stalk ito arrow leaflets. These have a sharp poit. These leaflets (piae) have oe strog mid-erve ad 4-5 parallel side veis. The leaf sheath is about m log. The flowerig stalk comes from below the crowshaft. This has oe stiff mai axis, 4-5 stiff side braches ad ma twigs which hag dow. The whole flowerig stalk is about 1 m log. There are two spathes, or leaflike structures, protectig the flowerig palm stalk. These are about 1 m log." Tropicos.org. Tropicos [Olie Database]. Missouri Botaical Garde, [Parasitic? No] Arecaceae WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. [Upalatable to grazig aimals? Ukow] Haelt, P. (ed.). Masfeld's ecclopedia [Toxic to aimals? No evidece] of agricultural ad horticultural crops: (except orametals). Agiospermae - moocotledoes: orchidaceae - padaaceae, Volume 5. Spriger- Verlag, Berli, Heidelberg, New York Wagstaff, D.J.. Iteratioal poisoous [Toxic to aimals? No evidece] plats checklist: a evidece-based referece. CRC Press, Boca Rato, FL Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR. [Host for recogized pests ad pathoges? No evidece] WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. [Host for recogized pests ad pathoges? Ukow] Lewis, C.E./Zoa, S.. A surve of caogeesis i palms (Arecaceae). Biochemical Sstematics ad Ecolog. 28: Haelt, P. (ed.). Masfeld's ecclopedia of agricultural ad horticultural crops: (except orametals). Agiospermae - moocotledoes: orchidaceae - padaaceae, Volume 5. Spriger- Verlag, Berli, Heidelberg, New York Wagstaff, D.J.. Iteratioal poisoous plats checklist: a evidece-based referece. CRC Press, Boca Rato, FL Frech, B.R.. Food Plats of Solomo Islads. A compedium. Food Plats Iteratioal Ic., Burie, Tasmaia Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR. [Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humas? No evidece] "Table 1 Results of caogeesis surve i leaf tissue of 167 palm accessios." [No evidece i Actiorhtis calapparia] [Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humas? No evidece] "I Java the seeds are chewed like betel." [Causes allergies or is otherwise toxic to humas? No evidece] [Creates a fire hazard i atural ecosstems? No evidece, ad ulikel give raiforest habitat] "Distributio: It grows i tropical raiforest from Idia to Solomo Islads. It is widespread i Papua New Guiea." [Is a shade tolerat plat at some stage of its life ccle? Yes] "The palm is adapted to su or partial shade, although oug plats prefer semi-shade or eve shade." Prit Date: 11/20/2012 Actiorhtis calapparia (Arecaceae) Page 4 of 6

5 PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR Frech, B.R.. Food Plats of Solomo Islads. A compedium. Food Plats Iteratioal Ic., Burie, Tasmaia Nickret, D.L./Barceloa, J./Pelser, P./Molia, J.E./Callado, J.R.. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippies Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR Tropicos.org. Tropicos [Olie Database]. Missouri Botaical Garde, Tropicos.org. Tropicos [Olie Database]. Missouri Botaical Garde, Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR Frech, B.R.. Food Plats of Solomo Islads. A compedium. Food Plats Iteratioal Ic., Burie, Tasmaia Elliso, D./Elliso, A.. Cultivated palms of the world. UNSW Press, Sde Krisha Kumar, H.N./Preethi, S.D./Joti Bala Chauha. Studies o the Atioxidat Activit of Actiorhtis calapparia. Iteratioal Joural of Applied Biolog ad Pharmaceutical Techolog. 3(2): Frech, B.R.. Food Plats of Solomo Islads. A compedium. Food Plats Iteratioal Ic., Burie, Tasmaia Zomlefer, W.B.. Guide to Flowerig Plat Families. The Uiversit of North Carolia Press, Chapel Hill & Lodo Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR Jugle Music Palms ad Ccads. Actiorhtis calapparia. [Accessed 20 Nov 2012] Dave's Garder. PlatFiles: Calappa Palm - Actiorhtis calapparia. [Accessed 19 Nov 2012] Essig, F.B./Maka,T.J./Bussard, L.. A Sstematic Histological Stud of Palm Fruits. III. Subtribe Iguauriae (Arecaceae). Brittoia. 51(3): [Is a shade tolerat plat at some stage of its life ccle?] "Cold sesitive, so it likes a su, well draied positio i the tropics. " [Tolerates a wide rage of soil coditios? No] "It is a true water lover ad caot withstad drought. It performs poorl i soil lackig utriets ad eeds orgaic matter ameded ito calcareous soils to thrive." [Climbig or smotherig growth habit? No] "The palm grows to 40 or 50 feet i habitat with a sleder, light-colored truk that Is ever more tha 8 iches i diameter." [Forms dese thickets? No evidece] "Distributio: It grows i tropical raiforest from Idia to Solomo Islads. It is widespread i Papua New Guiea." [Forms dese thickets? No evidece] "Isolated trees i agricultural lads mostl plated with cocout ad betel ut, c. 500m altitude." [Aquatic? No] "Actiorhtis calapparia grows aturall i Papua New Guiea ad the Solomo Islads i rai forest from sea level to 3000 feet elevatio." [Grass? No] Arecaceae [Nitroge fixig wood plat? No] Arecaceae [Geophte (herbaceous with udergroud storage orgas -- bulbs, corms, or tubers)? No] "The palm grows to 40 or 50 feet i habitat with a sleder, lightcolored truk that Is ever more tha 8 iches i diameter." [Evidece of substatial reproductive failure i ative habitat? No evidece] "Distributio: It grows i tropical raiforest from Idia to Solomo Islads. It is widespread i Papua New Guiea." [Produces viable seed? Yes] "Ripeed fruit is red ad seed takes 8 to 12 weeks to begi germiatio." [Hbridizes aturall? No evidece of iter-geeric hbridizatio] "Actiorhtis is a mootpic geus of flowerig plat i the palm famil foud i Oceaia. The loe species Actiorhtis calapparia is a rai forest ihabitat ad has the largest fruit of a palm i the Iguauriae (Uhl et.al., 1987). This palm is edemic to New Guiea ad the Solomo Islads thrivig i lowlad rai forest from sea level to 1000m." [Self-compatible or apomictic? Ukow] "The flowers are of separate sexes, both o the same tree. At the base of the flowerig stalk there is oe female flower to two male flowers, but towards the tip the flowers are ol male. Female flowers are larger tha the male." [Requires specialist polliators? No evidece] " the flowers actuall are predomiatl etomophilous." [Requires specialist polliators? Probabl No. Floral structure suggests uspecialized polliatio] "The ifloresceces forma a rig aroud the base of the crowshaft ad are ma brached with masses of cream-colored flowers of both sexes." [Reproductio b vegetative fragmetatio? No evidece] "Suckerig/Solitar: Solitar (sigle truk)" [Miimum geerative time (ears)?] "Ver fast growig palm (oe of the fastest of all palms)." [Propagules likel to be dispersed uitetioall (plats growig i heavil trafficked areas)? Ulikel give large size] "Fruit 45 mm diam., pericarp 4-5 mm thick, stigmatic remais apical-ot clearl similar to a other geus of the Iguauriae." Prit Date: 11/20/2012 Actiorhtis calapparia (Arecaceae) Page 5 of 6

6 PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), [Propagules likel to be dispersed uitetioall (plats growig i heavil trafficked areas)? Ulikel. Large fruits lack meas of exteral attachmet] "Oval, red fruits to 6cm (2.5"). " [Propagules dispersed itetioall b people? Yes] "This is amog the world's most beautiful palms." [Orametal ad ladscapig value] [Propagules likel to disperse as a produce cotamiat? Ulikel. Large fruits would ot become a cotamiat of produce] "Oval, red fruits to 6cm (2.5")." [Propagules adapted to wid dispersal? No] "Oval, red fruits to 6cm (2.5"). " [Propagules water dispersed? Ukow] "The large egg-shaped fruits are 3 iches log ad are bore i heav, pedet masses; each oe is red or reddish brow to purplish olive whe ripe." [Buoac of fruit ukow] [Propagules bird dispersed? Possibl Yes, but probabl too large for most birds i the Hawaiia Islads] "Oval, red fruits to 6cm (2.5"). " WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. [Propagules dispersed b other aimals (exterall)? Ukow] Fruits ad seeds lack meas of exteral attachmet, but it ma be possible that seed cachig rodets or frugivorous mammals ma carr fruit exterall for pulp cosumptio or seed predatio PACSOA. Palms: Actiorhtis calapparia. PACSOA (Palm ad Ccad Societ of Australia), Krisha Kumar, H.N./Preethi, S.D./Joti Bala Chauha. Studies o the Atioxidat Activit of Actiorhtis calapparia. Iteratioal Joural of Applied Biolog ad Pharmaceutical Techolog. 3(2): Baski, C.C./Baski, J.M.. Seeds ecolog, biogeograph, ad evolutio of dormac ad germiatio. Academic Press, Sa Fracisco, CA Roal Botaic Gardes Kew. Seed Iformatio Database (SID). Versio [Propagules survive passage through the gut? Presumabl Yes. Flesh-fruited & likel adapted for iteral dispersal] "Oval, red fruits to 6cm (2.5"). " [Prolific seed productio (>1000/m2)? No] "The iflorescece becomes pedet as the large fruit set; the beaked, ovoid fruit are red to purple to gree; each fruit cotais oe seed." [Large, sigle-seeded fruit ulikel to reach such high desities] [Evidece that a persistet propagule bak is formed (>1 r)? Ukow] Seeds described as havig morphophsiological dormac [Table 9.1] [Evidece that a persistet propagule bak is formed (>1 r)? Ukow] WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. [Well cotrolled b herbicides? Ukow] No iformatio o herbicide efficac or chemical cotrol of this species Riffle, R.L./Craft, P.. A Ecclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press, Portlad, OR. [Tolerates, or beefits from, mutilatio, cultivatio, or fire? Ukow] " solitar, sleder-truked piate-leaved, mooecious palms " [Probabl would be killed if sigle truk was cut] WRA Specialist. Persoal Commuicatio. [Effective atural eemies preset locall (e.g. itroduced biocotrol agets)? Ukow] Prit Date: 11/20/2012 Actiorhtis calapparia (Arecaceae) Page 6 of 6

7 Summar of Risk Traits High Risk / Udesirable Traits Reported to be aturalized i Ido-Chia: Thailad; Malesia: Idoesia - Sumatra; Malasia Thrives i tropical climates Shade tolerat Flesh fruits possibl aid i dispersal b birds, mammals ad humas Low Risk / Desirable Traits Despite reports of aturalizatio, ot documeted as ivasive or weed Uarmed (o spies, thors or burrs) No-toxic Ladscapig ad orametal value Seeds are chewed like betel Large fruits & seeds ulikel to be iadvertetl dispersed